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  • In the 4th century BCE, a banker's son threw the city of Sinope into scandal by counterfeiting coins.


  • When the dust finally settled, the young man, Diogenes of Sinope, had been stripped of his citizenship, his money, and all his possessions.


  • At least, that's how the story goes.


  • While many of the details of Diogenes' life are shadowy, the philosophical ideas born out of his disgrace survive today.


  • In exile, Diogenes decided that by rejecting the opinions of others and societal measures of success, he could be truly free.

    被放逐的戴亞吉尼斯決定,不要在乎他人的意見以及社會對於成功的衡量方式, 這樣他才能真正獲得自由。

  • He would live self-sufficiently, close to nature, without materialism, vanity, or conformity.

    他能夠過著自給自足、 接近大自然的生活,沒有唯物主義、虛榮,或順從。

  • In practice, this meant he spent years wandering around Greek cities with nothing but a cloak, staff, and knapsackoutdoors year-round, forgoing technology, baths, and cooked food.

    實際上,這表示他數年間都 一直在希臘城市附近流浪,身上只有斗篷、拐杖、背包—整年都在戶外,放棄科技、洗澡、熟食。

  • He didn't go about this new existence quietly, but is said to have teased passers-by and mocked the powerful, eating, urinating and even masturbating in public.

    他並不是靜靜地過這種新生活,據說他會取笑過路的人, 並嘲笑有權者,還會在大廳廣眾之下吃東西、 撒尿,甚至手淫。

  • The citizens called him a kyôn— a barking dog.

    市民稱他為 kyôn —會吠的狗。

  • Though meant as an insult, dogs were actually a good symbol for his philosophythey're happy creatures, free from abstractions like wealth or reputation.

    雖然稱他為狗的本意是種侮辱, 卻為他的哲學建立了好象徵—狗是快樂的生物,不在乎抽象的概念,像是財富和名聲。

  • Diogenes and his growing number of followers became known asdog philosophers,” or kynikoi, a designation that eventually became the wordCynic.”

    越來越多人追隨戴亞吉尼斯,他們形成了一般所知的 「犬儒學派」,或稱 kynikoi,這個名稱後來變成了「憤世嫉俗者」。

  • These early Cynics were a carefree bunch,drawn to the freedom of a wandering lifestyle.


  • As Diogenes' reputation grew, others tried to challenge his commitment.

    隨著戴亞吉尼斯的名聲越傳越廣, 有人試著挑戰他堅守的程度。

  • Alexander the Great offered him anything he desired.


  • But instead of asking for material goods,Diogenes only asked Alexander to get out of his sunshine.


  • After Diogenes' death,adherents to his philosophy continued to call themselves Cynics for about 900 years, until 500 CE.

    戴亞吉尼斯死後,他的哲學的擁護者仍然繼續自稱為犬儒學派,持續了約九百年, 直到公元五百年為止。

  • Some Greek philosophers, like the Stoics, thought everyone should follow Diogenes' example.

    有些希臘哲學家, 比如斯多葛學派學者,認為人人都應該遵從戴亞吉尼斯的典範。

  • They also attempted to tone down his philosophy to be more acceptable to conventional societywhich, of course, was fundamentally at odds with his approach.


  • Others viewed the Cynics less charitably.


  • In the Roman province of Syria in the 2nd century CE, the satirist Lucian described the Cynics of his own time as unprincipled, materialistic, self-promoting hypocrites, who only preached what Diogenes had once actually practiced.


  • Reading Lucian's texts centuries later, Renaissance and Reformation writers called their rivals cynics as an insultmeaning people who criticized others without having anything worthwhile to say.

    在數世紀後閱讀琉善所寫的文字,文藝復興和宗教改革運動的作家 侮辱他們的對手為犬儒學派—意指嘴裡吐不出象牙、只會批判別人的人。

  • This usage eventually laid the groundwork for the modern meaning of the wordcynic:"


  • A person who thinks everyone else is acting out of pure self-interest, even if they claim a higher motive.

    這詞意指的人總認為別人即使 嘴上宣稱有崇高的動機,其實仍單純為了私利行事。

  • Still, the philosophy of cynicism had admirers, especially among those who wished to question the state of society.

    不過,仍然有人欣賞 犬儒學派的哲學,特別是想要質疑社會狀態的那些人。

  • The 18th-century French philosopher Jean-Jacques Rousseau was called thenew Diogeneswhen he argued that the arts, sciences, and technology, corrupt people.

    十八世紀的法國哲學家尚雅克·盧梭被稱為「新的希臘哲學家」, 當時他主張藝術、科學,以及科技讓人腐敗。

  • In 1882, Friedrich Nietzsche reimagined a story in which Diogenes went into the Athenian marketplace with a lantern, searching in vain for a single honest person.

    1882 年,弗里德里希·尼采重塑了一個故事,故事中的希臘哲學家提著燈籠進入雅典市場,找不到一個誠實的人。

  • In Nietszche's version, a so-called madman rushes into a town square to proclaim thatGod is dead.”


  • This was Nietzsche's way of calling for a “revaluation of values,” and rejecting the dominant Christian and Platonic idea of universal, spiritual insights beyond the physical world.

    尼采用這種方式來呼籲 「價值重新評估」,並駁斥主流的基督教和柏拉圖式針對實體世界以外的宇宙、 靈性洞見的想法。

  • Nietzsche admired Diogenes for sticking stubbornly to the here-and-now.


  • More recently, the hippies of the 1960s have been compared with Diogenes as counter-cultural rebels.


  • Diogenes' ideas have been adopted and reimagined over and over again.


  • The original cynics might not have approved of these fresh takes: they believed that their values of rejecting custom and living closely with nature were the only true values.

    最原始的犬儒學派可能 不會認同這些新的形式:他們相信,他們排拒習俗,靠近大自然生活的價值觀, 才是唯一真正的價值觀。

  • Whether or not you agree with that, or with any of the later incarnations, all have one thing in common: they questioned the status quo.


  • And that's an example we can still follow: not to blindly follow conventional or majority views, but to think hard about what is truly valuable.


  • Thinking critically about our institutions and way of life is more important than ever. Hone your new found skepticism with these videos.


In the 4th century BCE, a banker's son threw the city of Sinope into scandal by counterfeiting coins.


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憤世嫉俗?玩世不恭?究竟什麼是犬儒主義? (The philosophy of cynicism - William D. Desmond)

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    Angel Hsu 發佈於 2020 年 01 月 19 日