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  • Between 1968 and 1972, America launched 9 human missions to the Moon, 6 of which successfully

    1968 年至 1972 年間,美國發動 9 次載人登月任務,其中六次成功地

  • touched down, allowing 12 men to walk on the lunar surface.

    登陸月球,12 名太空人得以在月球表面上行走。

  • NASA's next chapter of lunar exploration, called Artemis, has the task of not just going

    NASA 月球探險的下一篇章,稱作 Artemis,任務不只是登月

  • to the Moon, to create a long-term human presence on and around it, but also to prepare for

    而且還要建立一個人類長期居住基地,但這也是為了

  • ever-more-complex human missions to Mars.

    對於前往火星的複雜任務做準備。

  • In short, everything we must be able to do here, we must first do here.

    簡而言之,我們想要在火星上達成的目標都要能先在月球上實現。

  • So, what will an Artemis mission look like?

    那麼,Artemis 任務究竟是什麼?

  • Everything is designed and tested with our most important element in mind: the astronauts.

    任何經過以任務中最重要的元素:「太空人」為核心來設計和測試都是任務中的一環。

  • This is their deep space, human-rated spacecraft called Orion, built in 3 parts: the crew module,

    Orion 是替深入太空的太空人所打造的太空船,主要分成三個部分:機組員模式,

  • where up to 4 astronauts will live and work throughout the flight; the service module,

    由四個太空人在航行中工作和生活;服務模式,由維生系統維持機組員基礎生命需求,

  • with life support systems for the crew and its own engine and fuel reserves; and a launch

    並且降低燃料和引擎的能源耗損;以及最後部分,逃脫系統模式,

  • abort system, with engines capable of pulling the crew module to safety during launch, should

    藉由引擎動力確保組員在發射過程中的安全,以及

  • anything go wrong.

    其中發生的任何差錯。

  • To accomplish the task of launching our crew and heavy payloads, NASA is building the Space

    為了完成載人以及載裝重物的發射任務,NASA 打造了太空發射系統

  • Launch System, comprising of a cargo hold, an Exploration Upper Stage, a massive core

    由載物艙,一個探索載物台,包含了一個巨大核心載台

  • stage and 2 extended solid rocket boosters.

    以及兩個延伸出來的固態火箭推進器。

  • All together, this is the world's most powerful rocket.

    加總起來,這是世界上最強力的火箭。

  • And it exceeds the legendary Saturn V of the Apollo era in numerous ways.

    且其在許多性能方面超越了傳說中阿波羅登月計劃時代的土星五號。

  • Sitting on the launch pad, the entire rocket, fully fueled, weighs just over 6 million pounds,

    靜止在發射台上,油料全滿識整個火箭的重量超過六百萬磅,

  • 5.2 million of which is just the fuel.

    其中油料就佔了五百二十萬磅。

  • Once ignited, there is no stopping what comes next.

    一旦點燃引擎,就沒有什麼能夠讓它停止了。

  • All 4 RS-25 engines and the 2 solid rocket boosters come to life, thundering our crew

    四具 RS-25 引擎以及兩具固態火箭推進器全力推進,轟隆地帶領機組員

  • upwards.

    直上雲霄。

  • Two minutes after ignition, the solid rocket boosters are spent and released.

    出發後兩分鐘,固態火箭推進器燃料就會用盡並且與本體脫離。

  • Eight minutes after launch, the core stage is depleted and separated.

    八分鐘後,主載台會分離。

  • The upper stage fires briefly, placing Orion into a parking orbit around the Earth.

    載台上層會短暫地點火推進,使 Orion 好進駐環繞地球的軌道當中。

  • Here, the crew reconfigure the spacecraft and check systems to confirm everything is

    此時,機組員會再次調整太空船的系統組態,並且檢查系統有無任何異狀,

  • ready for deep space travel.

    替深度太空旅行做好準備。

  • With a "go" from Mission Control, the crew reignite the Exploration Upper Stage engines

    當任務中控中心傳達「發射」訊號,機組員將會再次點燃 Exploration Upper Stage 的引擎

  • to leave Earth entirely.The exact timing of this maneuever is critical to reach a speed

    完全地離開地球軌道。為了達到脫離地心引力的速度,

  • that can escape Earth's gravitational pull, but also put Orion on a course that will intersect

    這一步進行的時機點至關重要,並且稍後也將 Orion 號置入登月軌道的

  • the Moon days later.

    交叉點中。

  • Once this burn is complete, the upper stage of the SLS is jettisoned and the crew on board

    一但燃燒階段完成,SLS 的上載台就被拋棄,而 Orion 上的機組員

  • Orion coast for several days toward all that awaits them at the Moon.

    就在登月岸緣數日,朝向月球以及一切在等待他們的事物。

  • Approaching the Moon, we see the fundamental differences between Artemis and Apollo.

    接近月球,我們看見阿波羅和阿提米斯的基本差異。

  • Instead of requiring Orion to serve as an expendable lunar command module or carry a

    有別於 Orion 好擔任可替代的月球指令模組,也可以說是有限功能的

  • constrained lunar lander, the Artemis missions will take advantage of a different approach:

    月球登陸器,阿提米斯的任務就會利用下列幾個不同步驟來完成:

  • pre-staging.

    前台階段

  • Everything needed for lunar missions will be positioned in advance by commercial and

    登月計劃所有相關必需品皆由國際的以及商業上夥伴

  • international partners.

    預先準備好且放置在月球表面上。

  • This includes rovers, science experiments and human-rated systems on the surface.

    這些指的是月球表面上的包括探測車,科學實驗以及人類評級系統等等。

  • But it also includes a dedicated lunar station in orbit around the Moon, called Gateway.

    但這也包括了在月球軌道上名稱 Gateway 的太空站。

  • Here at the station, we can pre-stage a robust lunar lander and establish a strong communications

    藉由這個站,我們可以預先調整一個穩定的月球登陸器,並且建立強力的通訊

  • relay.

    中繼站。

  • Designed with open standards, the Gateway can be expanded as new missions and partnerships

    以公開標準設計的 Gateway 可以因應不同的任務和夥伴需求調整擴充

  • develop, allowing multiple human missions on the Moon at the same time, and enabling

    可以同時執行多個人類在月球上的任務,並且讓

  • ongoing science to be conducted even between human missions.

    正在進行的科研能夠在幾個人類任務計劃中仍然照常執行。

  • The Gateway is also capable of adjusting its orbit to allow access to every part of the

    Gateway 能夠調整自己的軌道去接受月球的每個角度發出的訊號

  • Moon, something the Apollo missions could not do.

    這也是阿波羅計畫所做不到的程度。

  • But the real key in this approach is placing Gateway in a unique halo orbit to perfect

    但真正的關鍵步驟是如何將 Gateway 放置在一個特殊的日暈軌道而能夠

  • the maneuvers needed for Mars missions.

    完美地符合我們執行火星任務所需要的所有需求。

  • And, with a growing list of commercial and international opportunities, Gateway is the

    並且,隨著國際和商業機會的增加,Gateway 是

  • ideal hub between Earth and all that lies beyond.

    地球和宇宙間最好的連結點。

  • Returning to our crew as they approach Gateway, the Orion must match the elliptical orbit

    回到我們接近 Gateway 的機組員,Orion 好必須完美契合太空站的橢圓形軌道

  • of the station in order to successfully dock.

    以便能夠成功對接接合。

  • Once on board, preselected crew members transfer to the lunar lander while those assigned to

    一但完成登佔作業,預選的機組員會被轉移到月球登陸器上,而被指派在 Gateway 上的

  • Gateway remain on station.

    則繼續留下待命。

  • The lunar lander system itself is built for 3 unique steps: descending from the halo orbit

    登月器系統本身建造上有三個特殊步驟:從 Gateway 的日暈軌道沉降到

  • of Gateway down to a low lunar orbit; descending from low lunar orbit to the surface; and once

    近月軌道;第二是從近月軌道將落到月表;最後

  • the lunar mission is complete, launching from the surface of the Moon and ascending all

    當月球任務完成,從月表發射火箭載著全體機組員

  • the way back to the orbiting Gateway.

    返回正在繞行月球的 Gateway 站上。

  • Once back aboard the Orion spacecraft and undocked from Gateway, the crew fire their

    一但回到 Orion 太空船上並且從 Gateway 號脫離,機組員點燃引擎

  • engines to break out of the halo orbit and once again to sling the spacecraft around

    回到日暈軌道且再一次繞著月球自轉多日後逐漸

  • the Moon, placing it on a multi-day trajectory back towards Earth.

    進入返回地球的軌道當中。

  • As they near the end of this journey, the service module is released and the crew module

    當他們逐漸靠近這段旅程的尾聲時,服務模式轉成機組員模式,

  • is oriented heat shield-first.

    開啟阻熱板準備返回地球大氣。

  • Entering Earth's atmosphere at 25,000 miles per hour, the friction of air slows Orion

    以每小時二萬五千英里的速度進入地球的大氣層,與空氣的摩擦大幅減低了 Orion

  • considerably, while also subjecting it to temperatures of 5,000 degrees.

    的速度,然而也還是致使機體承受 5,000 度的高溫。

  • With the Orion now at just 300 miles per hour, a series of parachutes uniquely tested and

    現在 Orion 號只以時速 300 英哩前進,一系列經過特殊測試且精密製造的降落傘

  • produced for this moment deploy, decelerating the craft to just 20 miles per hour for splashdown.

    在此時打開,將其減速至每小時 20 英里的速度準備降落。

  • With each successful mission, Artemis ushers in the next wave of men and women to explore

    隨著每次任務的成功,阿提米斯敦促著新一波男男女女前往

  • our Moon.

    我們的月球探索。

  • And proves that together, we're ready to go beyond.

    並且證明我們其心一志,我們準備好面對更浩瀚的宇宙。

Between 1968 and 1972, America launched 9 human missions to the Moon, 6 of which successfully

1968 年至 1972 年間,美國發動 9 次載人登月任務,其中六次成功地

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B2 中高級 中文 美國腔 月球 軌道 任務 火箭 引擎 發射

我們如何去月球--4K。 (How We Are Going to the Moon - 4K)

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    Jason Luo 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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