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  • Once there was a Stone Age, a Bronze Age

    歷史上有石器時代、銅器時代

  • and now we are in the middle of the Plastic Age.

    現在,我們活在塑膠時代

  • Because every year we produce about 300,000,000 tons of plastic

    因為每年我們生產的塑膠就有三億噸

  • and fraction of that enters rivers, water ways and eventually the oceans.

    塑膠碎片被丟棄在河川、水道中, 最後會進入到海裡

  • If you want to eat a biscuit nowadays

    如果今天你想要吃餅乾

  • we have to buy a biscuit within a plastic wrapper,

    我們買到的餅乾外頭有塑膠包裝

  • within a plastic tray, within a cardboard box,

    放在塑膠盤裡 再包一層硬紙盒

  • within a plastic foil, within a plastic bag.

    再包一層塑膠薄膜 再包一層塑膠袋

  • It's not hazardous nuclear waste -- it's a biscuit.

    這可不是在講危險的核能廢料 這只是一片餅乾

  • And this is me. I love diving

    這是我,我愛潛水

  • just taking you through my holiday slides here.

    帶你看看我假日的投影片

  • This is at the pristine Azores Islands and this is how their beaches look.

    這是在純淨的亞速群島(Azores Islands) 這是他們的海灘的模樣

  • Covered with plastic fragments.

    布滿了塑膠碎片

  • Due to sun and waves over the years

    由於這幾年來陽光和海浪的關係

  • the garbage breaks down into ever smaller pieces, but remains plastic.

    垃圾變成小碎片,但它還是塑膠

  • And, well interestingly, you don't see a lot of red particles in here

    有趣的是,你不會看到 很多紅色粒子在這裡頭

  • because those look like food

    因為紅色和其它顏色比起來

  • to birds more than any other color.

    對鳥類來說看起來更像食物

  • So this is the result.

    這就是牠們的下場

  • And well, the debris primarily collects at these 5 rotating currents

    嗯,從五大循環的洋流,也就是環流中 所收集而來的碎片

  • called the gyres, where it doesn't only directly kills sea life,

    它不只會直接讓海底生物致命

  • but due to the absorption of PCBs and DDTs, also poisons the food chain.

    但是由於吸收了 PCB 和 DDT 也毒害了食物鏈

  • A food chain that includes us -- humans.

    我們人類也在食物鏈中

  • And while diving in Greece

    當我在希臘潛水時

  • I came across more plastic bags than fish

    我得穿越比魚還多的塑膠袋

  • and astounded by the depressing sights

    我的一位蘇格蘭籍潛水好友

  • my Scottish dive buddy turned to me and said,

    看到這令人沮喪的景象,對我說:

  • "A lot of jellyfish is here, dear. Seen about a thousand."

    「親愛的,這裡好多水母, 大概有一千隻吧。」

  • There were no jellyfish.

    那裡根本沒有水母

  • I won't talk about environmental issues in general.

    我不會跟你們談環保問題

  • I think the common response is, well that's a long way off.

    我想大部分的回應是 那是一條很長遠的路

  • That's for our children to worry about.

    讓我們的下一代去煩惱

  • So hello, here I am.

    嘿!我在這!

  • Why don't we just clean it up?

    為什麼我們不直接去清乾淨?

  • There are a multiple reasons why

    有幾個理由

  • current plastic pollution researchers believe we should focus on prevention,

    現今的塑膠污染研究學者相信

  • for example through education, rather than attempting a cleanup operation.

    我們應該致力於預防,比如說 透過教育宣導,而非直接清理

  • Because we would need to deal with 5 colossal areas -- each moving around.

    因為我們需要處理五大區,每一區都會移動

  • Plastic sizes ranging from these massive ghost nets to molecules -- bycatches and emissions.

    超大量的塑膠,範圍從這些巨型的 鬼魚網到小分子──小魚餌和射出物

  • Furthermore we would need to get all the plastic back to land.

    還有我們得要把所有的塑膠拖上岸

  • It would need to be financially realistic and

    這會面臨到經濟問題

  • in fact the total amount of plastic within the gyres [is] unknown.

    而且他們認為 在環流裡的塑膠量是未知數

  • But about a year ago, when I was on my way to the hairdresser's

    但是一年前,在我去理髮廳的路上

  • and I must admit I don't go there often but I had this little epiphany.

    我得承認我沒有常去 我有點感觸

  • I saw even old people throwing rubbish in the water

    我看到老人把垃圾丟到水裡

  • and I thought, well some people will just never learn, will they?

    我想,嗯,有些人就是不學,對吧?

  • We'll need the combination of both roads

    我們必須從問題的兩端著手

  • and we'll need them soon.

    我們很快就需要 兼顧預防和清理了

  • So then I simply used this list of concerns

    因此,我就花了點心思去關心和挑戰

  • as challenges, and in fact a week later as a school assignment,

    事實上,一個星期後,學校有項作業

  • I had a chance to spend a lot of time

    我有機會花很多時間

  • on a subject of choice together with a friend of mine.

    和我的朋友一起研究一個自選主題

  • And this gave me the perfect opportunity

    這給我一個很棒的機會

  • to do new and fundamental research regarding plastic pollution.

    在塑膠污染方面 嘗試新鮮又基礎的研究

  • I then went on a holiday to Greece taking this manta trawl with me,

    然後我帶著這個綿拖網 到希臘去渡假

  • which is the common device for sampling plastic,

    這是常見用來做樣品的塑膠

  • and so I had to leave home all my clothes

    因為廉價航空的重量限制

  • due to low cost airlines weight limit policies.

    所以我一件衣服也不能帶上路

  • Well, the trawl we built, however, is 15 times finer

    嗯,不過我做的漁網比一般的好上十五倍

  • than the regular one. And what we discovered was

    我們發現

  • that the count of those minute particles is in fact 40 times higher

    那些細微分子的總量 事實上比大體積的塑膠還多出四十倍

  • than the larger particles. So we have to take these small plastics out,

    所以我們得把這些小塑膠片帶走

  • but then we wouldn't want to take the important plankton out as well.

    但是我們並不想帶走重要的浮游生物

  • Luckily these could simply be separated using centrifugal forces.

    幸運的是,這些可以簡單的用離心力來分離

  • However, nobody knew how much G forces common zoo-plankton could survive.

    可是,沒有人知道通常浮游動物 能夠在多大的 G 力下生存

  • So we took the trawl out again, and we didn't have a boat,

    因此我們再次帶著漁網出海 因為我們沒有船,所以…

  • so and we tested it, and in fact they can survive over 50 Gs, which is more than enough

    然後我們試了一下 發現牠們在 50G 以上還可以生存

  • for successful separation.

    這個數字遠超過可以分離的大小

  • And then in order to know up to which depth the ocean surface should be cleaned,

    然後為了知道要清理的範圍 離海面有多深

  • we designed and built something that I call the multilevel trawl.

    我們設計、建造了一種叫做多層次的漁網

  • We basically stuck ten trawls on top of each other.

    基本上我們在 魚網的上方十個釘在一起

  • Here you can see us testing that on the North Sea,

    你可以看見我們在北海的測試

  • I thought it was a great day -- I was the only one who didn't get sick

    我想那是很棒的一天 我是唯一沒有暈船的人

  • but then the so perfectly working trawl broke and

    但是後來很完美的漁網破了

  • of course we didn't quit there, because I believe you can't clean up something

    當然,我們沒有就此罷手 因為我認為你不知道要清的東西有多少

  • you don't know the size of.

    就沒有辦法清乾淨

  • I've heard the estimations ranging from several hundred thousand tons

    我聽過估計的數字 從幾十萬噸

  • all the way to a hundred million tons.

    一直到幾億噸

  • I knew we really need a better estimate -- some scientific data.

    我知道我們真的需要好好測量一下 一些科學的數據

  • So then I simply contacted some professors from the universities

    因此我只是聯絡一些 在台夫特、烏得勒支

  • Delft, Utrecht and Hawaii -- who then actually helped us in determining

    和夏威夷大學裡的教授 他們後來真的幫我測量了

  • how much plastic there is in the top layers of the gyres.

    在環流表層有多少的塑膠

  • The result -- a whopping 7.25 million tons of extractable plastic in 2020.

    結果是──在 2020 年可以拉出 725 萬噸的塑膠

  • That's the weight of 1,000 Eiffel towers floating in the gyres.

    那個重量等於一千座 漂浮在環流上的艾菲爾鐵塔

  • Now, researcher and effect discoverer of the Great Pacific Garbage Patch, Charles Moore

    現在,研究學者和太平洋垃圾帶 影響發現專家查爾斯.莫耳 (Charles Moore)

  • estimates it would take 79,000 years to remediate that.

    估計要七萬九千年才能修復

  • However, I believe the Great Pacific Garbage Patch

    但是,我相信太平洋垃圾帶

  • can completely clean itself in just 5 years.

    只要五年,就可以自己修復完成

  • And that is a difference of 78,995 years.

    這和 78,995 年可是大不相同

  • Well, of course, this is the conventional idea of extracting litter,

    嗯,當然,這是清垃圾的傳統想法

  • so you have a vessel and a net fishing for plastic.

    你會有一艘船,還有一個捕垃圾的網子

  • Of course multiple vessels could be used to cover a larger area,

    當然,不同種類的船能夠涵蓋的範圍不同

  • but by spanning booms between those vessels,

    但是在這些船上的帆杠間架起網子

  • suddenly a much larger area would be covered,

    就能夠涵蓋更大的範圍

  • because the essence is not to catch the debris, but divert it.

    因為基本上不是要捕碎片 而是要分離它

  • Because there is no mesh size, we can even get out the smallest particles,

    因為沒有篩孔 我們甚至可以分離最小的粒子

  • and since all organisms can simply move under the booms,

    既然所有的生物都能在帆杠下移動

  • we'll be able to eliminate bycatches by 99.98%.

    我們就能排除 99.98% 的魚餌

  • But, if we want to do something different

    但是,如果我們想來點不一樣的

  • shouldn't we also have to think differently.

    我們不就該想得不一樣?

  • For example then: the absorption of PCBs by plastic is not such a bad thing,

    例如:用塑膠吸收 PCB 不見得是件壞事

  • it's a good thing.

    那是好事

  • Get all the plastic out and simultaneously remove tons and tons

    把所有的塑膠拿掉,然後同時從海洋中

  • of persistent organic pollutants from the marine environment.

    移除一噸又一噸的 永久有機污染物

  • But how would we minimize environmental, financial and transportation cost then?

    但是我們要怎麼 降底環境、經濟和交通的支出?

  • Let's use our enemy to our advantage, OK?

    讓我們化敵為友吧!

  • The oceanic currents moving around is not an obstacle -- it's a solution.

    洋流到處移動並不是妨礙 而是一個解決方法

  • Why move through the oceans if the oceans can move through you?

    如果海洋可以朝你而來 何必自己去追逐海洋?

  • By fixing the "ships" to the seabed and letting the rotating currents

    藉著把「船」固定在還船上,並讓循環的洋流做他們的工作

  • do their work -- vast amounts of funds, manpower and emissions will be saved.

    ──大筆的資金、人力和污染就會省下來了

  • The platforms will, of course, be completely self-supportive

    這個平臺完全會自行

  • receiving their energy from sun, currents and waves.

    接收來自太陽、洋流和海浪的能源

  • And inspired by my diving at the Azores, It now actually seems

    我在亞速群島潛水時的靈光一閃 現在似乎變成了

  • that the best shape for these platforms is that of a Manta Ray,

    最好的平臺形狀,也就是蝠魟

  • by letting its wings sway like a real manta,

    讓它們展開雙翅就像真正的魟一樣

  • we can assure contact of the inlet with the surface

    我們可以保證即使在最差的天氣

  • even in the roughest weather.

    也能接觸到小灣裡的海平面

  • Well, imagine a zigzag array of just 24 of these platforms cleaning an entire ocean.

    好吧,想像這廿四個平臺排成一個 「之」字形,把海洋清得一乾二淨

  • Let's make a comparison, OK?

    我們來比較一下吧?

  • These are the beaches of Hong Kong, earlier this year.

    這是今年初在香港海灘的照片

  • The largest plastic spill in history. And this is their source,

    史上最大的塑膠製品溢出事件 這就是事故的源頭

  • just 6 containers.

    就這六個貨櫃

  • How much could we get out?

    我們可以拿掉多少?

  • Over 55 of these containers per day.

    一天超過五十五個貨櫃

  • Not only is plastic directly responsible for over a billion USD in vessel damages a year,

    不單只是每年船體損壞造成 塑膠直接污染就花了十億美元

  • no, the awesome surprise for me was that

    不,讓我最吃驚的是

  • if we sell the plastics retrieved from the 5 gyres we'd make over $500,000,000

    如果我們賣掉這些從五大環流 清出來的塑膠,我們就會賺超過五億元

  • and this is in fact more than the plan would cost to execute.

    事實上,這還比這整個計畫花得錢還多

  • In other words -- it's profitable.

    換句話說,這是可以獲利的

  • But I believe that the key thing is that

    但是我相信最重要的是

  • only if we realize change is more important than money, money will come.

    唯有我們了解改變的重要性遠大於金錢 金錢最終還是會來

  • And yes, it will be one of the largest environmental rescue operations yet, but we created this mess.

    當然,這將會是最大的環境拯救計畫 但是,這也是我們惹出的大麻煩

  • Heck, we even invented this new material first before we made this mess,

    見鬼的是,我們還是先發明了這個物質 才惹了這個麻煩

  • so please don't tell me we can't clean this up together.

    因此,請不要跟我說 我們沒辦法一起清理

  • Thank you very much.

    謝謝大家

  • (Applause)

    (鼓掌)

Once there was a Stone Age, a Bronze Age

歷史上有石器時代、銅器時代

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B1 中級 中文 塑膠 洋流 碎片 海洋 污染 分離

TEDx】海洋如何自我清潔。Boyan Slat在TEDxDelft上的演講。 (【TEDx】How the oceans can clean themselves: Boyan Slat at TEDxDelft)

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    小元 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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