字幕列表 影片播放 已審核 字幕已審核 列印所有字幕 列印翻譯字幕 列印英文字幕 I have a confession to make, 我必須要坦誠一件事 but first, I want you 但首先我希望在座的各位 to make a little confession to me. 也可以開誠布公一下 In the past year, I want you to just raise your hand 過去一年裡有的話可不可以舉一下手 if you've experienced relatively little stress. 如果你曾感受到有一點點壓力的 Anyone? 有嗎？ How about a moderate amount of stress? 那如果說是一般的壓力呢？ Who has experienced a lot of stress? 那有沒有人是承受了相當大的壓力的？ Yeah. Me too. 沒錯，我跟你們一樣 But that is not my confession. 但這不是我要跟大家坦誠的事 My confession is this: I am a health psychologist, 我要跟大家坦誠的是：我是一個健康心理學家 and my mission is to help people be happier and healthier. 我的職責就是要幫助人們過得更開心也更健康 But I fear that something I've been teaching 但我擔心過去這十年來所傳授的恐怕反而是帶來了反效果 for the last 10 years is doing more harm than good, 但我擔心過去這十年來所傳授的恐怕反而是帶來了反效果 and it has to do with stress. 這是跟壓力有關的 For years I've been telling people, stress makes you sick. 這些年來我不斷告訴人們壓力會帶來疾病 It increases the risk of everything from the common cold 它會增加生病的風險即便是一般的小感冒 to cardiovascular disease. 或是心血管疾病 Basically, I've turned stress into the enemy. 基本上我把壓力視如敵人 But I have changed my mind about stress, 但我現在對壓力有了不同的看法 and today, I want to change yours. 而今天我要改變你們的看法 Let me start with the study that made me rethink 讓我們從這個讓我重新思考 my whole approach to stress. 我對於壓力看法的研究報告說起吧 This study tracked 30,000 adults in the United States for eight years, 這個研究花了八年的時間追蹤美國的三萬名成年人 and they started by asking people, 他們所做的就是先問受訪者 "How much stress have you experienced in the last year?" 「過去一年裡你承受了多少的壓力？」 They also asked, "Do you believe 他們還會問： that stress is harmful for your health?" 「你是否相信壓力對你的健康是有害的？」 And then they used public death records 之後他們用戶政所的死亡記錄 to find out who died. 去查出哪些人掛了 (Laughter) （笑聲） Okay. Some bad news first. 我先跟大家報告壞消息 People who experienced a lot of stress in the previous year 過去一年裡承受相當大壓力的人 had a 43 percent increased risk of dying. 死亡的風險增加了43％ But that was only true for the people 但這只適用於那些 who also believed that stress is harmful for your health. 相信壓力是有害於健康的人 (Laughter) （笑聲） People who experienced a lot of stress 那些承受很大的壓力的人 but did not view stress as harmful 當他們不認為壓力是有害的 were no more likely to die. 就沒有面臨死亡的問題 In fact, they had the lowest risk of dying 事實上，這群人的死亡風險反而是最低的 of anyone in the study, including people 在研究中甚至比那些 who had relatively little stress. 只承受了一點點壓力的人還低 Now the researchers estimated that over the eight years 研究人員根據過去八年間所追蹤的死亡人數作出統計 they were tracking deaths, 研究人員根據過去八年間所追蹤的死亡人數作出統計 182,000 Americans died prematurely, 共有18萬2千美國人死於非命 not from stress, but from the belief 死因並非壓力所導致而是如果他們相信 that stress is bad for you. (Laughter) 壓力是對身體有害的 （笑聲） That is over 20,000 deaths a year. 這個數字顯示出每年有超過2萬人因此死亡 Now, if that estimate is correct, 如果這個數字是正確的 that would make believing stress is bad for you 那麼相信壓力有害於身體健康 the 15th largest cause of death 就是第15大死因了 in the United States last year, 光去年一年在美國 killing more people than skin cancer, 死於這個原因的人就比死於皮膚癌的人還多 HIV/AIDS and homicide. 也多於愛滋病或兇殺案 (Laughter) （笑聲） You can see why this study freaked me out. 由此可知為什麼這個研究會讓我這麼擔憂了 Here I've been spending so much energy telling people 當我費盡心力告訴人們 stress is bad for your health. 壓力對健康是有害的 So this study got me wondering: 這項研究讓我不禁去想 Can changing how you think about stress 改變你對壓力的想法就能讓你變得更健康嗎？ make you healthier? And here the science says yes. 然而科學確實證明了這點 When you change your mind about stress, 當你改變你對壓力的想法 you can change your body's response to stress. 你同時也會改變身體對於壓力的反應機制 Now to explain how this works, 現在為了向大家說明這如何運作 I want you all to pretend that you are participants 我希望大家假裝自己是這個保證讓你壓力大增的研究受訪者 in a study designed to stress you out. 我希望大家假裝自己是這個保證讓你壓力大增的研究受訪者 It's called the social stress test. 這叫做社會壓力測試 You come into the laboratory, 你進到這個實驗室裡 and you're told you have to give a five-minute 被告知你要針對自己的弱點進行一場五分鐘的即席演講 impromptu speech on your personal weaknesses 被告知你要針對自己的弱點進行一場五分鐘的即席演講 to a panel of expert evaluators sitting right in front of you, 對象是坐在你面前的一群專業評審 and to make sure you feel the pressure, 並且為了確保你一定會倍感壓力 there are bright lights and a camera in your face, 你面前還會架設聚光燈跟相機 kind of like this. 大概是這樣 And the evaluators have been trained 而且這些評審已經被告知 to give you discouraging, non-verbal feedback like this. 就是要給你像這樣洩氣的回應 (Laughter) （笑聲） Now that you're sufficiently demoralized, 即便現在你已經完全像是個洩了氣的皮球 time for part two: a math test. 事情還沒完，下一步是數學測驗 And unbeknownst to you, 當然是在你不知情的情況下 the experimenter has been trained to harass you during it. 測試者會在過程中間騷擾你 Now we're going to all do this together. 我們現在要一起來做這個測驗 It's going to be fun. 會很好玩的 For me. 至少對我來說 Okay. I want you all to count backwards 好，我要你們大家一起倒數 from 996 in increments of seven. 從996開始，以減7的方式倒算回去 You're going to do this out loud 必須要數出聲來 as fast as you can, starting with 996. 而且念得越快越好從996開始算起 Go! 開始 Audience: (Counting) 觀眾：（倒數中） Go faster. Faster please. 速度再加快，請數再快一點 You're going too slow. 你們算得太慢了 Stop. Stop, stop, stop. 停，停，停，停下來 That guy made a mistake. 那位老兄剛算錯了 We are going to have to start all over again. (Laughter) 所以我們必須從頭來過 （笑聲） You're not very good at this, are you? 你們大家數學好像不是太好喔 Okay, so you get the idea. 我相信大家都懂了 Now, if you were actually in this study, 試想一下如果你真的在這個研究裡 you'd probably be a little stressed out. 你可能會感受到一些的壓力 Your heart might be pounding, 你的心臟可能開始砰砰跳 you might be breathing faster, maybe breaking out into a sweat. 你可能呼吸也會變得急促甚至開始冒汗 And normally, we interpret these physical changes 一般來說我們會將這些生理變化 as anxiety 解釋為緊張 or signs that we aren't coping very well with the pressure. 或者是我們沒辦法應付壓力的徵兆 But what if you viewed them instead 但如果你把這些生理反應 as signs that your body was energized, 看成是身體開始活絡 was preparing you to meet this challenge? 並且在預備好讓你面對這個挑戰的徵兆呢？ Now that is exactly what participants were told 這正是哈佛大學研究調查中受試者所被告知的 in a study conducted at Harvard University. 這正是哈佛大學研究調查中受試者所被告知的 Before they went through the social stress test, 當他們進行這項社會壓力測試前 they were taught to rethink their stress response as helpful. 他們被教導這些壓力反應都是有益的 That pounding heart is preparing you for action. 比方心臟跳很快是有助於準備進行下一個動作 If you're breathing faster, it's no problem. 呼吸變得急促不是什麼大問題 It's getting more oxygen to your brain. 會讓你的大腦吸到更多氧氣 And participants who learned to view the stress response 當受試者們學習將這些抗壓反應機制 as helpful for their performance, 視為有助於他們的表現時 well, they were less stressed out, 他們反而感受到比較少的壓力 less anxious, more confident, 不再那麼緊張，也多了點自信 but the most fascinating finding to me 但我認為最有趣的發現是 was how their physical stress response changed. 就連他們在生理上的抗壓反應都隨之改變了 Now, in a typical stress response, 在一般的抗壓反應中 your heart rate goes up, 人的心搏率是會升高 and your blood vessels constrict like this. 你的血管會像這樣收縮 And this is one of the reasons that chronic stress 這也是為什麼長期的壓力 is sometimes associated with cardiovascular disease. 被列為導致心血管疾病原因之一 It's not really healthy to be in this state all the time. 若血管一直長時間這樣收縮的確是不太健康的 But in the study, when participants viewed 但在這個測試裡當受試者視抗壓反應為有益的 their stress response as helpful, 但在這個測試裡當受試者視抗壓反應為有益的 their blood vessels stayed relaxed like this. 他們的血管其實是保持像這樣子放鬆的狀態 Their heart was still pounding, 他們的心臟可能也是一樣砰砰跳 but this is a much healthier cardiovascular profile. 但是心血管所呈現出來的卻是較健康的狀態 It actually looks a lot like what happens 看起來他們比較像是 in moments of joy and courage. 渡過了一段充滿喜樂和勇氣的時光 Over a lifetime of stressful experiences, 我們一生會經歷各種大大小小令人感到壓力的事件 this one biological change 這一個生理上的改變 could be the difference 可能帶來的影響 between a stress-induced heart attack at age 50 將決定你是否會在50歲就因壓力所導致的心臟病而英年早逝 and living well into your 90s. 或是能健健康康地活到90多歲 And this is really what the new science of stress reveals, 這也是經過最新研究壓力相關的科學所證實的 that how you think about stress matters. 你如何看待壓力是很重要的 So my goal as a health psychologist has changed. 所以我身為一個健康心理學家目標也因此而有所改變 I no longer want to get rid of your stress. 我不再希望你是去選擇擺脫壓力 I want to make you better at stress. 我希望你能更能去駕馭它 And we just did a little intervention. 在這裡要打岔一下 If you raised your hand and said 如果剛剛你舉手說 you'd had a lot of stress in the last year, 過去一年裡你承受了很大的壓力 we could have saved your life, 今天你的人生可能會就此改變 because hopefully the next time 因為希望下次 your heart is pounding from stress, 當你的心臟因為感受到壓力而砰砰作響時 you're going to remember this talk 你會記得今天所聽到的 and you're going to think to yourself, 並會告訴自己 this is my body helping me rise to this challenge. 這是我的身體在幫助我面對這個挑戰 And when you view stress in that way, 當你可以面對壓力可以這樣處之泰然 your body believes you, 你的身體會聽命於你 and your stress response becomes healthier. 這樣你面對壓力的反應機制就也會變得比較健康 Now I said I have over a decade of demonizing stress 我剛說我過去十幾年的時間都把壓力妖魔化 to redeem myself from, 並盡可能地不讓自己有壓力 so we are going to do one more intervention. 現在我們要針對這點再重新思考 I want to tell you about one of the most 我要告訴大家關於抗壓反應最不為人知的一件事 under-appreciated aspects of the stress response, 我要告訴大家關於抗壓反應最不為人知的一件事 and the idea is this: 那就是 Stress makes you social. 壓力會提升你的社交能力 To understand this side of stress, 要想理解關於壓力的這一面 we need to talk about a hormone, oxytocin, 我們必須先來聊聊催產素（oxytocin）這個賀爾蒙 and I know oxytocin has already gotten 我知道催產素作為賀爾蒙的一種 as much hype as a hormone can get. 已經很能夠發揮它該有的功效 It even has its own cute nickname, the cuddle hormone, 它甚至有個很可愛的小名：抱抱賀爾蒙 because it's released when you hug someone. 會取這名字是因為當你跟人擁抱時它就會被釋放出來 But this is a very small part of what oxytocin is involved in. 但這只是催產素功能的一小部分之一 Oxytocin is a neuro-hormone. 催產素是一種神經賀爾蒙 It fine-tunes your brain's social instincts. 它可以在腦袋裡微調你的社交本能 It primes you to do things 預備你去做些事情好增進你與他人的親密關係 that strengthen close relationships. 預備你去做些事情好增進你與他人的親密關係 Oxytocin makes you crave physical contact 催產素也會讓你渴望與人有肢體接觸 with your friends and family. 包括跟朋友和家人 It enhances your empathy. 它也有助於增強同理心 It even makes you more willing to help and support 它甚至會讓你更願意去幫助那些你所關心的人 the people you care about. 它甚至會讓你更願意去幫助那些你所關心的人 Some people have even suggested 還有人曾這麼建議 we should snort oxytocin 我們應該試著吸一點催產素 to become more compassionate and caring. 好變成一個更有同情心、關心別人的人 But here's what most people don't understand 但大家不了解關於催產素的是 about oxytocin. 但大家不了解關於催產素的是 It's a stress hormone. 它是一種隨壓力而生的賀爾蒙 Your pituitary gland pumps this stuff out 當身體抗壓機制啓動時你的腦下垂體就會激生這種激素 as part of the stress response. 當身體抗壓機制啓動時你的腦下垂體就會激生這種激素 It's as much a part of your stress response 幾乎是抗壓的同時就會產生的 as the adrenaline that makes your heart pound. 就好像腎上腺素會讓你的心臟加快速度一樣 And when oxytocin is released in the stress response, 而當催產素在抗壓過程中被釋放出來時 it is motivating you to seek support. 它會促使你去尋求幫助 Your biological stress response 生理上的抗壓反應 is nudging you to tell someone how you feel 會讓你想要向人傾訴你的感受 instead of bottling it up. 而不是獨自悶著不講 Your stress response wants to make sure you notice 你的抗壓反應機制要確保你會注意到 when someone else in your life is struggling 身邊正在面對一些掙扎的人 so that you can support each other. 好讓你們成為彼此的幫助 When life is difficult, your stress response wants you 若遇到了些困難你的抗壓反應機制 to be surrounded by people who care about you. 會讓你待在關心你的人身邊 Okay, so how is knowing this side of stress 那知道了這些可以怎麼幫助我們更健康地去面對壓力呢 going to make you healthier? 那知道了這些可以怎麼幫助我們更健康地去面對壓力呢 Well, oxytocin doesn't only act on your brain. 催產素不光是對我們頭腦裡的想法有效 It also acts on your body, 它也會在我們的身體裡有所作為 and one of its main roles in your body 其中最主要一個角色就是 is to protect your cardiovascular system 保護我們的心血管系統 from the effects of stress. 不受到壓力的影響 It's a natural anti-inflammatory. 它具有純天然的消炎功用 It also helps your blood vessels stay relaxed during stress. 它也可以讓血管在感受到壓力的狀況下依然保持放鬆 But my favorite effect on the body is actually on the heart. 但我個人最欣賞它能幫助我們的心臟 Your heart has receptors for this hormone, 你的心臟有一個針對這種賀爾蒙而設的接收器 and oxytocin helps heart cells regenerate 催產素還能幫助心臟細胞再生 and heal from any stress-induced damage. 跟治療因壓力而造成的受損心細胞 This stress hormone strengthens your heart, 這個壓力賀爾蒙能你的心臟更為強壯 and the cool thing is that all of these physical benefits 但更酷的是我們剛所提各種催產素所能帶來生理上的益處 of oxytocin are enhanced by social contact 都能透過社交接觸或社會支持來強化 and social support, 都能透過社交接觸或社會支持來強化 so when you reach out to others under stress, 所以當你在受到壓力的情況下去與人接觸 either to seek support or to help someone else, 不論是想要尋求幫助或是去幫助他人 you release more of this hormone, 你的身體都會更多釋放出這種賀爾蒙 your stress response becomes healthier, 於是你的抗壓機制會變得更為健康 and you actually recover faster from stress. 你就也可以更快地從壓力當中解脫 I find this amazing, 我發現這很奇妙 that your stress response has a built-in mechanism 我們體內的抗壓反應有一個有助於紓緩壓力內建機制 for stress resilience, 我們體內的抗壓反應有一個有助於紓緩壓力內建機制 and that mechanism is human connection. 而這個機制就是我們與他人的互動 I want to finish by telling you about one more study. 最後結束前我想再跟大家分享一個研究報告 And listen up, because this study could also save a life. 請注意聽，因為這份報告也可能會救你一命 This study tracked about 1,000 adults in the United States, 這個研究追蹤了美國共一千位年紀為34到93歲的成年人 and they ranged in age from 34 to 93, 這個研究追蹤了美國共一千位年紀為34到93歲的成年人 and they started the study by asking, 這份調查中他們會問 "How much stress have you experienced in the last year?" 「過去一年裡你承受了多少的壓力？」 They also asked, "How much time have you spent 還會問「你花了多少時間去幫助 helping out friends, neighbors, 你的朋友、鄰居 people in your community?" 或你身邊的人呢？」 And then they used public records for the next five years 然後他們又花了接下來五年的時間追蹤戶政所的死亡紀錄 to find out who died. 然後他們又花了接下來五年的時間追蹤戶政所的死亡紀錄 Okay, so the bad news first: 好，我們先講壞消息 For every major stressful life experience, 每一個我們生命當中可能成為主要壓力來源的事件 like financial difficulties or family crisis, 比方說財務困難或家庭風暴 that increased the risk of dying by 30 percent. 都會讓死亡率上升30個百分點 But -- and I hope you are expecting a but by now -- 但是...我希望大家都期待接下來要說的 but that wasn't true for everyone. 但是這並不適用於每個人的狀況 People who spent time caring for others 那些花時間去關心別人的人 showed absolutely no stress-related increase in dying. Zero. 壓力對他們的死亡率不具任何影響是完全沒有任何影響 Caring created resilience.