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  • I have a confession to make,

    我必須要坦誠一件事

  • but first, I want you

    但首先我希望在座的各位

  • to make a little confession to me.

    也可以開誠布公一下

  • In the past year, I want you to just raise your hand

    過去一年裡有的話可不可以舉一下手

  • if you've experienced relatively little stress.

    如果你曾感受到有一點點壓力的

  • Anyone?

    有嗎?

  • How about a moderate amount of stress?

    那如果說是一般的壓力呢?

  • Who has experienced a lot of stress?

    那有沒有人是承受了相當大的壓力的?

  • Yeah. Me too.

    沒錯,我跟你們一樣

  • But that is not my confession.

    但這不是我要跟大家坦誠的事

  • My confession is this: I am a health psychologist,

    我要跟大家坦誠的是:我是一個健康心理學家

  • and my mission is to help people be happier and healthier.

    我的職責就是要幫助人們過得更開心也更健康

  • But I fear that something I've been teaching

    但我擔心過去這十年來所傳授的恐怕反而是帶來了反效果

  • for the last 10 years is doing more harm than good,

    但我擔心過去這十年來所傳授的恐怕反而是帶來了反效果

  • and it has to do with stress.

    這是跟壓力有關的

  • For years I've been telling people, stress makes you sick.

    這些年來我不斷告訴人們壓力會帶來疾病

  • It increases the risk of everything from the common cold

    它會增加生病的風險即便是一般的小感冒

  • to cardiovascular disease.

    或是心血管疾病

  • Basically, I've turned stress into the enemy.

    基本上我把壓力視如敵人

  • But I have changed my mind about stress,

    但我現在對壓力有了不同的看法

  • and today, I want to change yours.

    而今天我要改變你們的看法

  • Let me start with the study that made me rethink

    讓我們從這個讓我重新思考

  • my whole approach to stress.

    我對於壓力看法的研究報告說起吧

  • This study tracked 30,000 adults in the United States for eight years,

    這個研究花了八年的時間追蹤美國的三萬名成年人

  • and they started by asking people,

    他們所做的就是先問受訪者

  • "How much stress have you experienced in the last year?"

    「過去一年裡你承受了多少的壓力?」

  • They also asked, "Do you believe

    他們還會問:

  • that stress is harmful for your health?"

    「你是否相信壓力對你的健康是有害的?」

  • And then they used public death records

    之後他們用戶政所的死亡記錄

  • to find out who died.

    去查出哪些人掛了

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • Okay. Some bad news first.

    我先跟大家報告壞消息

  • People who experienced a lot of stress in the previous year

    過去一年裡承受相當大壓力的人

  • had a 43 percent increased risk of dying.

    死亡的風險增加了43%

  • But that was only true for the people

    但這只適用於那些

  • who also believed that stress is harmful for your health.

    相信壓力是有害於健康的人

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • People who experienced a lot of stress

    那些承受很大的壓力的人

  • but did not view stress as harmful

    當他們不認為壓力是有害的

  • were no more likely to die.

    就沒有面臨死亡的問題

  • In fact, they had the lowest risk of dying

    事實上,這群人的死亡風險反而是最低的

  • of anyone in the study, including people

    在研究中甚至比那些

  • who had relatively little stress.

    只承受了一點點壓力的人還低

  • Now the researchers estimated that over the eight years

    研究人員根據過去八年間所追蹤的死亡人數作出統計

  • they were tracking deaths,

    研究人員根據過去八年間所追蹤的死亡人數作出統計

  • 182,000 Americans died prematurely,

    共有18萬2千美國人死於非命

  • not from stress, but from the belief

    死因並非壓力所導致而是如果他們相信

  • that stress is bad for you. (Laughter)

    壓力是對身體有害的 (笑聲)

  • That is over 20,000 deaths a year.

    這個數字顯示出每年有超過2萬人因此死亡

  • Now, if that estimate is correct,

    如果這個數字是正確的

  • that would make believing stress is bad for you

    那麼相信壓力有害於身體健康

  • the 15th largest cause of death

    就是第15大死因了

  • in the United States last year,

    光去年一年在美國

  • killing more people than skin cancer,

    死於這個原因的人就比死於皮膚癌的人還多

  • HIV/AIDS and homicide.

    也多於愛滋病或兇殺案

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • You can see why this study freaked me out.

    由此可知為什麼這個研究會讓我這麼擔憂了

  • Here I've been spending so much energy telling people

    當我費盡心力告訴人們

  • stress is bad for your health.

    壓力對健康是有害的

  • So this study got me wondering:

    這項研究讓我不禁去想

  • Can changing how you think about stress

    改變你對壓力的想法就能讓你變得更健康嗎?

  • make you healthier? And here the science says yes.

    然而科學確實證明了這點

  • When you change your mind about stress,

    當你改變你對壓力的想法

  • you can change your body's response to stress.

    你同時也會改變身體對於壓力的反應機制

  • Now to explain how this works,

    現在為了向大家說明這如何運作

  • I want you all to pretend that you are participants

    我希望大家假裝自己是這個保證讓你壓力大增的研究受訪者

  • in a study designed to stress you out.

    我希望大家假裝自己是這個保證讓你壓力大增的研究受訪者

  • It's called the social stress test.

    這叫做社會壓力測試

  • You come into the laboratory,

    你進到這個實驗室裡

  • and you're told you have to give a five-minute

    被告知你要針對自己的弱點進行一場五分鐘的即席演講

  • impromptu speech on your personal weaknesses

    被告知你要針對自己的弱點進行一場五分鐘的即席演講

  • to a panel of expert evaluators sitting right in front of you,

    對象是坐在你面前的一群專業評審

  • and to make sure you feel the pressure,

    並且為了確保你一定會倍感壓力

  • there are bright lights and a camera in your face,

    你面前還會架設聚光燈跟相機

  • kind of like this.

    大概是這樣

  • And the evaluators have been trained

    而且這些評審已經被告知

  • to give you discouraging, non-verbal feedback like this.

    就是要給你像這樣洩氣的回應

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • Now that you're sufficiently demoralized,

    即便現在你已經完全像是個洩了氣的皮球

  • time for part two: a math test.

    事情還沒完,下一步是數學測驗

  • And unbeknownst to you,

    當然是在你不知情的情況下

  • the experimenter has been trained to harass you during it.

    測試者會在過程中間騷擾你

  • Now we're going to all do this together.

    我們現在要一起來做這個測驗

  • It's going to be fun.

    會很好玩的

  • For me.

    至少對我來說

  • Okay. I want you all to count backwards

    好,我要你們大家一起倒數

  • from 996 in increments of seven.

    從996開始,以減7的方式倒算回去

  • You're going to do this out loud

    必須要數出聲來

  • as fast as you can, starting with 996.

    而且念得越快越好從996開始算起

  • Go!

    開始

  • Audience: (Counting)

    觀眾:(倒數中)

  • Go faster. Faster please.

    速度再加快,請數再快一點

  • You're going too slow.

    你們算得太慢了

  • Stop. Stop, stop, stop.

    停,停,停,停下來

  • That guy made a mistake.

    那位老兄剛算錯了

  • We are going to have to start all over again. (Laughter)

    所以我們必須從頭來過 (笑聲)

  • You're not very good at this, are you?

    你們大家數學好像不是太好喔

  • Okay, so you get the idea.

    我相信大家都懂了

  • Now, if you were actually in this study,

    試想一下如果你真的在這個研究裡

  • you'd probably be a little stressed out.

    你可能會感受到一些的壓力

  • Your heart might be pounding,

    你的心臟可能開始砰砰跳

  • you might be breathing faster, maybe breaking out into a sweat.

    你可能呼吸也會變得急促甚至開始冒汗

  • And normally, we interpret these physical changes

    一般來說我們會將這些生理變化

  • as anxiety

    解釋為緊張

  • or signs that we aren't coping very well with the pressure.

    或者是我們沒辦法應付壓力的徵兆

  • But what if you viewed them instead

    但如果你把這些生理反應

  • as signs that your body was energized,

    看成是身體開始活絡

  • was preparing you to meet this challenge?

    並且在預備好讓你面對這個挑戰的徵兆呢?

  • Now that is exactly what participants were told

    這正是哈佛大學研究調查中受試者所被告知的

  • in a study conducted at Harvard University.

    這正是哈佛大學研究調查中受試者所被告知的

  • Before they went through the social stress test,

    當他們進行這項社會壓力測試前

  • they were taught to rethink their stress response as helpful.

    他們被教導這些壓力反應都是有益的

  • That pounding heart is preparing you for action.

    比方心臟跳很快是有助於準備進行下一個動作

  • If you're breathing faster, it's no problem.

    呼吸變得急促不是什麼大問題

  • It's getting more oxygen to your brain.

    會讓你的大腦吸到更多氧氣

  • And participants who learned to view the stress response

    當受試者們學習將這些抗壓反應機制

  • as helpful for their performance,

    視為有助於他們的表現時

  • well, they were less stressed out,

    他們反而感受到比較少的壓力

  • less anxious, more confident,

    不再那麼緊張,也多了點自信

  • but the most fascinating finding to me

    但我認為最有趣的發現是

  • was how their physical stress response changed.

    就連他們在生理上的抗壓反應都隨之改變了

  • Now, in a typical stress response,

    在一般的抗壓反應中

  • your heart rate goes up,

    人的心搏率是會升高

  • and your blood vessels constrict like this.

    你的血管會像這樣收縮

  • And this is one of the reasons that chronic stress

    這也是為什麼長期的壓力

  • is sometimes associated with cardiovascular disease.

    被列為導致心血管疾病原因之一

  • It's not really healthy to be in this state all the time.

    若血管一直長時間這樣收縮的確是不太健康的

  • But in the study, when participants viewed

    但在這個測試裡當受試者視抗壓反應為有益的

  • their stress response as helpful,

    但在這個測試裡當受試者視抗壓反應為有益的

  • their blood vessels stayed relaxed like this.

    他們的血管其實是保持像這樣子放鬆的狀態

  • Their heart was still pounding,

    他們的心臟可能也是一樣砰砰跳

  • but this is a much healthier cardiovascular profile.

    但是心血管所呈現出來的卻是較健康的狀態

  • It actually looks a lot like what happens

    看起來他們比較像是

  • in moments of joy and courage.

    渡過了一段充滿喜樂和勇氣的時光

  • Over a lifetime of stressful experiences,

    我們一生會經歷各種大大小小令人感到壓力的事件

  • this one biological change

    這一個生理上的改變

  • could be the difference

    可能帶來的影響

  • between a stress-induced heart attack at age 50

    將決定你是否會在50歲就因壓力所導致的心臟病而英年早逝

  • and living well into your 90s.

    或是能健健康康地活到90多歲

  • And this is really what the new science of stress reveals,

    這也是經過最新研究壓力相關的科學所證實的

  • that how you think about stress matters.

    你如何看待壓力是很重要的

  • So my goal as a health psychologist has changed.

    所以我身為一個健康心理學家目標也因此而有所改變

  • I no longer want to get rid of your stress.

    我不再希望你是去選擇擺脫壓力

  • I want to make you better at stress.

    我希望你能更能去駕馭它

  • And we just did a little intervention.

    在這裡要打岔一下

  • If you raised your hand and said

    如果剛剛你舉手說

  • you'd had a lot of stress in the last year,

    過去一年裡你承受了很大的壓力

  • we could have saved your life,

    今天你的人生可能會就此改變

  • because hopefully the next time

    因為希望下次

  • your heart is pounding from stress,

    當你的心臟因為感受到壓力而砰砰作響時

  • you're going to remember this talk

    你會記得今天所聽到的

  • and you're going to think to yourself,

    並會告訴自己

  • this is my body helping me rise to this challenge.

    這是我的身體在幫助我面對這個挑戰

  • And when you view stress in that way,

    當你可以面對壓力可以這樣處之泰然

  • your body believes you,

    你的身體會聽命於你

  • and your stress response becomes healthier.

    這樣你面對壓力的反應機制就也會變得比較健康

  • Now I said I have over a decade of demonizing stress

    我剛說我過去十幾年的時間都把壓力妖魔化

  • to redeem myself from,

    並盡可能地不讓自己有壓力

  • so we are going to do one more intervention.

    現在我們要針對這點再重新思考

  • I want to tell you about one of the most

    我要告訴大家關於抗壓反應最不為人知的一件事

  • under-appreciated aspects of the stress response,

    我要告訴大家關於抗壓反應最不為人知的一件事

  • and the idea is this:

    那就是

  • Stress makes you social.

    壓力會提升你的社交能力

  • To understand this side of stress,

    要想理解關於壓力的這一面

  • we need to talk about a hormone, oxytocin,

    我們必須先來聊聊催產素(oxytocin)這個賀爾蒙

  • and I know oxytocin has already gotten

    我知道催產素作為賀爾蒙的一種

  • as much hype as a hormone can get.

    已經很能夠發揮它該有的功效

  • It even has its own cute nickname, the cuddle hormone,

    它甚至有個很可愛的小名:抱抱賀爾蒙

  • because it's released when you hug someone.

    會取這名字是因為當你跟人擁抱時它就會被釋放出來

  • But this is a very small part of what oxytocin is involved in.

    但這只是催產素功能的一小部分之一

  • Oxytocin is a neuro-hormone.

    催產素是一種神經賀爾蒙

  • It fine-tunes your brain's social instincts.

    它可以在腦袋裡微調你的社交本能

  • It primes you to do things

    預備你去做些事情好增進你與他人的親密關係

  • that strengthen close relationships.

    預備你去做些事情好增進你與他人的親密關係

  • Oxytocin makes you crave physical contact

    催產素也會讓你渴望與人有肢體接觸

  • with your friends and family.

    包括跟朋友和家人

  • It enhances your empathy.

    它也有助於增強同理心

  • It even makes you more willing to help and support

    它甚至會讓你更願意去幫助那些你所關心的人

  • the people you care about.

    它甚至會讓你更願意去幫助那些你所關心的人

  • Some people have even suggested

    還有人曾這麼建議

  • we should snort oxytocin

    我們應該試著吸一點催產素

  • to become more compassionate and caring.

    好變成一個更有同情心、關心別人的人

  • But here's what most people don't understand

    但大家不了解關於催產素的是

  • about oxytocin.

    但大家不了解關於催產素的是

  • It's a stress hormone.

    它是一種隨壓力而生的賀爾蒙

  • Your pituitary gland pumps this stuff out

    當身體抗壓機制啓動時你的腦下垂體就會激生這種激素

  • as part of the stress response.

    當身體抗壓機制啓動時你的腦下垂體就會激生這種激素

  • It's as much a part of your stress response

    幾乎是抗壓的同時就會產生的

  • as the adrenaline that makes your heart pound.

    就好像腎上腺素會讓你的心臟加快速度一樣

  • And when oxytocin is released in the stress response,

    而當催產素在抗壓過程中被釋放出來時

  • it is motivating you to seek support.

    它會促使你去尋求幫助

  • Your biological stress response

    生理上的抗壓反應

  • is nudging you to tell someone how you feel

    會讓你想要向人傾訴你的感受

  • instead of bottling it up.

    而不是獨自悶著不講

  • Your stress response wants to make sure you notice

    你的抗壓反應機制要確保你會注意到

  • when someone else in your life is struggling

    身邊正在面對一些掙扎的人

  • so that you can support each other.

    好讓你們成為彼此的幫助

  • When life is difficult, your stress response wants you

    若遇到了些困難你的抗壓反應機制

  • to be surrounded by people who care about you.

    會讓你待在關心你的人身邊

  • Okay, so how is knowing this side of stress

    那知道了這些可以怎麼幫助我們更健康地去面對壓力呢

  • going to make you healthier?

    那知道了這些可以怎麼幫助我們更健康地去面對壓力呢

  • Well, oxytocin doesn't only act on your brain.

    催產素不光是對我們頭腦裡的想法有效

  • It also acts on your body,

    它也會在我們的身體裡有所作為

  • and one of its main roles in your body

    其中最主要一個角色就是

  • is to protect your cardiovascular system

    保護我們的心血管系統

  • from the effects of stress.

    不受到壓力的影響

  • It's a natural anti-inflammatory.

    它具有純天然的消炎功用

  • It also helps your blood vessels stay relaxed during stress.

    它也可以讓血管在感受到壓力的狀況下依然保持放鬆

  • But my favorite effect on the body is actually on the heart.

    但我個人最欣賞它能幫助我們的心臟

  • Your heart has receptors for this hormone,

    你的心臟有一個針對這種賀爾蒙而設的接收器

  • and oxytocin helps heart cells regenerate

    催產素還能幫助心臟細胞再生

  • and heal from any stress-induced damage.

    跟治療因壓力而造成的受損心細胞

  • This stress hormone strengthens your heart,

    這個壓力賀爾蒙能你的心臟更為強壯

  • and the cool thing is that all of these physical benefits

    但更酷的是我們剛所提各種催產素所能帶來生理上的益處

  • of oxytocin are enhanced by social contact

    都能透過社交接觸或社會支持來強化

  • and social support,

    都能透過社交接觸或社會支持來強化

  • so when you reach out to others under stress,

    所以當你在受到壓力的情況下去與人接觸

  • either to seek support or to help someone else,

    不論是想要尋求幫助或是去幫助他人

  • you release more of this hormone,

    你的身體都會更多釋放出這種賀爾蒙

  • your stress response becomes healthier,

    於是你的抗壓機制會變得更為健康

  • and you actually recover faster from stress.

    你就也可以更快地從壓力當中解脫

  • I find this amazing,

    我發現這很奇妙

  • that your stress response has a built-in mechanism

    我們體內的抗壓反應有一個有助於紓緩壓力內建機制

  • for stress resilience,

    我們體內的抗壓反應有一個有助於紓緩壓力內建機制

  • and that mechanism is human connection.

    而這個機制就是我們與他人的互動

  • I want to finish by telling you about one more study.

    最後結束前我想再跟大家分享一個研究報告

  • And listen up, because this study could also save a life.

    請注意聽,因為這份報告也可能會救你一命

  • This study tracked about 1,000 adults in the United States,

    這個研究追蹤了美國共一千位年紀為34到93歲的成年人

  • and they ranged in age from 34 to 93,

    這個研究追蹤了美國共一千位年紀為34到93歲的成年人

  • and they started the study by asking,

    這份調查中他們會問

  • "How much stress have you experienced in the last year?"

    「過去一年裡你承受了多少的壓力?」

  • They also asked, "How much time have you spent

    還會問「你花了多少時間去幫助

  • helping out friends, neighbors,

    你的朋友、鄰居

  • people in your community?"

    或你身邊的人呢?」

  • And then they used public records for the next five years

    然後他們又花了接下來五年的時間追蹤戶政所的死亡紀錄

  • to find out who died.

    然後他們又花了接下來五年的時間追蹤戶政所的死亡紀錄

  • Okay, so the bad news first:

    好,我們先講壞消息

  • For every major stressful life experience,

    每一個我們生命當中可能成為主要壓力來源的事件

  • like financial difficulties or family crisis,

    比方說財務困難或家庭風暴

  • that increased the risk of dying by 30 percent.

    都會讓死亡率上升30個百分點

  • But -- and I hope you are expecting a but by now --

    但是...我希望大家都期待接下來要說的

  • but that wasn't true for everyone.

    但是這並不適用於每個人的狀況

  • People who spent time caring for others

    那些花時間去關心別人的人

  • showed absolutely no stress-related increase in dying. Zero.

    壓力對他們的死亡率不具任何影響是完全沒有任何影響

  • Caring created resilience.