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  • What's the definition of comedy?

    什麼是喜劇?

  • Thinkers and philosophers from Plato and Aristotle

    眾多思想家以及哲學家從柏拉圖、亞里士多得到

  • to Hobbes, Freud, and beyond,

    霍布斯、弗洛伊德等等,

  • including anyone misguided enough

    包含所有曾錯誤

  • to try to explain a joke,

    解釋這件事的人,

  • have pondered it,

    都曾深思過這個問題,

  • and no one has settled it.

    至今無人能夠解答。

  • You're lucky you found this video to sort it out.

    這個影片將解開這個千古之謎,你能看到個影片真是太幸運了。

  • To define comedy, you should first ask

    要定義喜劇,你必須先問

  • why it seems comedy defies definition.

    為甚麼喜劇沒辦法被定義呢。

  • The answer's simple.

    答案很簡單。

  • Comedy is the defiance of definition

    喜劇就是在挑戰定義

  • because definitions sometimes need defiance.

    因為定義有時候就是需要被挑戰的。

  • Consider definition itself.

    來想定義是甚麼。

  • When we define, we use language

    當我們下定義時,我們使用語言

  • to set borders around a thing

    去為一個東西制定界線

  • that we've perceived in the whirling chaos of existence.

    我們利用隱約感知一個混亂的東西的存在

  • We say what the thing means

    來給他下定義

  • and fit that in a system of meanings.

    並且把它融入一個有意義的系統

  • Chaos becomes cosmos.

    混亂即變得井然有序。

  • The universe is translated

    宇宙被翻譯

  • into a cosmological construct of knowledge.

    成宇宙哲學。

  • And let's be honest,

    老實說,

  • we need some logical cosmic order,

    我們的宇宙需要秩序,

  • otherwise we'd have pure chaos.

    不然我們除了混亂甚麼都沒有了。

  • Chaos can be rough,

    混亂可以很粗糙,

  • so we build a thing that we call reality.

    所以我們打造了一個我們稱之為現實的存在。

  • Now think about logic and logos,

    現在想想邏輯和圖形,

  • that tight knot connecting a word and truth.

    這個緊密的連結連接了一個字和一項事實。

  • And let's jump back to thinking about what's funny,

    現在讓我們回頭想想甚麼東西好笑,

  • because some people say it's real simple:

    有人說這個問題的答案其實很簡單:

  • truth is funny.

    真相是好笑的。

  • It's funny because it's true.

    它很好笑因為它是真相。

  • But that's simplistic.

    因為它過分單純化。

  • Plenty of lies are funny.

    很多謊言是好笑的。

  • Comedic fiction can be funny.

    喜劇也好笑。

  • Made-up nonsense jibberish is frequently hilarious.

    亂編出來的胡言亂語也滿滑稽的。

  • For instance, florp --

    比如說,florp --

  • hysterical!

    歇斯底里的!

  • And plenty of truths aren't funny.

    很多事實就沒那麼好笑了。

  • Two plus two truly equals four,

    二加二真的等於四,

  • but I'm not laughing just because that's the case.

    但是我並不會因為這個事實就笑。

  • You can tell a true anecdote,

    你可以講一件真實的奇聞軼事,

  • but your date may not laugh.

    但是你的約會對象可能也不會笑。

  • So, why are some untruths and only some truths funny?

    所以,為甚麼只有一部份的真實和一部份的不真實好笑呢?

  • How do these laughable truths and untruths

    這些真實和不真實

  • relate to that capital-T Truth,

    又跟真正的事實,

  • the cosmological reality of facts and definitions?

    宇宙的真理和定義有甚麼關係呢?

  • And what makes any of them funny?

    他們這麼好笑的原因到底是什麼?

  • There's a Frenchman who can help,

    這裡有個可以幫得上忙的法國人,

  • another thinker who didn't define comedy

    又是個沒有給喜劇下定義的思想家

  • because he expressly didn't want to.

    因為他完全不想

  • Henri Bergson's a French philosopher

    Henri Bergson 是一位法國的哲學家

  • who prefaced his essay on laughter

    他以笑聲為他的創作寫序文

  • by saying he wouldn't define "the comic"

    他說他不會去定義

  • because it's a living thing.

    因為那是活生生的東西。

  • He argued laughter has a social function

    他爭論笑聲有社會功能

  • to destroy mechanical in-elasticity in people's attitudes and behavior.

    可以消滅人類態度和行為上的機械無彈性。

  • Someone doing the same thing over and over,

    有人一直重複進行同一個動作,

  • or building up a false image of themself and the world,

    或是建立一個自己和世界的虛擬影像,

  • or not adapting to reality

    或是無法融入現實

  • by just noticing the banana peel on the ground --

    單靠注意到地上的香蕉皮 --

  • this is automatism,

    這是一個自動的機制,

  • ignorance of one's own mindless rigidity,

    忽略一個人本身愚蠢的僵化,

  • and it's dangerous

    和它的危險性

  • but also laughable

    但卻也很好笑

  • and comic ridicule helps correct it.

    而且滑稽的喜劇給予矯正的協助。

  • The comic is a kinetic, vital force,

    喜劇是活躍的、富有生命力的,

  • or elan vital,

    或是一股生命衝動,

  • that helps us adapt.

    幫助我們適應。

  • Bergson elaborates on this idea

    Bergson 延伸了這個想法

  • to study what's funny about all sorts of things.

    來研究所有事物到底哪以好笑了。

  • But let's stay on this.

    但我們先不要講太多。

  • At the base of this concept of comedy is contradiction

    就這個論點,喜劇的基礎在於矛盾

  • between vital, adaptive humanity

    生與死,人類適應

  • and dehumanized automatism.

    和非人類自動化。

  • A set system that claims to define reality

    一組設定好的系統聲稱要定義現實

  • might be one of those dehumanizing forces

    或許就屬於那些非人類的勢力

  • that comedy tends to destroy.

    就是喜劇試圖消滅的勢力。

  • Now, let's go back to Aristotle.

    我們現在回頭看看亞里斯多德。

  • Not Poetics, where he drops a few thoughts on comedy,

    他並未在詩中專研過喜劇,

  • no, Metaphysics,

    而是於純粹哲學 (宇宙哲學)之中,

  • the fundamental law of non-contradiction,

    不矛盾的基礎原則,

  • the bedrock of logic.

    邏輯的根基。

  • Contradictory statements are not at the same time true.

    矛盾對立並非同時正確。

  • If A is an axiomatic statement,

    如果 A 是個不言自明的聲明,

  • it can't be the case

    那麼

  • that A and the opposite of A are both true.

    A 和 A 的相反都是正確的這種情況就不可能成立。

  • Comedy seems to live here,

    喜劇似乎長居於此

  • to subsist on the illogic

    維持不合邏輯的存在

  • of logical contradiction and its derivatives.

    在合理的毛段和其衍生物之中。

  • We laugh when the order we project on the world

    當我們在世界上設計出來的規則

  • is disrupted and disproven,

    被打亂的時候我們大笑,

  • like when the way we all act

    就像我們都會表現的

  • contradicts truths we don't like talking about,

    矛盾,針對我們不願談論的事情,

  • or when strange observations we all make

    或是我們都有了奇怪的新發現

  • in the silent darkness of private thought

    在獨立思考中的寧靜時刻中

  • are dragged into public by a good stand-up,

    被一個良好的立場拖入公眾之中,

  • and when cats play piano,

    當貓彈琴

  • because cats that are also somehow humans

    因為貓在某種程度來說也是人類

  • disrupt our reality.

    分裂了我們的現實。

  • So, we don't just laugh at truth,

    所以我們並不只取笑現實,

  • we laugh at the pleasurable, edifying revelation of flaws,

    我們也笑快樂的,有教訓意味的啟示,

  • incongruities,

    不協調,

  • overlaps,

    部分重疊,

  • and outright conflicts

    和直接的衝突

  • in the supposedly ordered system of truths

    在這個應該保持秩序的現實中

  • we use to define the world and ourselves.

    我們習慣為世界和我們自己下定義

  • When we think too highly of our thinking,

    當我們太高估自己的認知

  • when we think things are true

    當我們認為一切皆為真實

  • just because we all say they're logos and stop adapting,

    單單因為我們說他們都只是標誌並且不再繼續調適我們的認知,

  • we become the butt of jokes played on us

    我們就被愚弄了

  • by that wacky little trickster, chaos.

    被那古怪的騙子,混沌。

  • Comedy conveys that destructive, instructive playfulness,

    喜劇傳達有害的,有教育意義的戲碼,

  • but has no logical definition

    但毫無邏輯定義可言

  • because it acts upon our logic

    因為它建構於我們的邏輯之上

  • paralogically

    邏輯倒錯

  • from outside its finite borders.

    在有限的界線之外。

  • Far from having a definite definition,

    遠遠超過於擁有一個明確的定義,

  • it has an infinite infinition.

    它的定義是莫可名狀無窮無盡的。

  • And the infinition of comedy

    而喜劇的無窮無盡

  • is that anything can be mined for comedy.

    是任何事情都可以被建構成喜劇。

  • Thus, all definitions of reality,

    因此,所有現實的定義,

  • especially those that claim to be universal,

    尤其是那些被宣稱為全球通用的,

  • logical,

    邏輯性的,

  • cosmic,

    宇宙的,

  • capital-T Truth

    公認的事實

  • become laughable.

    就變得可笑。

What's the definition of comedy?

什麼是喜劇?

字幕與單字

影片操作 你可以在這邊進行「影片」的調整,以及「字幕」的顯示

B2 中高級 中文 TED-Ed 好笑 定義 邏輯 現實 宇宙

【TED-Ed】喜劇的定義是什麼?香蕉。- 艾迪生-安德森 (【TED-Ed】What's the definition of comedy? Banana. - Addison Anderson)

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    wikiHuang 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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