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  • In December 2016, a remote community in Siberia experienced a mysterious outbreak.

    2016 年十二月,西伯利亞一個偏遠的社區有神秘的疫情爆發了。

  • 90 people were hospitalized, and a 12-year-old boy died.

    90 人被迫住院觀察,一名 12 歲男童死亡。

  • Soon, Russian officials identified what had killed him.

    很快地,俄羅斯官方發現了原因。

  • The deadly infectious disease, anthrax.

    致命的傳染性疾病-炭疽病。

  • The outbreak had started among reindeer.

    該疾病爆發的起源是馴鹿群。

  • To contain the spread, they burned over 2,000 reindeer carcasses.

    為了控制疫情,俄方焚燒了超過 2,000 具馴鹿屍體。

  • The strange thing was, there hadn't been an anthrax outbreak in the area for more than 70 years.

    奇怪的是,這個地區已經 70 年沒有炭疽病爆發的跡象了。

  • So, to figure out where it came from, scientists started looking underground.

    為了找出來源,科學家開始往地底尋找。

  • In the coldest parts of the world, there's a layer of the Earth that stays frozen all year.

    在地球最冷的部分,有一層全年凍結的土層。

  • Every summer, the soil above it thaws, but this deeper layer stays hard as rock.

    每年夏天,上層的泥土會融化,但深層仍然與石頭一樣堅硬。

  • This is permafrost.

    這叫做永凍土層。

  • Most permafrost is here, in the Northern Hemisphere around the Arctic.

    大部分的永凍土都分佈在這,北半球的北極區。

  • And because it never thaws, permafrost acts kind of like the freezer in your kitchen.

    而因為不會融化,永凍土的作用就有點像廚房裡的冷凍庫。

  • When plants and animals here die, they don't actually decompose.

    當此處的植物與動物死去,牠們不會腐爛。

  • Instead, they become preserved in the frozen earth, like a time capsule.

    牠們反而像是時光膠囊般地被保存在凍結的地球裡。

  • And it's been that way for thousands of years.

    數千年來都是如此。

  • But that's changing.

    但這有了改變。

  • Today, humans are burning carbon and making the atmosphere warmer.

    現在,人類排放碳化物,讓大氣變暖。

  • And that's causing the permafrost to thaw and shrink.

    這讓永凍土開始融化、縮小。

  • By 2100, only these areas will still have any permafrost.

    到了 2100 年,只有這些地區仍會保有永凍土。

  • And that's causing some problems.

    而這造成了一些麻煩。

  • When permafrost melts, the land above it becomes unstable, which can lead to landslides.

    當永凍土融化,上頭的土地會變得不穩定,進而導致土地崩解。

  • Man-made structures start to fall apart, as the ground underneath them collapses.

    因為土地崩解,人造建築開始陷落。

  • And dead plants and animals that had been frozen for years are starting to thaw out.

    多年前死去、被凍在地底的動植物開始融化跑出地面。

  • As they're exposed to air and bacteria, this organic material starts to decompose.

    當牠們接觸到空氣與細菌,這些有機物開始腐爛分解。

  • That releases greenhouse gases like carbon dioxide and methane.

    這會釋放溫室氣體,如二氧化碳與甲烷。

  • But that's not all it releases.

    但這不是唯一被釋放出來的東西。

  • In Siberia, scientists think that the anthrax outbreak came from a long-dead reindeer carcass that thawed out along with the permafrost.

    西伯利亞的科學家認為,炭疽病的爆發起源是多年前死去、而現在從永凍土裡融化出地面的馴鹿屍體。

  • Anthrax spores from the carcass would have spread across the area and infected reindeer grazing nearby.

    從屍體跑出的炭疽病孢子在該區域散播,且感染在當地吃草的馴鹿。

  • And it's not just anthrax.

    且,不僅僅只有炭疽病。

  • Scientists worry that, as permafrost melts, it could unearth all sorts of diseases we thought we had under control.

    科學家擔憂當永凍土融化後,會釋放數種我們以為已經控制住的疾病。

  • 35 million people live around permafrost.

    永凍土附近居住著 3,500 萬人。

  • But the carbon released, as permafrost melts, will accelerate the impacts of climate change everywhere.

    但隨著碳化物釋放、永凍土融化,會加速的各地氣候變遷。

  • Rising seas, heat waves, droughts in some places, and floods in others.

    海平面上升、熱浪,某些地方出現乾旱,而某些地方水災。

  • And now we can add one more thing to that list, diseases we thought we conquered.

    現在氣候變遷的影響再添增一項-人類自認已掌控住的疾病。

In December 2016, a remote community in Siberia experienced a mysterious outbreak.

2016 年十二月,西伯利亞一個偏遠的社區有神秘的疫情爆發了。

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C1 高級 中文 美國腔 Vox 融化 馴鹿 釋放 屍體 土地

【環境教育】暖化導致北極融冰!甚至釋放了致命疾病! (We're melting the Arctic and reviving deadly germs)

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    Mackenzie 發佈於 2020 年 01 月 24 日
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