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  • This is Reference Man.

    這是「參考人」。

  • He's a white, 30-year-old male who weighs about 155 pounds.

    三十歲白人男性,體重約 155 磅(70 公斤)。

  • And he decides how we live.

    而他決定了我們的生活方式。

  • For decades, industries have considered this the standard human, and designed the world around him.

    數十年來,許多產業都把他當作標準的人類,以他為範本建構世界。

  • Everything from air conditioning in offices to cars, even military equipment.

    從辦公室裡的冷氣到車子,甚至軍事裝備。

  • But there are other ways we use Reference Man that aren't so obvious.

    但我們也有其他使用參考人的方式,只是沒那麼明顯。

  • Like in medicine, where it doesn't just lead to discomfort.

    如在藥品中,這不只會造成不安。

  • Here, the disparity can be incredibly dangerous for women.

    在這個領域,性別差異對女性而言可能會相當危險。

  • A few years ago, something strange was happening.

    數年前,發生了一些怪異的事情。

  • Headline after headline recounted a similar story.

    各大新聞版面不斷出現類似的報導。

  • Dozens of women were crashing their cars under the influence of sleeping pills.

    許多女性因安眠藥的作用而發生車禍。

  • In many of these cases, they had taken a dose of Zolpidem the night before.

    許多案例的當事人在事故前一晚都有服用 Zolpidem(佐沛眠)。

  • It's what you probably know as the common sleep aid, Ambien.

    你可能比較熟悉它的的另一個名字:Ambien(安必恩)。

  • The problem wasn't entirely the drug itselfit was the dosage.

    問題並不是出在藥品本身,而是劑量。

  • Women and men were both prescribed 10 milligrams of the drug for 8 hours of sleep.

    開藥時,不論男女一晚 8 小時都會拿到 10 毫克的劑量。

  • But it turns out, women metabolize the active ingredient in Ambien twice as slowly as men.

    結果發現,女性代謝 Ambien 中有效成分的速度比男性慢一倍。

  • That means by the time men woke up the next day, the effects of the pill had usually worn off.

    這表示,當男性隔天起床時,藥性通常已經代謝掉了。

  • While for many women, the drug was still in their system.

    但對許多女性而言,藥物還殘留在她們的生理系統裡。

  • After the crashesthe Food and Drug Administration issued a safety warning in 2013 and changed the recommended dosage for women, cutting it in half.

    發生那些車禍後,美國食品藥物管理局在 2013 年發出一則安全警告,更改了女性使用此藥物的建議劑量,直接減半。

  • The reason the right dosage for women had been overlooked is that the clinical trials on Ambien focused on male test subjects.

    女性正確劑量被忽略的原因是,Ambien 的臨床實驗都是以男性受試者為主。

  • If they're using this hypothetical "average man" and they are basing dosage on it, that's kind of scary.

    如果他們真的使用了這個假定「平均男性」並依其設定劑量,這還蠻可怕的。

  • Not just because it doesn't apply to women, but because it also doesn't apply to a lot of men either.

    並不只是因為這劑量不適用於女性,同時因為它也不適用於許多男性。

  • There are several factors that can affect how a person metabolizes drugs, from size to body fat to hormonal fluctuations.

    有許多因素會影響一個人代謝藥物的狀態,從身形、體脂到荷爾蒙的波動。

  • And these factors can vary drastically based on sex.

    這些因素可能會因性別不同造成極大的差異。

  • But many clinical trials don't account for this.

    但許多臨床試驗並沒有將此納入考量。

  • They often don't include enough women as test subjects.

    它們通常不會納入足夠的女性受試者。

  • And even when they do, data from women is often mixed in with data from men, which can hide sex-specific reactions to medicine.

    就算有做到,女性的資料也常會與男性資料混合,使得性別特定的藥物反應被忽略。

  • I don't care that it's more effective for men.

    我不在乎這藥物對男人比較有效。

  • I just want to know: Is it going to be effective for me as a woman?

    我只想知道,這藥物會身為女人的我來說,有效嗎?

  • So, you don't know that unless you look separately at those groups.

    也就是說,除非兩個群體分開研究,否則你不會知道。

  • Take Acetaminophen, the active ingredient in Tylenol.

    拿止痛藥 Tylenol(泰諾特)中的成分 Acetaminophen(乙醯胺酚)為例。

  • It's flushed from a woman's body slower than in men, so the prescribed dosage can put women at more risk for potential overdose and liver failure.

    它在女性體內代謝速度較慢,所以一般劑量可能會使女性陷入潛在過度用藥或肝衰竭的危險。

  • And one heart medication that's supposed to prevent heart attacks may actually trigger one in women.

    而一款預防心臟病的藥品,可能反而會誘發女性罹患心臟病。

  • So, we know that this is still a problem, but it's so hard to know how often that happens because there's no research.

    所以說,我們都知道問題依然存在,但很難知道它發生的頻率,因為沒有相關研究。

  • If the companies did a better job of looking at men and women separately and studying them separately,

    如果製藥公司願意多花點時間,分開研究男性與女性,

  • I think we'd have a lot more dosages that are different for women and men.

    我想會有更多男女服用劑量不同的藥品。

  • In 1993, the National Institutes of Health created regulations saying women must be included in human studies and have their data analyzed separately.

    1993 年時,美國國立衛生研究院設立了準則,規範女性要被納入人體實驗,而且她們的資料需被分開分析。

  • But the problem is...

    但問題是...

  • It's the FDA, Food and Drug Administration, that's making the decisions about what medications are being sold to you and to your loved ones,

    美國食品藥物管理局,什麼樣的藥品可以出售給你與你親愛的人都是由他們決定,

  • and they are not required to include women, people of color, people over 65.

    但他們沒被要求要納入女性、有色人種或是超過 65 歲的年長者。

  • You know, if you're only studying white men, you don't have to study as many people.

    你知道的,如果只研究白人男性,就不必用研究那麼多人。

  • And the more people you study, the more it costs to do the research.

    況且,研究越多人,就要花越多研究費用。

  • But, the more meaningful the information is so that we can all make informed decisions about what's good for us.

    但這也能提供我們更多有意義的資訊,讓我們做出對自身更好的決定。

This is Reference Man.

這是「參考人」。

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B1 中級 中文 美國腔 Vox 女性 劑量 男性 藥物 藥品

市面上所有產品都是為這個男人量身打造的!甚至是藥!(Everything is designed for this man, even drugs)

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    Mackenzie 發佈於 2020 年 01 月 05 日
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