Placeholder Image

字幕列表 影片播放

  • It was a Sunday afternoon back in April of this year.

    譯者: Lilian Chiu 審譯者: SF Huang

  • My phone was ringing,

    今年四月的一個星期日下午,

  • I picked it up.

    我的電話響了,

  • The voice said, "It's Rebecca.

    我接起來。

  • I'm just calling to invite you

    對方說:「我是瑞貝卡。

  • to my funeral."

    我打電話來是想邀請你

  • I said, "Rebecca, what are you talking about?"

    參加我的葬禮。」

  • She said, "Joy, as my friend, you have to let me go.

    我說:「瑞貝卡,你在說什麼啊? 」

  • It's my time."

    她說:「喬伊,身為我的朋友,

  • The next day, she was dead.

    你得放手讓我走。

  • Rebecca was 31 years old when she died.

    我的時候到了。」

  • She had an eight-year struggle with breast cancer.

    隔天,她過世了。

  • It came back three times.

    瑞貝卡過世時才三十一歲。

  • I failed her.

    她花了八年時間對抗乳癌。

  • The scientific community failed her.

    她經歷了三次復發。

  • And the medical community failed her.

    我辜負了她。

  • And she's not the only one.

    科學界辜負了她。

  • Every five seconds,

    醫學界辜負了她。

  • someone dies of cancer.

    且她不是唯一被辜負的人。

  • Today, we medical researchers are committed

    每五秒鐘,

  • to having Rebecca and people like her

    就有一個人死於癌症。

  • be one of the last patients that we fail.

    現今,我們醫學研究者致力於

  • The US government alone has spent over 100 billion on cancer research

    讓瑞貝卡及像她這樣的人

  • since the 1970s,

    成為我們所辜負的最後一批人。

  • with limited progress in regards to patient survival,

    從七〇年代起, 光是美國政府就投入了

  • especially for certain types of very aggressive cancers.

    超過一千億美金在癌症研究上,

  • So we need a change because, clearly,

    但在病人存活率的進展上非常有限,

  • what we've been doing so far has not been working.

    對於某些侵襲性極強的癌症更是如此。

  • And what we do in medicine is to send out firefighters,

    所以我們必須改變,因為很顯然,

  • because cancer is like a big fire.

    目前為止我們所做的沒什麼效果。

  • And these firefighters are the cancer drugs.

    在醫學上,我們所做的, 就是派出打火弟兄,

  • But we're sending them out without a fire truck --

    因為癌症就像是熊熊大火。

  • so without transportation, without ladders

    這些打火弟兄就是抗癌藥物。

  • and without emergency equipment.

    但我們派他們出去時, 沒有給他們消防車——

  • And over 99 percent of these firefighters never make it to the fire.

    沒有交通工具,沒有梯子,

  • Over 99 percent of cancer drugs never make it to the tumor

    沒有緊急裝備。

  • because they lack transportation and tools

    超過 99% 的打火弟兄

  • to take them to the location they're aiming for.

    沒有趕到火場。

  • Turns out, it really is all about location, location, location.

    超過 99% 的抗癌藥物 沒有到達腫瘤所在之處,

  • (Laughter)

    因為它們缺乏運輸方式與工具

  • So we need a fire truck to get to the right location.

    帶它們到要殲滅的目標那兒去。

  • And I'm here to tell you that nanoparticles are the fire trucks.

    結果發現,重點都在於 地點,地點,地點。

  • We can load cancer drugs inside nanoparticles,

    (笑聲)

  • and nanoparticles can function as the carrier

    所以,我們需要消防車 前往對的地點。

  • and necessary equipment

    我來這裡是要告訴各位, 奈米粒子就是消防車。

  • to bring the cancer drugs to the heart of the tumor.

    我們能把抗癌藥物裝載到奈米粒子中,

  • So what are nanoparticles,

    奈米粒子扮演的角色是運輸工具

  • and what does it really mean to be nano-sized?

    以及必要的裝備,

  • Well, there are many different types of nanoparticles

    能將抗癌藥物帶到腫瘤的核心地帶。

  • made out of various materials,

    所以,奈米粒子是什麼? 奈米大小又是什麼意思?

  • such as metal-based nanoparticles

    奈米粒子的種類很多,

  • or fat-based nanoparticles.

    它們的組成材料也不同,比如,

  • But to really illustrate what it means to be nano-sized,

    有以金屬為基礎的奈米粒子,

  • I took one of my hair strands

    也有以脂肪為基礎的奈米粒子。

  • and placed it under the microscope.

    但,為了清楚說明奈米大小是什麼,

  • Now, I have very thin hair,

    我拿了我的一根頭髮,

  • so my hair is approximately 40,000 nanometers in diameter.

    把它放在顯微鏡下。

  • So this means, if we take 400 of our nanoparticles

    我的頭髮算很細,

  • and we stack them on top of each other,

    我的頭髮直徑大約是四萬奈米。

  • we get the thickness of a single hair strand.

    意思就是,把四百個奈米粒子

  • I lead a nanoparticle laboratory to fight cancer and other diseases

    一個一個堆疊起來,

  • at Mayo Clinic here in Jacksonville.

    就會跟我的一根頭髮的厚度一樣。

  • And at Mayo Clinic,

    我領導著一間奈米粒子實驗室, 旨在對抗癌症及其他疾病,

  • we really have the tools to make a difference for patients,

    位在傑克遜維爾的梅奧診所。

  • thanks to the generous donations and grants to fund our research.

    在梅奧診所,我們真的有些工具

  • And so, how do these nanoparticles manage to transport cancer drugs

    能夠為病人帶來不同的結果,

  • to the tumor?

    這些都要歸功慷慨贊助 我們研究的外界捐贈和獎助金。

  • Well, they have an extensive toolbox.

    所以,這些奈米粒子 要如何將抗癌藥物

  • Cancer drugs without nanoparticles are quickly washed out of the body

    運輸到腫瘤所在之處?

  • through the kidneys

    奈米粒子有個很大的工具箱。

  • because they're so small.

    沒有奈米粒子,抗癌藥物很快就會

  • So it's like water going through a sieve.

    經由腎臟排出體外,

  • And so they don't really have time to reach the tumor.

    因為它們太小了。

  • Here we see an illustration of this.

    所以,那就像是水通過篩網。

  • We have the firefighters, the cancer drugs.

    這些藥物真的 沒有時間到達腫瘤所在之處。

  • They're circulating in the blood,

    這張圖就是在說明這一點。

  • but they're quickly washed out of the body

    我們有打火弟兄(抗癌藥物)。

  • and they don't really end up inside the tumor.

    它們在血液中循環流動,

  • But if we put these cancer drugs inside nanoparticles,

    但它們很快就被排出體外,

  • they will not get washed out by the body

    它們最後不會到達腫瘤內。

  • because the nanoparticles are too big.

    但如果我們把這些抗癌藥物 放在奈米粒子中,

  • And they will continue to circulate in the blood,

    它們不會被排出體外,

  • giving them more time to find the tumor.

    因為奈米粒子太大了。

  • And here we see the cancer drug, the firefighters,

    它們會持續在血液中循環,

  • inside the fire truck, the nanoparticles.

    讓它們有更多的時間找到腫瘤。

  • They're circulating in the blood,

    在這裡,我們可以看到 抗癌藥物(打火弟兄),

  • they don't get washed out

    它們在消防車(即奈米粒子)中。

  • and they actually end up reaching the tumor.

    它們在血液中循環, 它們沒有被排出體外,

  • And so what other tools do nanoparticles have?

    它們最後真的抵達了腫瘤處。

  • Well, they can protect cancer drugs from getting destroyed inside the body.

    所以,奈米粒子 還有什麼其他工具?

  • There are certain very important but sensitive drugs

    它們可以保護抗癌藥物 使其在體內時不會被摧毀。

  • that are easily degraded by enzymes in the blood.

    有些非常重要但很敏感的藥物

  • So unless they have this nanoparticle protection,

    在血液中很容易被酵素給破壞分解。

  • they will not be able to function.

    若沒有這種奈米粒子保護,

  • Another nanoparticle tool are these surface extensions

    它們就無法發揮功能。

  • that are like tiny hands with fingers that grab on to the tumor

    奈米粒子的另一項工具 就是這些表面延伸物,

  • and fit exactly onto it,

    就像小手上的手指頭可以抓住腫瘤,

  • so that when the nanoparticles are circulating,

    完全緊密貼合住腫瘤,

  • they can attach onto the cancer cells,

    所以,當奈米粒子在循環時,

  • buying the cancer drugs more time to do their job.

    它們就能附著在癌細胞上,

  • And these are just some of the many tools that nanoparticles can have.

    幫抗癌藥物爭取更多時間 來盡它們的本份。

  • And today,

    奈米粒子還有許多工具, 這些只是其中一部分。

  • we have more than 10 clinically approved nanoparticles for cancer

    現今,

  • that are given to patients all over the world.

    已經有十種以上通過臨床 測試的抗癌用奈米粒子,

  • Yet, we have patients, like Rebecca, who die.

    已經用在世界各地的病人身上。

  • So what are the major challenges and limitations

    但,我們有些病人 和瑞貝卡一樣過世了。

  • with currently approved nanoparticles?

    所以,這些目前已核准的奈米粒子

  • Well, a major challenge is the liver,

    主要遇到什麼困難及限制?

  • because the liver is the body's filtration system,

    其中一個主要困難是肝臟,

  • and the liver recognizes and destroys foreign objects,

    因為肝臟是身體的過濾系統,

  • such as viruses, bacteria and also nanoparticles.

    肝臟會辨視出外來物並將之摧毀,

  • And the immune cells in the liver eat the nanoparticles,

    比如病毒、細菌以及奈米粒子。

  • preventing them from reaching the tumor.

    而肝臟中的免疫細胞會吃掉奈米粒子,

  • And here we see an illustration where the kidney is no longer a problem,

    讓它們無法抵達腫瘤所在之處。

  • but these fire trucks, the nanoparticles,

    從這張圖上可以看到 腎臟已經不是問題,

  • get stuck in the liver

    但這些消防車(奈米粒子)

  • and, actually, less of them end up reaching the tumor.

    會困在肝臟中,

  • So a future strategy to improve nanoparticles

    所以它們當中只有少數能到達腫瘤處。

  • is to temporarily disarm the immune cells in the liver.

    所以,未來在改善奈米粒子的策略上,

  • So how do we disarm these cells?

    就是暫時解除肝臟免疫細胞的武裝。

  • Well, we looked at drugs that were already clinically approved

    我們要如何解除這些細胞的武裝?

  • for other indications

    我們去研究了已通過臨床測試

  • to see if any of them could stop the immune cells

    用於其他適應症的藥品,

  • from eating the nanoparticles.

    看是否能從裡面找出能阻止免疫細胞

  • And unexpectedly, in one of our preclinical studies,

    吞噬掉奈米粒子的品項。

  • we found that a 70-year-old malaria drug

    出乎意料,在我們的 一項臨床前研究中,

  • was able to stop the immune cells from internalizing the nanoparticles

    我們發現有七十年歷史的瘧疾藥物

  • so that they could escape the liver

    能夠阻止免疫細胞將奈米粒子內化,

  • and continue their journey to their goal, the tumor.

    如此奈米粒子便能逃過肝臟,

  • And here we see the illustration of blocking the liver.

    繼續邁向目的地:腫瘤所在之處。

  • The nanoparticles don't go there,

    這張圖上可以看到擋住了肝臟。

  • and they instead end up in the tumor.

    奈米粒子不會到那裡去,

  • So, sometimes, unexpected connections are made in science

    它們最後會到達腫瘤處。

  • that lead to new solutions.

    有時,在科學中未預期的連結

  • Another strategy for preventing nanoparticles

    反而會導致新的解決方案。

  • from getting stuck in the liver

    還有一種策略可以預防奈米粒子

  • is to use the body's own nanoparticles.

    被困在肝臟中,

  • Yes -- surprise, surprise.

    那就是用身體自己的奈米粒子。

  • You, and you and you, and all of us have a lot of nanoparticles

    是的——好一個驚喜。

  • circulating in our bodies.

    你、你、你以及我們所有人

  • And because they're part of our bodies,

    都有很多奈米粒子在體內循環著。

  • the liver is less likely to label them as foreign.

    因為它們是我們身體的一部分,

  • And these biological nanoparticles can be found in the saliva,

    肝臟不太可能會將它們 貼上外來物的標籤。

  • in the blood, in the urine, in pancreatic juice.

    在唾液、血液、尿液、胰液中

  • And we can collect them from the body

    都可以找到這些生物奈米粒子。

  • and use them as fire trucks for cancer drugs.

    我們能從身體收集它們,

  • And in this case,

    把它們當作消防車來運載抗癌藥物。

  • the immune cells in the liver are less likely to eat

    在這個情況下,肝臟中的 免疫細胞比較不可能

  • the biological nanoparticles.

    會吞噬生物奈米粒子。

  • So we're using a Trojan-horse-based concept

    所以,我們用這個由 特洛伊木馬發想出來的概念

  • to fool the liver.

    來欺騙肝臟。

  • And here we see the biological nanoparticles

    在這裡可以看到生物奈米粒子

  • circulating in the blood.

    在血液中循環。

  • They don't get recognized by the liver,

    它們沒有被肝臟認出來,

  • and they end up in the tumor.

    它們最後到達了腫瘤所在之處。

  • And in the future,

    未來,

  • we want to exploit nature's own nanoparticles

    我們想要利用大自然的奈米粒子

  • for cancer drug delivery,

    來運輸抗癌藥物,

  • to reduce side effects and save lives

    透過預防抗癌藥物跑錯地方,

  • by preventing the cancer drugs from being in the wrong location.

    來減少副作用並拯救生命。

  • However, a major problem has been:

    然而,一直有個重大的問題:

  • How do we isolate these biological nanoparticles in large quantities

    我們要如何大量地將生物奈米粒子

  • without damaging them?

    在不破壞它們的前提下隔離出來?

  • My lab has developed an efficient method for doing this.

    我的實驗室已對此 開發出了有效的方法。

  • We can process large quantities of liquids from the body

    我們可以處理大量的體液,

  • to produce a highly concentrated, high-quality formulation

    來製成高濃度、高品質的

  • of biological nanoparticles.

    生物奈米粒子配方。

  • And these nanoparticles are not yet in clinical use,

    這些奈米粒子還沒有在臨床上使用,

  • because it takes an average of 12 years

    因為平均要花十二年

  • to get something from the lab

    才能把實驗室中的成果

  • to your medicine cabinet.

    帶進你的藥櫃當中。

  • And this is the type of challenge that requires teamwork

    這種挑戰

  • from scientists and physicians,

    需要科學家和醫師的團隊合作,

  • who dedicate their lives to this battle.

    將一生投入這場戰役。

  • And we keep going, thanks to inspiration from patients.

    因為病人的鼓舞, 我們持續努力著。

  • And I believe that if we keep working on these nanomedicines,

    我相信,如果我們繼續 在奈米醫學的領域奮鬥,

  • we will be able to reduce harm to healthy organs,

    我們將能減少對健康器官的損害,

  • improve quality of life

    改善生命品質,

  • and save future patients.

    拯救未來的病人。

  • I like to imagine

    我總會想,

  • that if these treatments had been available for Rebecca,

    如果瑞貝卡當初能用這些治療方法,

  • that call from her

    她打來的那通電話,

  • could have been an invitation

    就可能是要邀請我

  • not to her funeral,

    參加她的婚禮,而不是葬禮。

  • but her wedding.

    謝謝。

  • Thank you.

    (掌聲)

  • (Applause)

It was a Sunday afternoon back in April of this year.

譯者: Lilian Chiu 審譯者: SF Huang

字幕與單字

影片操作 你可以在這邊進行「影片」的調整,以及「字幕」的顯示

B1 中級 中文 美國腔 TED 奈米 粒子 肝臟 腫瘤 藥物

TED】Joy Wolfram:納米粒子如何改變我們治療癌症的方式(納米粒子如何改變我們治療癌症的方式|Joy Wolfram)。 (【TED】Joy Wolfram: How nanoparticles could change the way we treat cancer (How nanoparticles could change the way we treat cancer | Joy Wolfram))

  • 16 3
    林宜悉 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
影片單字