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  • There are currently hundreds of thousands of people on transplant lists,

    譯者: Ann Chen 審譯者: Helen Chang

  • waiting for critical organs like kidneys, hearts, and livers

    目前有數十萬人 在器官移植的名單上,

  • that could save their lives.

    等待如腎、心及肝臟的重要器官

  • Unfortunately,

    來挽救他們的生命。

  • there aren't nearly enough donor organs available to fill that demand.

    很不幸地,

  • What if instead of waiting,

    捐贈器官的數量遠遠供不應求。

  • we could create brand-new, customized organs from scratch?

    如果不要用等待方式,

  • That's the idea behind bioprinting,

    我們能從零開始, 製造全新客製化器官呢?

  • a branch of regenerative medicine currently under development.

    那正是生物列印的理念,

  • We're not able to print complex organs just yet,

    它是再生醫學的一分支, 目前正在發展中。

  • but simpler tissues including blood vessels and tubes

    我們尚無法列印複雜的器官,

  • responsible for nutrient and waste exchange

    但簡單的組織,

  • are already in our grasp.

    例如血管或負責營養 及廢物交換的管道等,

  • Bioprinting is a biological cousin of 3-D printing,

    已有辦法列印出。

  • a technique that deposits layers of material on top of each other

    生物列印和 3D 立體列印是相關的,

  • to construct a three-dimensional object one slice at a time.

    是一種將材料層層疊加的技術,

  • Instead of starting with metal, plastic, or ceramic,

    一次一層,建構出一個立體的物件。

  • a 3-D printer for organs and tissues uses bioink:

    不採用金屬、塑膠或陶土等原料,

  • a printable material that contains living cells.

    器官及組織的 3D 立體列印機 是用「生物墨水」:

  • The bulk of many bioinks are water-rich molecules called hydrogels.

    這是一種含有活體細胞的 可列印物質。

  • Mixed into those are millions of living cells

    許多生物墨水的主要組成是 富含水的物質──即「水凝膠」。

  • as well as various chemicals that encourage cells to communicate and grow.

    墨水混合著數百萬的活體細胞

  • Some bioinks include a single type of cell,

    和多種化學物質 以刺激細胞交流及成長。

  • while others combine several different kinds to produce more complex structures.

    有些生物墨水只含一種類型的細胞,

  • Let's say you want to print a meniscus,

    而有些則結合多種細胞 以製造較複雜的構造。

  • which is a piece of cartilage in the knee

    例如你想列印一個「半月板」,

  • that keeps the shinbone and thighbone from grinding against each other.

    那是膝蓋的一塊軟骨,

  • It's made up of cells called chondrocytes,

    它可減少小腿脛骨 與大腿股骨間的摩擦。

  • and you'll need a healthy supply of them for your bioink.

    半月板是由「軟骨細胞」所組成,

  • These cells can come from donors whose cell lines are replicated in a lab.

    所以你的生物墨水 需要有很多軟骨細胞。

  • Or they might originate from a patient's own tissue

    這些細胞可能來自實驗室 複製捐贈者的細胞,

  • to create a personalized meniscus less likely to be rejected by their body.

    或是取自病人的自體組織,

  • There are several printing techniques,

    製成專屬的半月板,

  • and the most popular is extrusion-based bioprinting.

    這樣較不會有身體排斥的狀況。

  • In this, bioink gets loaded into a printing chamber

    目前有數種列印技術,

  • and pushed through a round nozzle attached to a printhead.

    最常用的是「擠出式生物列印法」。

  • It emerges from a nozzle that's rarely wider than 400 microns in diameter,

    此法是將生物墨水裝入列印管中,

  • and can produce a continuous filament

    然後擠壓通過一個 附在噴頭上的圓形噴嘴,

  • roughly the thickness of a human fingernail.

    從一個直徑幾近 400 微米的噴嘴擠出,

  • A computerized image or file guides the placement of the strands,

    且能形成連續的細線,

  • either onto a flat surface or into a liquid bath

    其厚度與人的指甲相仿。

  • that'll help hold the structure in place until it stabilizes.

    以電腦圖像或檔案 來導引細線的位置,

  • These printers are fast, producing the meniscus in about half an hour,

    墨汁被擠到一個平面上 或液體容器中,

  • one thin strand at a time.

    如此可協助構造成形,直到穩定。

  • After printing, some bioinks will stiffen immediately;

    列印機的速度很快,一次一縷細線, 約半小時就可製出半月板。

  • others need UV light or an additional chemical or physical process

    列印後,有些生物墨水會立刻變硬,

  • to stabilize the structure.

    而有些需借助紫外線 或特別的化學、物理方法

  • If the printing process is successful,

    來穩定結構。

  • the cells in the synthetic tissue

    如果列印成功,

  • will begin to behave the same way cells do in real tissue:

    人造組織上的細胞

  • signaling to each other, exchanging nutrients, and multiplying.

    會開始如同真正組織細胞般地運作:

  • We can already print relatively simple structures like this meniscus.

    互通訊息、交換營養以及繁殖。

  • Bioprinted bladders have also been successfully implanted,

    我們已能列印比較簡單的構造, 例如這個半月板。

  • and printed tissue has promoted facial nerve regeneration in rats.

    生物列印的膀胱 已成功地被植入人體,

  • Researchers have created lung tissue, skin, and cartilage,

    而列印組織已能加速 老鼠顏面神經的再生。

  • as well as miniature, semi-functional versions of kidneys, livers, and hearts.

    研究人員已能製造出 肺組織、皮膚、軟骨

  • However, replicating the complex biochemical environment

    以及微型、具部分功能的 腎、肝及心臟。

  • of a major organ is a steep challenge.

    然而,複製一個重要器官的 複雜生化環境

  • Extrusion-based bioprinting may destroy

    是項艱難的挑戰。

  • a significant percentage of cells in the ink if the nozzle is too small,

    擠出式生物列印法

  • or if the printing pressure is too high.

    可能破壞墨水中許多細胞,

  • One of the most formidable challenges

    如果噴嘴過小 或擠壓的壓力太高的話。

  • is how to supply oxygen and nutrients to all the cells in a full-size organ.

    最難以克服的挑戰之一是

  • That's why the greatest successes so far

    如何讓氧氣及養分供應到 實際大小器官的每個細胞。

  • have been with structures that are flat or hollow

    這就是為何目前最大的成就

  • and why researchers are busy developing ways

    只在扁平或中空的構造上──

  • to incorporate blood vessels into bioprinted tissue.

    也是為什麼研究人員忙於研發

  • There's tremendous potential to use bioprinting

    在列印組織中加入血管的方法。

  • to save lives and advance our understanding

    使用生物列印來拯救生命 具有極大潛能,

  • of how our organs function in the first place.

    並可讓我們更了解器官如何運作。

  • And the technology opens up a dizzying array of possibilities,

    科技開拓了極多的無限可能,

  • such as printing tissues with embedded electronics.

    例如內置電子設備的列印組織。

  • Could we one day engineer organs that exceed current human capability,

    有朝一日,我們能否製造 超越目前人體性能的器官,

  • or give ourselves features like unburnable skin?

    或製造具特色的物件, 例如不可燃的皮膚嗎?

  • How long might we extend human life by printing and replacing our organs?

    藉由列印及置換器官, 人類的生命能延長多久呢?

  • And exactly whoand what

    到底是誰──是什麼東西──

  • will have access to this technology and its incredible output?

    能使用到這項科技 與它驚人的產品呢?

There are currently hundreds of thousands of people on transplant lists,

譯者: Ann Chen 審譯者: Helen Chang

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B2 中高級 中文 美國腔 TED-Ed 列印 細胞 器官 墨水 生物

如何3D打印人體組織--Taneka Jones (How to 3D print human tissue - Taneka Jones)

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    shuting1215   發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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