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  • This video is sponsored by Skillshare.

    這個視頻是由Skillshare贊助的。

  • Use the link in the description to watch my course or thousands of others with a free

    使用描述中的鏈接觀看我的課程或其他數千人的免費課程。

  • two-month trial.

    兩個月的試用期。

  • In 2018, the U.S. imported $540 billion worth of goods from China, but exported only 120.

    2018年,美國從中國進口了價值5400億美元的商品,但只出口了120。

  • In response, President Trump imposed tariffs, immediately shaking the Chinese, American,

    對此,美國總統特朗普徵收關稅,立即震動了中國、美國。

  • and, therefore, world, economies.

    是以,世界經濟。

  • But while the trade war defines today's economy, another deficit will decide tomorrow's.

    但雖然貿易戰決定了今天的經濟,但另一個赤字將決定明天的經濟。

  • In the 2017-18 school year, 363,000 Chinese students came to study in the U.S., while

    2017-18學年,有36.3萬名中國學生來美留學,而

  • only 24,000 Americans went to China.

    只有24000名美國人去了中國。

  • This, on the surface, isn't all that surprising.

    這一點,從表面上看,並不是很奇怪。

  • What's weird - really weird - is how fast it happened.

    最奇怪的--真的很奇怪--是它發生得太快了。

  • All of a sudden, starting in 2007, Chinese students in the U.S. absolutely exploded,

    突然間,從2007年開始,在美國的中國學生絕對爆發了。

  • accounting for 93% of all international student growth in the last decade.

    佔過去十年所有國際學生增長的93%。

  • More students come from China to America than the next six countries combined, including

    從中國到美國的學生比接下來六個國家的總和還要多,包括

  • India, despite having almost the same size population.

    印度儘管人口數量幾乎相同,但。

  • So, why so many?

    那麼,為什麼這麼多?

  • Why so sudden?

    為什麼這麼突然?

  • And is the U.S. right to worry about incoming spies?

    而美國對來犯間諜的擔心是否正確?

  • The answer has less to do with academics and more with economics, complex social dynamics,

    答案與學術無關,更多的是與經濟學、複雜的社會動態有關。

  • and, above all, politics.

    而最重要的是,政治。

  • On June 7th, Chinese cities becomeeerily quiet.

    6月7日,中國的城市變得......詭異的安靜。

  • Traffic is as busy as ever but no horns are honking, stress is collectively unusually

    交通一如既往的繁忙,但沒有喇叭聲,壓力集體異常的

  • high, free water bottles are handed out, and drones watch overhead.

    高,免費派發水壺,無人機在上空觀察。

  • Today, tomorrow, and sometimes, on a third day, 10 million students across China take

    今天、明天,有時甚至是第三天,全中國有1000萬學生參加了

  • the National Higher Education Entrance Exam, aka the Gaokao, aka, the most important nine

    聯考,又名聯考,又名,重中之重的九門。

  • hours of a Chinese person's life.

    小時的中國人的生活。

  • The test covers Chinese language and literature, math, foreign language (usually English),

    考試內容包括漢語言文學、數學、外語(一般為英語)。

  • and a choice of social or natural science.

    並選擇社會科學或自然科學。

  • The top roughly 7-million scorers are admitted to college, and a select few are offered places

    頂尖的約700萬名考生被大學錄取,少數人被錄取。

  • in the C9 - mainland China's equivalent to the Ivy-League.

    在C9--中國大陸相當於常春藤聯盟。

  • But unlike the SAT, AP, or IB, Gaokao scores are really the only factor in Chinese college

    但與SAT、AP、IB不同,聯考成績確實是中國大學的唯一因素

  • admissions.

    錄取;

  • The first 18 years of your life, therefore, are dedicated to preparation.

    是以,你人生的前18年,是專門用來準備的。

  • Leading up to the big test, parents burn incense, pray, and book hotels near the exam to avoid

    大考前,家長們燒香、祈禱、預訂考試附近的酒店,以避開

  • traffic.

    販賣人口;

  • Students sometimes study with IV drips.

    學生有時打點滴學習。

  • Some, known asGaokao migrants”, travel to other provinces with higher admissions

    有的被稱為 "聯考移民",到其他錄取率較高的省份旅遊

  • quotas in hopes of having a slight advantage.

    配額,希望能略佔優勢。

  • When the day finally comes, provincial governments order quiet streets for concentration and

    當這一天終於到來的時候,省委省政府命令安靜的街道進行集中和

  • fly drones to catch cheaters.

    飛無人機抓金光黨。

  • Supporters of the Gaokao say it levels the playing field - creating a meritocracy wherein

    支持聯考的人說,聯考為我們創造了一個公平的競爭環境,創造了一個任人唯賢的環境。

  • any student, from any geographic or socioeconomic part of China has the same opportunity for

    任何來自中國任何地域或社會經濟部分的學生,都有同樣的機會獲得以下服務。

  • social mobility.

    社會流動性;

  • Critics, in turn, argue a level playing field is only ever an illusion - that success is

    批評者則認為,公平的競爭環境永遠只是一種假象--成功是一種假象。

  • handed to those with families wealthy enough to afford private tutors.

    遞給那些家庭富裕,能夠負擔得起私人家教的人。

  • Like continued middle-class growth, the national exam is both a practical and political tool

    和中產階級的持續增長一樣,國考既是實用工具,也是政治工具

  • for maintaining stability - shifting questions of who has power and who is entitled to riches

    轉變誰擁有權力和誰有權獲得財富的問題;

  • onto the individual.

    到個人身上。

  • The extreme, sometimes insurmountable stress, they say, doesn't even produce good citizens

    他們說,這種極端的、有時是不可逾越的壓力,甚至不能培養出好的公民

  • or employees.

    或僱員。

  • While Chinese students rank very highly in math and science, they're often seen as

    雖然中國學生在數學和科學方面的排名非常高,但他們往往被視為

  • lacking in other skills like creative and critical thinking, a side effect of their

    缺乏其他技能,如創造性和批判性思維,這是他們的副作用。

  • rigid education system.

    僵化的教育制度。

  • Classrooms are dominated by the teacher, who lectures behind a podium to a sea of totally-silent

    課堂由老師主導,老師在講臺後對著一片寂靜的海洋講課。

  • students expected to memorize as much as possible.

    學生應儘可能多地記憶。

  • To ask questions is both to disrespect your teacher and admit to your peers that you don't

    問問題,既是對老師的不尊重,也是向同行承認自己的不

  • understand the material.

    理解材料。

  • Finally, discipline is placed above all else, with low performers at one high school not

    最後,把紀律放在首位,某中學成績差的學生不

  • being allowed air conditioning.

    被允許使用空調;

  • For any number of these reasons, some, disenchanted parents seek a way out.

    由於以上種種原因,一些,心灰意冷的父母尋求出路。

  • If their child performs poorly on his or her high school entrance exam, rather than lose

    如果他們的孩子聯考成績不理想,與其失去了

  • face, families may place them in international schools, designed to prepare them for exams

    面臨的問題,家庭可能會將他們安排到國際學校,為他們的考試做準備。

  • like the SAT, instead.

    像SAT考試,而是。

  • Others pursue an education abroad with the intent of eventually migrating the whole family,

    還有的人在國外求學,打算最終全家移民。

  • or, simply, for more opportunity.

    或者,只是為了更多的機會。

  • The perception is that, while school in China is more intense up until the Gaokao, afterward,

    的看法是,雖然中國的學校在聯考前比較緊張,但聯考後。

  • students feel they've satisfied their family's expectations and can relax at university,

    學生覺得自己滿足了家庭的期望,可以在大學裡放鬆一下。

  • whereas American college is when students start getting serious.

    而美國大學則是學生開始認真學習的時候。

  • In other words, students leave China on their parents' suggestion, who usually pay their

    換句話說,學生在父母的建議下離開中國,父母通常會支付他們的費用。

  • tuition.

    補習。

  • And pay, do they!

    他們會付錢的,是嗎?

  • There are English lessons, extracurriculars for admissions, exam fees, and travel costs.

    有英語課、入學的課外活動、考試費、差旅費。

  • On top of that, families pay agencies about $10,000 per child for help in the process.

    除此之外,在這個過程中,家庭還要向機構支付每個孩子約1萬元的幫助費用。

  • In other words, this is only possible thanks to China's rising, newly-wealthy middle-class,

    換句話說,這要歸功於中國正在崛起的新富中產階級。

  • and the demographics which leave parents with only one child to pay for - and, more importantly,

    和人口結構,使只有一個孩子的父母需要支付----更重要的是,。

  • only one chance to get it right.

    只有一次機會讓它正確。

  • The truly wealthy get started even earlier - sending their child to an elite American

    真正的富人更早開始--把孩子送進美國精英學校。

  • feeder middle school, which can charge up to 60, $70,000 a year.

    哺育中學,每年收費可達6、7萬元。

  • And when old fashion studying doesn't work, upper-class families resort togifts

    而當老式學習行不通的時候,上流社會的家庭就會採取 "送禮 "的方式。

  • - usually about $250,000, and as much as $6.5 million.

    - 通常25萬元左右,高達650萬元。

  • There's one more, unexpected reason Chinese students come to America

    還有一個讓人意想不到的原因,中國學生來美國... ...

  • When Deng Xiaoping began opening up the country in the '80s and '90s, creating thousands

    80、90年代鄧小平開始對外開放時,創造了數以千計的

  • of newly rich families, he also, for the first time, allowed students to study overseas.

    的新富家庭,他還首次允許學生出國留學。

  • For this reason, the first international students who returned to China were its most well-off,

    為此,第一批迴國的留學生都是中國最富裕的人。

  • launching high-paying, high-profile careers.

    啟動高薪、高調的職業。

  • This association of studying in America and success in life has never faded.

    美國留學與人生成功的這種關聯從未消退。

  • So, while the American Dream may not be alive and well in America, it certainly is in Beijing.

    所以,雖然美國夢在美國可能不存在,但在北京肯定是存在的。

  • Americans have Louis Vuitton, McMansions, and Porsche's.

    美國人有路易威登、麥當勞,還有保時捷。

  • Chinese people have Harvard and Yale.

    中國人有哈佛、耶魯。

  • One hospital in central China even named its maternity wards after Ivy-League schools for

    華中地區的一家醫院甚至以常春藤名校的名字來命名其產房,以備不時之需。

  • good luck.

    好運氣

  • All of these factors help explain this, but they don't justify this.

    所有這些因素都有助於解釋這一點,但它們並不能證明這一點。

  • Why did it all happen so fast?

    為什麼這一切發生得這麼快?

  • To answer that, we need to understand how schools really make money.

    要回答這個問題,我們需要了解學校到底是如何賺錢的。

  • Broadly speaking, in the U.S., there are two university business models.

    大致來說,在美國,大學的商業模式有兩種。

  • The first way a school can make money is simple: charging students.

    學校賺錢的第一個方法很簡單:向學生收費。

  • Private schools are the Apple of education - they forgo massive market share in exchange

    私立學校是教育的蘋果--他們放棄了大量的市場份額,換來的是

  • for a smaller number of higher-paying students.

    為較少的高薪學生。

  • And, because they attract high-income families, they can expect good, lifelong customers - aka

    而且,由於他們吸引的是高收入家庭,他們可以期待良好的、終生的客戶--也就是

  • endowments!

    捐贈!

  • On the other hand, the way public schools pay the bills is a little less obvious.

    另一方面,公辦學校的繳費方式就不那麼明顯了。

  • Lower tuition is made up for by state and federal funding - aka, everyone's favorite,

    較低的學費由州政府和聯邦政府的資助來彌補--也就是大家最喜歡的。

  • taxes!

    稅!

  • Government subsidizing is great - when it's great.

    政府補貼是偉大的--當它是偉大的。

  • Low prices grant low-income families access to a great education.

    低廉的價格使低收入家庭有機會接受良好的教育。

  • The problem is that state and federal governments have other priorities and are subject to economic

    問題是,州政府和聯邦政府有其他優先事項,並受經濟

  • downturns.

    衰退。

  • During the 2008 recession, Americans spent and made less money, governments collected

    在2008年經濟衰退期間,美國人花的錢少了,賺的錢也少了,政府徵收的錢也少了。

  • less revenue, and colleges received less funding.

    收入較少,高校獲得的經費也較少。

  • From 2008 to 13, states alone lost out on $283 billion.

    從2008年到13年,僅各州就損失了2830億美元。

  • Now, ten years later, most of us have long forgotten the recession - but not universities.

    十年後的今天,我們大多數人早已忘記了經濟衰退--但大學不會。

  • Still in 2018, state funding for higher education was down 13% from before the crisis.

    但在2018年,國家對高等教育的資助還是比危機前下降了13%。

  • So, as government subsidies fell, schools immediately turned to a new subsidy - international

    於是,隨著政府補貼的下降,學校馬上轉向了新的補貼--國際

  • tuition.

    補習。

  • The current model is one where colleges can segment prices without appearing to discriminate.

    目前的模式是,高校可以在不出現歧視的情況下進行價格分割。

  • In other words, tuition is set very high, but aid is handed out very generously.

    換句話說,學費定得很高,但援助金卻發放得很慷慨。

  • The average full-time undergraduate in 2017-18 received nearly $15,000 in total aid.

    2017-18年全日制大學生平均獲得近1.5萬元的資助總額。

  • But while something like 85% of students receive some amount of financial aid, international

    但是,雖然有85%的學生獲得了一定數額的經濟援助,但國際學生的經濟援助卻很少。

  • students almost always pay full price.

    學生幾乎都是付全價。

  • At Michigan State University, for example, in-state freshmen pay $25,064 a year for tuition,

    以密歇根州立大學為例,州內新生每年要支付25064美元的學費。

  • fees, room, and board.

    費、食宿費。

  • Out-of-state residents pay just over double, and international students pay $9,133 on top

    外州居民支付的費用略高於一倍,國際學生在此基礎上支付9133美元。

  • of that.

    的。

  • Across America, an international student generates about twice as much revenue as an in-state

    在整個美國,一個國際學生的收入大約是一個州內學生的兩倍。

  • resident.

    居民:

  • Students also complain about a so-calledInternational Tax”, where schools place a greater emphasis

    學生們還抱怨所謂的 "國際稅",學校比較重視

  • on English courses to prolong their studies.

    參加英語課程,以延長他們的學習時間。

  • Increasingly, Chinese students find themselves caught between two worlds

    越來越多的中國學生髮現自己被夾在兩個世界之間......。

  • As more and more students return home, 30% in 2007, but 80% today, they're often disappointed

    隨著越來越多的學生返鄉,2007年是30%,如今是80%,他們往往會感到失望

  • by what they find.

    由他們發現。

  • While English is still very valuable and many find high-paying jobs in America, the rest,

    雖然英語還是很有價值的,很多人在美國找到了高薪的工作,但剩下的。

  • Haigui”, as they're known in Chinese, have a disadvantage.

    "海貴",在中國人看來,他們有一個缺點。

  • One study found U.S. diploma-holders were 18% less likely to receive a call back from

    一項研究發現,持有美國文憑的人接到美國大學回電的可能性降低了18%。

  • potential employers than Chinese ones.

    比中國的潛在僱主。

  • On the other hand, they may also feel isolated and unwelcome in America.

    另一方面,他們在美國也可能感到孤立和不受歡迎。

  • Because schools tend only to keep one or two dorms open during breaks, during which international

    因為學校往往只在休息時間開放一個或兩個宿舍,而在這期間,國際

  • students tend to stay on campus, they get placed in the same dorms, have less opportunity

    學生傾向於留在校園裡,他們被安排在同一個宿舍,有更少的機會

  • to perfect their language skills, and a harder time socializing outside their bubble.

    完善他們的語言能力,更難在他們的圈子之外進行社交。

  • At the same time, some Chinese students are experiencing delayed or rejected visas and

    同時,一些中國學生的簽證被延遲或被拒籤的情況時有發生,而且。

  • accusations of espionage.

    間諜罪的指控;

  • The fear stems from Confucius Institutes or Chinese Student and Scholars Associations,

    這種恐懼源於孔子學院或中國學生學者協會。

  • groups set-up by or associated with China's Communist Party on American campuses.

    中國共產黨在美國校園內設立的或與之有關的團體。

  • Officially, their goal is to help Chinese students acclimate abroad - like, by organizing

    官方表示,他們的目標是幫助中國學生適應國外的生活--比如,通過組織。

  • parties around Chinese New Year.

    春節前後的聚會。

  • Chinese embassies also create WeChat groups to organize students, even paying them to

    中國大使館也會建立微信群組織學生,甚至給他們發錢。

  • welcome Xi Jinping during his 2015 visit to Washington.

    歡迎習近平2015年訪問華盛頓時。

  • Several Chinese students and faculty have been arrested or fired in recent years for

    近年來,有多名中國師生因?

  • alleged spying or failing to disclose connections to China.

    涉嫌從事間諜活動或未披露與中國的關係。

  • According to sources, President Trump seriously considered banning all Chinese students completely,

    據消息人士透露,特朗普總統認真考慮過全面禁止所有中國學生。

  • only narrowly deciding against it after an ambassador pointed out how it would harm American

    在一位大使指出這將損害美國的利益後,才勉強決定反對。

  • schools.

    學校:

  • Students in STEM fields, in other words, most Chinese students, are already subject to additional

    STEM領域的學生,換句話說,大多數中國學生,已經受到了額外的。

  • scrutiny.

    審查。

  • The truth is, visa issues are not yet widespread, and the U.S. government has, at times, even

    事實上,簽證問題還不普遍,美國政府有時甚至是

  • encouraged Chinese arrivals, with Trump declaringWe want to have Chinese students (go) to

    鼓勵中國人的到來,特朗普宣稱 "我們希望中國學生(去)到。

  • our great schools and great universities.

    我們偉大的學校和偉大的大學。

  • They are great students and tremendous assets”.

    他們是優秀的學生和巨大的財富"。

  • Regardless, issues are common enough to create a perception of risk, leading to an 8% drop

    無論怎樣,問題都是很普遍的,足以讓人產生風險意識,導致下降8%。

  • of international students in 2018, who increasingly choose other countries like Canada or affordable

    的留學生,在2018年,他們越來越多地選擇加拿大等其他國家或經濟實惠的國家。

  • Thailand.

    泰國:

  • The University of Illinois went so far as to take out a $424,000 insurance policy in

    伊利諾伊大學竟然投保了42.4萬美元的保險,在。

  • case of a significant drop in Chinese students.

    中國學生大幅減少的情況下。

  • The U.S. can and should be worried about Chinese influence on campuses.

    美國可以也應該擔心中國對校園的影響。

  • Their free, open-minded approach has the potentially dangerous side-effect of also creating a vulnerable

    他們的自由、開放的做法有一個潛在的危險的副作用,那就是也造成了一個脆弱的、不穩定的、不安全的環境。

  • hole easily filled by nationalist propaganda.

    漏洞很容易被民族主義宣傳所填補。

  • There has never been a better time in history to be wary of China's influence abroad.

    歷史上從來沒有比現在更好的時機來警惕中國的海外影響力。

  • But there has also never been a more important moment to be cautious about conflating a government

    但是,現在也是一個前所未有的重要時刻,我們要謹慎地將一個政府混為一談。

  • and its ideology with 1.4 billion individuals.

    及其意識形態與14億人。

  • Suspecting everyone of espionage leaves America economically and culturally weaker, not stronger.

    懷疑每個人的間諜行為,會讓美國在經濟和文化上變得更弱,而不是更強。

  • Every year, Chinese students contribute $15 billion to the U.S. economy.

    每年,中國學生為美國經濟貢獻150億美元。

  • Education is now Australia's third-largest export, more than tourism, and behind only

    教育現在是澳洲第三大出口產品,超過了旅遊業,僅次於

  • iron and coal.

    鐵和煤。

  • But whether economically useful or not, cultural exchanges act as a countervailing force to

    但無論經濟上是否有用,文化交流都會起到反作用,對

  • propaganda - both exposing Chinese nationals to a wider intellectual world and American

    宣傳--既讓中國國民接觸到了更廣闊的知識世界,也讓美國的

  • citizens to foreign cultures.

    公民對外國文化的。

  • The fact that America has so many high-ranking, sought-after institutions - where even Xi

    事實上,美國有這麼多高大上、受人追捧的機構--在這裡,連習近平都

  • Jinping sends his daughter - is a massive diplomatic advantage that risks being wasted

    金平送女兒--是巨大的外交優勢有被浪費的危險

  • if foreigners aren't welcome.

    如果不歡迎外國人。

  • When students return to China, these schools often constitute their entire conception of

    當學生回到中國後,這些學校往往構成了他們的全部觀念。

  • America, the one that spreads to friends, family, and, eventually, decision-makers.

    美國,那個傳播給朋友、家人,最終傳播給決策者。

  • Cutting off Chinese students may help win today's trade war, but welcoming them is

    斬斷中國學生可能有助於打贏今天的貿易戰,但歡迎他們是

  • the only way to stop tomorrow's conflicts before they even begin.

    只有這樣才能在明天的衝突開始之前就阻止它們。

  • While not everyone can leave their country and study abroad, we all have access to some

    雖然不是每個人都能出國留學,但我們都有機會獲得一些

  • of the most interesting classes online with Skillshare!

    最有趣的類在線與技能共享!

  • For example, maybe after watchingThe Magic of In-N-Out”, you want to start your own

    例如,也許看完《In-N-Out的魔力》後,你想開闢自己的。

  • business - this course can help you create an amazing logo for it.

    業務--本課程可以幫助您為其創建一個令人驚歎的標誌。

  • Perhaps you want to avoid a marketing disaster like Huawei, in which case, you should watch

    也許你想避免像華為這樣的營銷災難,在這種情況下,你應該看一看

  • these brand strategy courses from the experts.

    這些來自專家的品牌戰略課程。

  • Whatever you want to learn - like design, business, or investing - Skillshare has thousands

    無論你想學習 - 像設計,商業,或投資 - 技能共享有成千上萬的。

  • of classes to teach you.

    的課程來教你。

  • You can try Skillshare today with a 2-month free trial using the link in the description.

    你可以嘗試Skillshare今天與2個月的免費試用,使用描述中的鏈接。

  • After that, an annual subscription is less than $10 bucks a month.

    之後,年費每月不到10塊錢。

  • Thanks to Skillshare, and to you for watching!

    感謝技能分享,也感謝你的觀看!

This video is sponsored by Skillshare.

這個視頻是由Skillshare贊助的。

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B1 中級 中文 美國腔 學生 中國 美國 經濟 學校 大學

為什麼這麼多中國學生到美國留學? (Why So Many Chinese Students Come to America)

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    王語萱 發佈於 2019 年 09 月 13 日
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