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字幕列表 影片播放

  • L. O.

    L. O.。

  • Two simple letters that marked one of the biggest changes in human history.

    兩個簡單的字母卻寫下了人類歷史上最巨大的改變之一。

  • In 1969, programmers were trying to type "login".

    西元 1969 年,程式工程師嘗試要打出「login (登錄)」。

  • Charlie typed the L.

    Charlie 輸入 L。

  • He typed the O.

    他輸入 O。

  • He typed the G.

    他輸入 G。

  • You get to G—whackothe system crashed.

    一打到 G,蹦!系統就癱瘓了。

  • So the very first message on the internet ever was lo, as in lo and behold.

    所以網路上第一則訊息就是「lo」,「lo and behold (真沒想到)」的「lo」。

  • 50 years later and half the world is now online.

    五十年之後,一半的世界人口現在都在網路上。

  • But that half is primarily from the rich world, which means that the other half quite obviously will have to come from the poor world.

    那一半的人口主要都是來自富有世界,這很明顯地代表另一半將來自貧窮世界。

  • How will the second half of humanity coming online change the internet?

    若是第二半的人類開始上網,會如何改變網際網路呢?

  • And how will the internet change them?

    而網際網路又會如何改變他們呢?

  • The really interesting place to look at is India.

    印度是個很有趣要特別觀察的地方。

  • India's internet penetration was pretty low until very recently with the launch of a new mobile network called Reliance Jio with incredibly cheap phones and incredibly cheap data prices.

    印度過去的網路普及率相當低,直到最近名叫 Reliance Jio 的全新行動網路公司上市,並提供極為低價的手機及費率。

  • Reliance Jio launched aggressively in 2016 offering subsidized handsets and free data to hook people in.

    Reliance Jio 在 2016 年強勢上市,他們為了吸引群眾而提供手機補助和免費行動數據。

  • India went from being a relatively expensive place to consume data to being the cheapest in the world.

    印度從網路使用費相對高的地方變成了世界上網路最便宜的地方之一。

  • Prices crashed by 94%.

    價格降低了 94%。

  • Newer users in the developing world are browsing the internet in much the same way as people in the developed world.

    發展中國家的新用戶瀏覽網路的方式就和已開發國家的使用者一樣。

  • When people get online, the first thing they do is they chat with their friends.

    人們上網第一件做的事就是和朋友聊天。

  • They watch sports.

    他們觀看體育賽事。

  • They watch movies.

    他們觀看電影。

  • They watch music videos.

    他們觀看音樂影片。

  • They watch an extremely large amount of pornography.

    他們觀看非常多的情色影片。

  • But this is where the similarities end.

    但他們的相似處就只有這樣。

  • The internet was built on the assumptions that many users speak English are literate and are media-savvy.

    網路是建立於多數使用者會說英文並識字且有媒體常識的假設上。

  • None of those things remain true for the second half of the internet.

    那些假設都不適用於第二半的網路使用者。

  • You have a whole bunch of languages that don't enjoy very good support in terms of web browsers or input.

    非常多的語言不受瀏覽器和輸入系統支持。

  • And you have a whole bunch of people who can't actually read or write.

    還有一大堆的人其實不會閱讀和寫字。

  • There's practically no usage of desktop computers, laptop computers.

    桌上型電腦和筆記型電腦的使用率幾乎掛零。

  • It's almost entirely on mobile phones, and these mobile phones tend not to be the expensive, very powerful ones.

    幾乎都是藉由手機來上網,而且通常不是較昂貴、有力的手機。

  • They have limited amounts of storage.

    這些手機的容量是有限的。

  • This is prompting big tech companies to change the way their products work.

    這正在督促大型科技公司改變自身產品的使用方法。

  • They're having to understand these new behaviors.

    他們現在必須去了解這些新的消費者行為。

  • They're having to fundamentally rethink how they supply their services.

    他們必須從根本上重新思考要如何提供服務。

  • For much of the world that is now coming online, text is not the natural way to interact.

    對於大部分正要開始上網的人而言,文字並不是自然的互動方式。

  • It's smaller apps that can do more and that can be used with voice or video rather than text.

    佔據較小儲存空間並能以聲音或影像而非文字操作的應用程式才符合新的使用者。

  • Many tech giants have already begun to establish themselves in emerging markets.

    很多科技巨擘已開始要在逐漸崛起的市場中建立地位。

  • Facebook has over 1.5 billion users in developing countries.

    臉書在開發中國家有超過十五億的使用者。

  • And the YouTube channel with the most subscribers is a Bollywood studio and record label.

    而 YouTube 訂閱人數最高的是個寶萊塢唱片公司的頻道。

  • Creating large user bases is one thing.

    吸引大量的使用人數是一回事。

  • Making money from them is another.

    從中賺錢獲利是另一回事。

  • The prevailing assumption around making money on the internet until this point has been a largely American assumption of advertising.

    現今盛行能在網路上賺錢的設想都源自於美國所說的廣告。

  • 99% of Facebook's revenue comes from advertising, as does 85% of Google's.

    臉書 99% 的收入來自廣告,谷歌 85% 的收入也是。

  • But many people in the developing world are poor.

    但發展中國家的很多人都是貧窮的。

  • So users don't have the same value to advertisers.

    所以使用者對廣告商來說並沒有相同價值。

  • Take Facebook's last quarter of 2018.

    舉臉書 2018 年度最後一季為例。

  • They make 12 times as much money per user in North America than they do in Asia.

    他們在北美平均每個使用者身上賺到的金額是亞洲使用者的 12 倍。

  • And overall annual revenue from the developing world is much lower too.

    而且從發展中國家賺得的整體年度收入也低很多。

  • Google for instance, about 46% of their revenues comes from the US alone and only about 15% from Asia.

    以谷歌為例,他們約 46% 的收入單單來自美國,而只有 15% 來自亞洲。

  • That 15% includes rich countries like Australia and Japan.

    那 15% 包含澳洲和日本等較富有的國家。

  • Take those away and the revenue from Asia would be even lower.

    若是不算那兩個國家,來自亞洲的收入甚至會更低。

  • If the traditional advertising model isn't going to work, tech companies will have to think outside the box.

    若是傳統廣告模型沒有用,科技公司就必須跳脫常規思考。

  • What people will pay for is the opportunity to express themselves.

    展現自我的機會是人們願意購買的。

  • Until the advent of smartphones really, a big money-spinner for Indian mobile networks was something called a caller-ringback tone.

    其實直到智慧型手機出現以前,印度電信公司的搖錢樹就是所謂的來電答鈴。

  • I would pick a song that I like very much, and if you were calling me, you would hear it.

    我會選一首很喜歡的歌,你如果打電話給我就會聽到。

  • And I pay a monthly fee for that to happen.

    而我會為此付月租費。

  • Now think about exactly what this is.

    現在來想想看這到底代表什麼。

  • I am paying money for a song I will never listen to, only so that my friends who are calling me can hear it because I want to express myself.

    我付錢買自己聽不到的歌曲,僅僅是要讓朋友來電時聽得到,因為我想要展現自我。

  • So it'll be lots of novel ideas like that for very, very small amounts of money.

    將會出現許多為了賺很少很少錢的新奇想法。

  • But we're talking about lots and lots of people doing these things.

    但將會有很多很多人做這些事。

  • One thing is for sure.

    有件事是肯定的。

  • The internet's second revolution will change people's lives for the better.

    第二次網際網路革命將會把人類的生活變得更好。

  • The ability of people around the world to have a good time is becoming a little bit more equal.

    世界各地人們享樂的能力正變得更平等一點。

  • And that, while hard to pin down in economic data, is a net benefit to just the general well-being of humankind which can be very easy to understate or to ignore, especially if you're used to those things, but has a really meaningful impact.

    儘管經濟上很很難確知也容易被習以為常地低估或忽視,但那其實是全體人類的福祉,而且會造成極具意義的影響。

L. O.

L. O.。

字幕與單字

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A2 初級 中文 英國腔 網路 網際網路 使用 收入 手機 國家

互聯網的第二次革命|《經濟學家》雜誌 (The internet's second revolution | The Economist)

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    Estelle   發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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