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  • At some point,

    譯者: Regina Chu 審譯者: Marssi Draw

  • most sexually active people will be infected with human papillomavirus,

    遲早有一天

  • or 'HPV.'

    大多數性活躍的人 會感染人類乳突病毒

  • There are over 100 types of HPV,

    又稱 HPV

  • and most of the time the body eliminates infections without symptoms

    目前有超過一百種 HPV

  • but some strains can pose serious health risks down the line.

    通常身體會消滅感染 而且不會出現任何臨床症狀

  • HPV causes contact infections,

    但是某些毒株會進一步 對健康造成嚴重威脅

  • which means the virus stays in the cells near the point of infection

    HPV 會引起接觸感染

  • rather than spreading throughout the whole body.

    亦即病毒會待在感染處附近的細胞內

  • Since HPV is often transmitted through sexual activity,

    而不是散播至全身

  • this usually means the cells of the vagina, vulva, penis, anus,

    因為 HPV 通常經由性行為傳染

  • mouth and throat.

    這通常是指陰道、外陰、陰莖、肛門

  • We can test for HPV in cells from these areas,

    口腔及喉嚨細胞

  • but while testing for the virus is scientifically possible,

    我們可以從這些地方的細胞檢驗 HPV

  • it isn't common.

    但是即使可以用科學方法 檢驗到這種病毒

  • The main reason is that,

    通常也不這麼做

  • while there are treatments for the adverse health effects caused by HPV,

    主要的原因是

  • there's no treatment for the virus itself.

    雖然有方法能治療 HPV 對健康引起的不良影響

  • So testing for HPV would yield many, many positives,

    卻沒有方法能治療病毒本身

  • and although most of them won't be cause for concern,

    所以做 HPV 檢驗可能會產生 非常非常多的陽性反應

  • there is still no treatment plan for clearing the body of the virus.

    雖然大多數不會造成問題

  • But there are other good ways to protect yourself from HPV.

    仍然沒有治療計畫能清除病毒

  • We're going to walk through how HPV can cause harm,

    但是還是有其它方法 保護自己免受 HPV 傷害

  • who's at risk, and how to minimize those risks.

    我們就來談談 HPV 如何造成傷害

  • The body's immune system is able to eradicate most strains of HPV

    誰有風險及如何降低風險

  • before they cause any harm

    身體的免疫系統 可以消滅大多數種 HPV 毒株

  • and without people even knowing they've been infected.

    不讓它們引起傷害

  • Certain other strains

    有些人甚至不知道他們已經被感染了

  • like HPV 6 and 11–

    某些特定毒株

  • cause abnormalities in the cells of the infected tissue,

    如 HPV 6 及 HPV 11

  • which can develop into genital warts.

    會造成受感染組織的細胞異常

  • While these are infectious and require treatment,

    可能發展成性器疣

  • usually with topical creams,

    這些疣具傳染性並需要治療

  • wart-causing strains don't create longer-term damage.

    通常是用外用藥膏

  • But another 13 strains can cause DNA mutations that cause cells to divide

    會造成疣的毒株不會產生長期危害

  • at a much faster pace than normal,

    但是另外有十三種毒株 會造成 DNA 突變

  • propelling the development of cancerous growths.

    使細胞分裂的速度比正常更快

  • The cells of the cervix are especially at risks.

    助長癌細胞生長

  • Two in particular

    子宮頸細胞的風險特別大

  • HPV 16 and 18–

    特別有兩種毒株

  • are responsible for the majority of cases of cervical cancer,

    HPV 16 及 HPV 18

  • which is now the fourth most common type of cancer in women.

    為造成大多數子宮頸癌的主因

  • It can take up to 20 years for cancer symptoms to appear,

    這是現今第四大的婦女癌症

  • but with regular screening,

    癌症可能要長達 20 年 才會出現症狀

  • we can discover cellular abnormalities in the cervix

    如果定期檢查

  • before they develop into cancer.

    我們可以發現子宮頸細胞異常

  • Women over 21 can undergo a regular pap smear,

    在它們發展成癌症前就看出來

  • where a sample of tissue is gently scraped from the lining of the cervix

    21 歲以上的婦女 可以定期做子宮頸抹片檢查

  • to test for abnormal cells.

    即在子宮頸內膜輕輕刮下組織檢體

  • A positive test doesn't mean the person has cervical cancer,

    檢查是否有變異細胞

  • but rather that there are irregular cells in the cervix

    陽性結果並不代表這個人有子宮頸癌

  • that could develop into cancer in the future.

    而是子宮頸有不正常的細胞

  • Patients are then either monitored with more frequent pap smears,

    可能在未來發展成癌症

  • or, for more severe irregularities,

    之後病患可能要 更常做抹片檢查以監測變異

  • undergo a procedure called a colposcopy.

    如果變異情況較嚴重

  • This involves a doctor examining the cervix through a microscope,

    就會做陰道鏡檢查

  • and possibly taking a small biopsy of tissue for closer examination.

    這需要醫師用顯微鏡做子宮頸檢查

  • In some cases, the affected tissue may be removed.

    並有可能取組織切片以更仔細檢查

  • HPV infections of the throat may lead to head and neck cancers,

    在某些情況下 受影響的組織可能會被切除

  • but for now there's no equivalent of the pap smear for the throat.

    喉嚨感染 HPV 可能會導致頭頸癌

  • Using condoms helps prevent the spread of HPV during sex.

    但是目前沒有相應的喉嚨抹片檢查

  • And there are three safe, effective vaccines that all target HPV 16 and 18.

    使用保險套可以幫助避免 在性交時傳播 HPV

  • The vaccine comes in two or three doses a few months apart,

    目前有三種安全有效的疫苗 專門針對 HPV 16 及 HPV 18

  • and it's only beneficial if you receive them all.

    這個疫苗分二至三劑施打 每次相隔幾個月

  • Right now the vaccine is part of standard care for girls aged 11 to 18

    要全部打完才有用

  • in many countries

    目前這種疫苗

  • though it's increasingly becoming available to boys as well.

    在許多國家是 11 至 18 歲女孩 健保計畫的一部分

  • Adult women and men in countries including the United States and the United Kingdom

    也有愈來愈多的男孩接種

  • can opt to receive the vaccine,

    在美國及英國等許多國家的 成年女性及男性

  • and evidence suggests that vaccination of women and men

    也可以選擇接種疫苗

  • could reduce the worldwide incidence of cervical cancer by almost 90%.

    證據顯示女性及男性接種疫苗

  • Researchers are also developing an injection

    可以在全世界減少 幾乎 90% 的子宮頸癌

  • for people who are already infected with HPV 16 and 18,

    研究人員也發展出注射針劑

  • which would target the infected cells

    給已經感染了 HPV 16 及 18 的人

  • to stop them from developing into cancerous ones.

    它會標靶受感染的細胞

  • So while there's still room for improvement in screening,

    不讓它們發展成癌細胞

  • treatment, and access to each,

    所以即使篩檢、治療及接種計畫 都還有進步的空間

  • condom use, vaccination, and cervical screening

    使用保險套、接種疫苗及子宮頸篩檢

  • can each reduce the harm caused by HPV.

    都可以減低 HPV 造成的傷害

At some point,

譯者: Regina Chu 審譯者: Marssi Draw

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B1 中級 中文 英國腔 TED-Ed 子宮頸 細胞 疫苗 接種 檢查

什麼是HPV? 如何保護自己遠離它? -Emma Bryce (What is HPV and how can you protect yourself from it? - Emma Bryce)

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    asd851112 發佈於 2019 年 09 月 01 日
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