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  • Measles is one of the most contagious diseases known to man.

    麻疹是人類已知最具傳染性的疾病之一。

  • In fact, if someone with measles coughs in an elevator, 90% of the people who use that

    實際上,如果患有麻疹的人在電梯中咳嗽,那麼在使用該電梯的人中

  • elevator after will catch the disease.

    有 90% 會感染到麻疹。

  • Unless of course you've been vaccinated.

    當然,除非你已經接種過了疫苗。

  • Then you'll be completely fine.

    那你就不會有事。

  • This is the measles virus, it's been around for thousands of years and has been responsible

    這是麻疹病毒,已經存在了數千年,並造成了

  • for the deaths of millions of people.

    數百萬人的死亡。

  • Now, on the surface, measles symptoms seem fairly innocuous.

    現在,從表面上看,麻疹產生的症狀似乎是無害的。

  • But the real damage, the damage that can lead to death, happens on a cellular level.

    但是真正的傷害,可能導致死亡的傷害,是發生在細胞上。

  • Hi I'm Roberto Cattaneo.

    嗨,我是 Roberto Cattaneo 。

  • I'm a Doctor of Philosophy and Professor of Molecular Biology at the Mayo Clinic.

    我是梅奧醫學中心的博士,及分子生物學教授。

  • I'm studying the measles virus since about 35 years.

    我研究麻疹病毒大約已經 35 年了。

  • Measles uses the trachea as a trampoline.

    麻疹把氣管當成跳板。

  • It is in the ideal position in the body to get expelled and to get aerosolized dispersed

    氣管是身體中將病毒排出體外最理想的位置,它將病毒以小分子霧狀方式

  • in the air in small particles very efficiently.

    有效地散播至空氣中。

  • When someone with measles coughs or sneezes, these droplets contain the measles virus,

    當患有麻疹的人咳嗽或打噴嚏時,這些飛沫中會含有麻疹病毒

  • and because measles is a respiratory disease, all someone needs to do is breathe in that

    並且由於麻疹是一種呼吸系統疾病,因此人們只要吸入被病毒感染的空氣

  • infected air in order to contract measles.

    就會染上麻疹。

  • Unless, of course, they've been vaccinated.

    當然,除非他們已經接種了疫苗。

  • When the measles virus reaches the lungs, it is met by a type of white blood cell called a macrophage.

    當麻疹病毒到達肺部時,會遇到一種叫做巨噬細胞的白血球。

  • Usually, macrophages seek out and destroy dangerous pathogens like viruses.

    通常,巨噬細胞會發現並消滅,像是病毒之類的危險病原體。

  • But the measles virus tricks the macrophage into not seeing it as a danger and instead,

    但是麻疹病毒,會誘使巨噬細胞誤認為它是沒有危險性的

  • safely transports the virus into the body's lymph nodes.

    反而將它安全地運送至人體的淋巴結。

  • It's here that the virus begins to replicate and spread throughout the entire lymphatic system.

    就在這裡,病毒開始複製並傳染至整個淋巴系統。

  • Yea, I mean the macrophages thinks to have a system in which they basically get rid of the virus

    是的,我的意思是說,巨噬細胞基本上有一套機制可以消滅病毒

  • And measles can stay there.

    但是麻疹病毒卻可以在那裡存活。

  • So not only it is invisible but it begins to make damage to these cells.

    因此,它不僅像是隱形的,而且還開始對這些巨噬細胞造成損害。

  • The task of these cells is also to go out and fight infection,

    這些細胞具有抵抗外來感染的任務

  • but instead of fighting infection, they go out with the virus and distribute it to the body.

    但它們不但沒有抵抗病毒感染,反而將其傳播到身體各部位。

  • Now, as the virus starts to spread, it enters immune cells that express a protein named

    現在,隨著病毒開始傳播,它侵入至免疫細胞裡稱為

  • SLAM.

    SLAM 的蛋白質受體。

  • These cells arememoryimmune cells, meaning that they remember other pathogens

    這些細胞是有「記憶」能力的免疫細胞,這意味著它們會記住

  • that previously infected the host.

    先前感染過宿主的其他病原體。

  • Measles attacks and kills these SLAM-expressing memory cells and once those memories of past

    麻疹病毒會攻擊並殺死這些記憶細胞,一旦過去感染的記憶被清除

  • infections are erased, the body will be in a much weaker position to fight off future infections

    人體對於未來被感染的抵抗力就會變弱了。

  • This is why measles is so deadly.

    這就是為什麼麻疹如此致命的原因。

  • But even though the virus has tricked your immune system to helping it, that doesn't

    但是,即使麻疹病毒欺騙了你的免疫系統,也並不表示

  • mean your immune system has given up.

    你的免疫系統已經無效。

  • Well, at some point the immune system will notice and will secrete cytokines and attract other immune cells.

    在某個時候,免疫系統會反應而分泌出細胞激素,並引起其他免疫細胞的注意。

  • So at some point the enemy will be identified and taken care of.

    在此同時,病毒就會被識別出來而被消滅。

  • But for the viruses in fact it is only necessary to get out of the host and find a new host.

    但是實際上,對於病毒而言,它只需要脫離原宿主,去找一個新宿主就可以繼續存活。

  • So it's in fact better not to kill the host.

    因此,病毒實際上最好不要殺死宿主 (它才能繼續被散播出去)。

  • That's right, it's in the best interest of the virus not to kill you, that's some other diseases job.

    對的,不將你殺死,才是對這種病毒最有利的,殺死宿主是其他疾病的事。

  • The job of the measles virus is to find a new host, which brings us to another protein

    麻疹病毒的任務既是尋找新的宿主,我們就必需提到該病毒入侵的

  • the virus expresses: nectin4.

    另一種蛋白質受體:nectin4。

  • And we discovered nectin4 as the epithelial receptor or host exit receptor for measles virus.

    我們發現 nectin4 是麻疹病毒入侵上皮細胞的受體或宿主出口受體。

  • As measles spreads throughout the body, it also enters cells that express the protein nectin4.

    隨著麻疹擴散到全身,病毒也入侵細胞的 nectin 4 蛋白質受體。

  • This protein is expressed very preferentially in the trachea.

    這種蛋白質在氣管中特別顯著。

  • And the more the virusit replicates in the trachea, the more cells it kills there.

    病毒在氣管中複製的越多,被殺死的細胞就越多。

  • This dead cell build up actually causes the human host to cough or sneeze, helping spread

    被殺死的細胞屍體不斷堆積,就會造成人類宿主咳嗽或打噴嚏,這樣就就助長

  • it into a new human host, bringing us right back to where we started.

    將病毒傳播到新的人類宿主中,從而又開始一個另一個的傳染循環。

  • Now, the good news is that once you get the measles, your body learns how to defeat it

    現在,好消息是,一旦你得了麻疹,你的身體學會了如何戰勝它

  • and you probably won't get it again.

    那你可能就不會被再次感染了。

  • This is similar to how the vaccine works, but the difference is you're given a weaker

    這與疫苗的原理是一樣的,區別在於疫苗的劑量較低

  • dose, so you can become immune without getting sick or damaging your immune cells.

    因此你既可以免疫又不致生病或損壞免疫細胞。

  • So the vaccine causes the host to remain immune to measles we think for life long or almost life long time.

    因此,麻疹疫苗可使人類對麻疹有終身或近乎終身的免疫功效。

  • And without measles, other diseases, the ones that actually do the killing, have gone down.

    少了麻疹,其他疾病,也就是真正足以致死的疾病,都已减少了。

  • Basically the number of hospitalization has been reduced considerably sometimes to about

    基本上,一些因其他傳染病而住院的人數已大大減少

  • half for several different infectious diseases.

    有時甚至減少了大約一半。

  • So, if you haven't been vaccinated...

    因此,如果你尚未接種疫苗...

  • Yea, the vaccine works beautifully.

    沒錯,麻疹疫苗的效果很好。

  • maybe think about it?

    也許你願意考慮一下?

  • Measles may be the enemy of the immune system, but researchers, including Dr Cattaneo, are

    麻疹可能是免疫系統的敵人,但包括 Cattaneo 博士在內的研究人員

  • working on ways to alter the measles virus so it kills cancer cells.

    正在研究用對付麻疹病毒方法,來殺死癌細胞。

  • For me, a reason to continue study measles is to make it into a friend, making an old

    對我來說,繼續研究麻疹的一個原因,是想把它變為朋友

  • enemy into a new friend by modifying it genetically.

    通過基因改造,把原來的敵人變成新的朋友。

Measles is one of the most contagious diseases known to man.

麻疹是人類已知最具傳染性的疾病之一。

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B2 中高級 中文 美國腔 病毒 細胞 宿主 免疫 疫苗 受體

麻疹為何如此危險? (Here's What Makes Measles So Dangerous)

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    Jerry Liu 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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