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  • When our vegetarian ancestors started eating meat around two million years ago,

    我們吃素的祖先大概在2百萬年前開始吃肉

  • it wasn't just because animals taste great,

    並不只是因為動物很好吃

  • it was pure necessity.

    而是他們必須這麼做。

  • Climate change made many of the plants our ancestors relied on less available and meat bridged that gap.

    氣候變遷讓我們祖先吃的食物變少,而肉食填補了空缺。

  • From the discovery of fire at the latest, meat became a staple of the human diet.

    從已知用火開始,肉類已經成為人類飲食中不可或缺的一部分。

  • But over the last few years eating meat has increasingly been associated with health risks like:

    但最近幾年,肉食越來越與健康危害息息相關。

  • heart disease, certain cancers, and an early death.

    像是:心臟病、某些癌症,還有早逝

  • So how unhealthy is meat, really?

    所以,肉食實際上有多不健康?

  • In this video we'll only talk about meat.

    (開場音樂~)

  • Dairy products deserve a video of their own.

    這部影片我們只談 " 肉 "

  • Biologically, we need to eat for three reasons:

    乳製品值得由另一部影片來說明

  • for energy, to acquire materials to fabricate our cells,

    從生物的角度上,我們必須進食有3個理由

  • and to get special molecules that our bodies can't make themselves.

    為了能量、為了獲得製造細胞的材料

  • The energy and most of the materials come from the three macronutrients: fats, carbohydrates and proteins.

    還有獲得我們身體無法製造的分子。

  • Proteins are the most important resource for repairing and replenishing our cell structures.

    能量還有大多的材料來自3種營養素

  • The special molecules are a large variety of vitamins and minerals we need to drive metabolic processes.

    脂肪、碳水化合物、蛋白質

  • Meat provides us with most of these things.

    蛋白質是最重要資源,可以用來修復、填補我們的細胞。

  • It contains all essential amino acids our body needs and a lot of minerals like:

    特殊的分子是各種不同的維他命、礦物質,讓身體進行新陳代謝。

  • iron, zinc and essential vitamins, some of which are barely found in plants like Vitamin B12.

    肉食提供上面提到的大部分營養素

  • Only one essential nutrient is missing in most of the meat we consume: vitamin C.

    它提供所有身體所需的胺基酸,還有很多礦物質,如:

  • It appears in almost all plants and supports our immune system

    鐵、鋅、基本的維他命、還有某些在植物上不常出現的營養素,如:維他命B12

  • as well as the development of connective tissues.

    只有一種基本的營養素在大部分的肉類食品中找不到,維他命C

  • After a few months without it you'd get scurvy.

    維他命C出現在幾乎所有植物中, 並有助於我們免疫系統的運作,

  • But meat has another big advantage, it's high bioavailability.

    以及結締組織的發育

  • Some of the nutrients in meat are broken down faster and available quicker than those from plants.

    在數月缺乏維他命C後,你會得到壞血病

  • Spinach for example, contains more iron than meat, but it's absorbed much slower

    但肉仍有其它重要的優點, 它高度的生物利用度。

  • and the body needs more energy to digest it.

    與植物來源相較, 肉中的部分營養素可以被更快速的分解與利用

  • Several health benefits have also been observed in communities that rely solely on meat.

    例如菠菜比肉含有更多的鐵, 但吸收就慢上許多,

  • The Inuit for example, are able to survive in extreme climate conditions thanks to a purely meat-based diet.

    也需要耗費更多的能量來消化

  • Since they consume the whole animal including the organs, they get every single nutrient they need

    在完全仰賴肉食的族群, 也可以觀察到一些對健康有益的情況

  • including vitamin C.

    以因紐特人為例,有能力生存於極端氣候, 要歸功於純肉食的飲食。

  • So meat itself is definitely not dangerous for us.

    因為他們食用包含器官的整頭動物, 他們可以獲得每一種所需的營養素,

  • But its health effects vary, depending on how its prepared and what animal it comes from.

    也包含了維他命C

  • When talking about meat in the Western world,

    所以肉食本身對我們是不會有危險的

  • we generally mean muscle tissues that have a high nutrient density,

    但依據烹調方式、以及來自何種動物的不同, 對我們的健康效果也會不同

  • but also lack some of the vitamins that make it possible to survive on meat alone.

    當在西方世界談到肉類

  • The most healthy animals to eat are probably fish.

    我們一般指的是富含營養素的肌肉組織

  • Fish contains polyunsaturated fatty acids like omega-3,

    但依然缺乏某些維生素

  • which may lower the risk of cardiovascular diseases and support anti-inflammatory immune functions.

    使我們無法只靠吃肉生存

  • As part of a balanced diet, fish can be eaten regularly without worries.

    吃起來最健康的動物

  • Eating fish comes with its own bag of complications though,

    應該是魚類吧

  • like overfishing and the destruction of the oceans.

    魚類含有多元不飽和脂肪酸,例如ω-3脂肪酸

  • We'll talk about that in another video.

    其可以降低罹患心血管疾病的風險,

  • A close second is the most popular meat, chicken.

    並維持抗炎性免疫系統的功能運作

  • It's regarded as the meat with the fewest health risks.

    作為均衡飲食的一部分,

  • The only negative health effect of poultry is a bit controversial:

    我們可以安心的經常吃一些魚

  • fat.

    但吃魚也會有一些不好的外部作用

  • It's high content of saturated fats is associated with a higher cholesterol level and cardiovascular disease.

    例如過度捕撈 以及破壞海洋

  • But this idea has also been criticized by a large number of scientists

    我們會在另一部影片談及

  • arguing high cholesterol levels might be inherited and not caused by nutrition.

    第二受歡迎的肉是雞肉

  • So in general, if you want meat and are concerned about your health, go for chicken.

    被認為有著最少的健康風險

  • Things start to get problematic with high intakes of red meats like beef, veal, pork, lamb, horse and goat.

    吃雞唯一不好的副作用是有點爭議的

  • A recently published study recommends for example a maximum of 23 grams of red meat per day

    肥胖問題

  • which is a very small steak per week.

    牠高含量的飽和脂肪酸, 會導致膽固醇過高與心血管疾病

  • However, large-scale meta-analysis studies have shown that eating 100 grams of red meat every day

    但這個概念也被很多科學家批評

  • increases the risk of diabetes by 19%, of strokes by 11% and of colorectal cancer by 17%.

    他們認為膽固醇過高與基因遺傳有關, 而非營養引起

  • This sounds alarming. But before we panic, let's have a look at how these studies were conducted.

    所以一般來說, 如果你想吃肉

  • Because this brings us to the second big problem when trying to answer the question of

    同時也在意自己的健康的話, 吃雞吧!

  • whether meat is unhealthy or not.

    隨著牛肉,小牛肉,豬肉,羊肉,馬和山羊等紅肉的大量攝入,事情開始出現問題。

  • Most studies that linked health risks to eating red meat were case-control studies.

    最近發表的一項研究建議,例如每天最多攝取23克紅肉

  • Which means taking a group of people with a disease and classifying them by their eating habits.

    相當於每週只能吃一塊非常小的牛排

  • The more red meat they consume, the more likely they were to contract certain diseases.

    然而,大規模的分析研究表明,每天吃100克紅肉

  • The problem is that it's very hard to eliminate other factors.

    糖尿病風險增加19%,中風增加11%, 結直腸癌風險增加17%。

  • People who eat less meat tend to live a healthier lifestyle in general.

    這聽起來令人震驚。 但在我們恐慌之前,讓我們來看看這些研究是如何進行的。

  • They tend to eat more vegetables and fruit and are less likely to smoke and drink alcohol.

    因為在試圖回答這問題時將我們帶到了第二個大問題:

  • Most studies try to eliminate these factors, but it's extremely hard to make definitive statements.

    肉是否不健康。

  • Things get worse when we look at processed meat though.

    大多數將健康風險與食用紅肉聯繫起來的研究都是病例對照研究。

  • Processing meat means adding certain chemicals by

    這意味著根據飲食習慣對一群患有疾病的人進行分類。

  • curing, smoking, sorting or fermenting

    他們食用的紅肉越多,越有可能被歸類於罹患某些疾病

  • or in other words making it delicious.

    問題在於,要排除其他因素非常困難。

  • Bacon, ham, salami, sausages and hot dogs contain chemicals that are harmful for us

    少吃肉的人往往過著更健康的生活方式

  • like nitrates and nitrites that can damage the DNA in our digestive system and lead to cancer.

    他們往往會吃更多的蔬菜和水果,且較少吸煙和喝酒。

  • The w-h-o reviewed 800 studies over 20 years,

    大多數研究試圖消除這些因素, 但很難得到明確的結論。

  • and concluded that processed wheat is strongly linked to an increased risk of colorectal cancer.

    當我們看向加工肉類時情況變得更糟。

  • Each extra 50 grams of processed meat per day increases your risk of cancer by 18 percent.

    加工肉類意味著添加某些化學品

  • When it comes to cancer risk, processed meat is now in the same category as plutonium,

    如保存、煙燻、分級、發酵等過程

  • asbestos and smoking.

    或換句話說,讓它變得美味。

  • The w-h-o highlights that it's research is only about the question of whether or not something

    培根,火腿,臘腸,香腸和熱狗含有對我們有害的化學物質

  • causes cancer and not to what extent.

    像硝酸鹽和亞硝酸鹽,可以破壞我們消化系統中的DNA,導致癌症。

  • But processed meat may also significantly increase the chance of suffering from

    世界衛生組織審查了20多年內的800項研究,

  • diabetes, strokes and coronary heart diseases.

    並得出結論,加工肉類與結直腸癌風險增加密切相關。

  • It also makes a difference what sort of life our meat lived when it was still part of a living being.

    每天額外攝取50克加工肉類, 使患癌症的風險增加18%。

  • It's common to feed large amounts of antibiotics to livestock

    在癌症風險方面,加工肉類現在與 鈽 、

  • in order to prevent diseases which can spread antibiotic resistance.

    石棉 、 菸害 屬於同一級別,

  • Combined, a high consumption of both red and processed meat

    世界衛生組織強調,它的研究只涉及

  • could increase your chance of premature death by up to 29%.

    某些因素是否會導致癌症,而不是在多大程度上。

  • This means if your chance of dying is at 3% this year, it's now 4%.

    但加工肉類也可能會顯著增加罹患

  • This might not sound like a lot but tiny percentages have a huge impact on societies of millions.

    糖尿病、中風和心臟病的機率

  • They also seem harmless until they affect you.

    肉類來源的生物,其存活時的生活環境也會造成差別

  • To blame meat alone for bad health would be wrong though.

    向牲畜餵食大量抗生素是很常見的

  • There is no evidence that the very essence of meat has any negative effect beyond it's high fat content.

    為了預防可以傳播抗生素耐藥性的疾病。

  • And even this point is highly contentious.

    加上紅肉和加工肉類的消費量很高

  • Just like with many other pleasures in life, sometimes too much of a good thing is harmful.

    可以使你提早死亡的機率提高29%。

  • Most public health agencies suggest cutting meat consumption to 500 grams a week

    這意味著如果你今年死亡的機率是3%,現在已經達到了4%

  • while studies suggest cutting down processed meat as much as possible.

    這可能聽起來不是很多, 但微小百分比對數百萬人的社會會產生巨大影響。

  • So if you feast on meat no more than once or twice a week, you should be good.

    而且在它們影響你之前,看似很無害。

  • For most people this already means a drastic change in their diets though,

    因為健康狀況不好而責怪肉是錯誤的。

  • The average American consumes around almost 1600 grams of meat a week.

    沒有證據表明肉的本質具有任何負面影響, 除了它的高脂肪含量

  • The average German 1100 grams a week.

    而甚至這一點也是非常有爭議的。

  • And many of us needs much much more.

    就像生活中的許多其他娛樂一樣, 有時太多的好事是有害的。

  • If you're not really sure, make a small note whenever you eat meat for a week or two.

    大多數公共衛生機構建議每週減少500克的肉類攝取

  • You'll be surprised how much it really is.

    而且研究建議盡可能減少加工肉類的攝取

  • So most people watching this video would benefit from cutting down on meat.

    因此,如果你每週吃不超過一或兩次肉, 你應該不太需要擔心。

  • Aside from health concerns,

    而對於大多數人來說,這已經意味著他們的飲食發生了巨大的變化,

  • there's still the fact that the meat industry is one of the largest contributors to climate change

    美國人平均每週消耗近1600克肉

  • and has reached a scale where it's impossible to deliver millions of tons of meat

    德國人平均每週1100克

  • and still treat animals with dignity.

    我們中的許多人甚至吃得更多

  • We've already discussed that in detail in another video.

    如果你不太確定吃了多少, 一或兩星期內每次吃肉時,做個小注記吧!

  • All in all, in moderation, meat is not unhealthy and you don't need to become vegetarian overnight

    你真的會感到驚訝。

  • to have a real impact on your health and the planet.

    因此,觀看此視頻的大多數人, 都能從減少肉類食用中獲益。

  • But your lifestyle choices do matter.

    除了健康問題外,

  • For yourself and for others.

    肉類行業仍然是氣候變化最大的導致者之一

  • The key is being open to trying something new once in a while.

    而且即使達到數百萬噸肉的規模,

  • Maybe you'll discover your new favourite dish.

    仍然無法有尊嚴地對待動物。

  • Until you try you'll never know what you'll enjoy or what you're capable of.

    我們已經在另一部影片中詳細討論了這個問題。

  • Maybe after watching hours of Kurzgesagt videos, you've decided you'd like to learn how to animate.

    總而言之,在適度的情況下, 肉不是不健康的,你並不需要一夜之間改吃素

  • Now you might not know this, but most of our team actually has a graphic design background.

    以對你的健康和地球產生真正的影響。

  • Learning about design principles first before we got into animation was really key to where we are today.

    但你選擇的生活方式很重要。

  • There's a really great new Skillshare class on using Adobe Illustrator,

    為了自己,和其他人。

  • The software we use to create artwork by graphic designer Aaron Draplin

    關鍵是要偶爾嘗試新事物

  • and we can personally recommend it.

    也許你會發現你最喜歡的餐點。

  • It's full of great tips to help understand and simplify a very complicated program.

    在你嘗試之前, 你永遠不會知道你會喜歡什麼或者你能做什麼。

  • If you want to do more afterwards, we have three animation courses of our own on Skillshare too.

    也許在觀看了幾個小時的Kurzgesagt視頻後, 您已經決定要學習如何製作動畫。

  • Skillshare offers over 25,000 classes on topics

    現在您可能不知道這一點, 但我們團隊的大多數人實際上都有圖形設計的背景。

  • like film and video editing, writing, design and technology from an array of skilled experts.

    在我們進入動畫之前, 首先了解設計原則,是我們今天所處的關鍵。

  • With the Premium Membership, you can access all of them for only $10 a month.

    有一個非常棒的 Skillshare 課程, 有關使用Adobe Illustrator,

  • And as a bonus, the first 1000 Kurzgesagt viewers to use the link in the description,

    我們平面設計師Aaron Draplin用來創建藝術品的軟件

  • will get their first two months of Skillshare for free.

    我們可以親自推薦這個課程。

When our vegetarian ancestors started eating meat around two million years ago,

我們吃素的祖先大概在2百萬年前開始吃肉

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B1 中級 中文 英國腔 營養素 健康 維他命 紅肉 風險 飲食

吃肉對身體有害嗎?吃肉不健康嗎? (Is Meat Bad for You? Is Meat Unhealthy?)

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    Kaden Huang 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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