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  • Whenever you go out for dinner or drinks, just know this: your brain is being hacked.

    當你外出用餐或喝一杯時,記住:你的腦袋已經被業者入侵了。

  • Like with most businesses, the goal is to make money.

    和其他企業一樣,餐廳的目的就是賺錢。

  • So it kinda makes sense that restaurants and bars would do whatever they can to get you to spend more of it.

    所以餐廳會想方設法地讓你多花費也算蠻合理的。

  • But there are a lot more ways they can manipulate you than you might realize.

    但還有更多超乎你想像的操作手法。

  • From the adjectives on the menu to the size of the plates, establishments can use all kinds of psychological tricks to influence your behavior.

    從菜單上的形容詞描繪到餐盤的大小,餐飲業能運用各種心理手法影響你的消費行為。

  • Some of them are so hardwired that even after you watch this video, you still might be fooled.

    其中有些是出於本能以致即使你看完這支影片,仍然很有可能被矇騙。

  • But at least, if you know what's happening, there's a chance you can take back control.

    但至少,如果你知道這一切是怎麼運作的,你將有機會拿回消費者的主導權。

  • The mind-hacking begins with the menu.

    消費者心態入侵從菜單開始。

  • For example, have you ever noticed that a lot of restaurants list prices as plain numbers?

    舉例來說,你有注意到很多餐廳的價目表都只列出純數字嗎?

  • Well, there's be like a "15" next to the crab cakes, (with) no dollar sign or any other indication that it's a price.

    像是蟹肉餅旁邊只寫個 15 ,沒附上任何幣值單位告訴你說那是價錢。

  • That's not an authentic choice.

    這看起來可不像個可靠的方法啊。

  • Studies have shown that people spend more when menus don't have dollar signs.

    研究指出當菜單未顯示價錢單位的時候,人們會花費更多。

  • Probably because it keeps you from thinking about how much money your order will cost.

    有可能是因為這麼做能防止你去想你點的菜總共是多少錢。

  • There's also a bit of thought that goes into how the items are listed.

    在餐點的命名上也是有置入一些小巧思的。

  • The options aren't "hamburger" or "baked fish".

    餐點選擇上不會出現單單「漢堡」或是「烤魚」這種字眼。

  • Instead, they're described as "Joe's meaty burger" or "succulent Italian fillet."

    取而代之地,它們會被描述成「喬式多汁肉堡 」或是「義式燴去骨鮮魚」。

  • That is because researchers have found that adding colorful descriptors can increase sales by up to 27%.

    這是因為有研究者發現,增添豐富的描述能助長業績 27 %。

  • So you might want to translate the choices in your head before you decide what to order.

    所以你可能會想在決定點餐前先在腦中翻譯一下你選的餐點。

  • Restaurants and bars can also influence both how much you spend, and how much you consume by using glasses and dishes with certain shapes and sizes.

    餐廳與酒吧也能利用不同形狀大小的杯盤影響你的花費。

  • Something they can do is vary the size of their dishes to take advantage of what's known as the Delboeuf illusion.

    他們能善用所謂的 Delboeuf 大小錯覺的優勢去變化餐盤的大小。

  • Where two identical circles look different based on the size of circles around them.

    這種錯覺讓兩個等大的圓因著它們外圓的大小不同,而看起來大小不一。

  • Not to be confused with the Labeouf illusion, where two identical circles are usually props in a short experimental film.

    可別跟 Labeouf 幻象搞混了,在這個幻象中兩個相同的圓通常是實驗微電影中的道具。

  • In the Delboeuf illusion, if one of the circles is surrounded by a third circle that's just a little bigger, the inside circle will look larger than its twin.

    在 Delboeuf 大小錯覺理論中,如果內圓被第三個稍大一點的外圓環繞,它會比與它一樣大的圓看起來再大一些。

  • But if the outside circle is much bigger, the inside circle will look smaller.

    但如果這個外圓變得超大,內圓看起來則較小。

  • Since food on a plate is essentially a circle of stuff surrounded by the circle of the plate's edge.

    由於餐盤上的食物實際上就是一圈中心食物,外圓環繞著盤緣。

  • This illusion can make the same portion look bigger depending on the size of the plate.

    這種錯覺能讓同等份量的食物,依據餐盤大小而看起來多一些。

  • A 2012 study in the Journal of Consumer Research confirmed this by showing that people overestimate portions when they're using large plates, serving themselves more than they really wanted.

    一則 2012 年《消費者研究期刊》的研究證實了這個理論,顯示人們在使用較大餐盤時會高估他們的食量,攝取多於他們實際欲吃的份量。

  • With small plates, they serve themselves less.

    使用較小的餐盤,則攝取較少。

  • The Delboeuf illusion is so convincing that studies have found you'll actually feel more full when you eat a meal from a smaller dish.

    Delboeuf 大小錯覺的說服力之大以至於你在使用較小餐盤時,會感到比較飽。

  • That's why all-you-can-eat buffets tend to keep their plate very small, so you think you're eating more when you really aren't.

    這是為什麼吃到飽餐廳傾向選用很小的餐盤,以致你以為你吃了很多,但其實並不然。

  • Meanwhile, restaurants where you pay based on what you order tend to serve their entrees on large platters, hoping to convince you that you still have room for dessert.

    同時,依據點餐多寡決定花費的餐廳則傾向將前菜放在較大的盤子裡,好讓你覺得自己還有胃吃甜點。

  • There's also a lot they can do with glassware.

    針對玻璃杯,餐廳也有許多小心機。

  • Research has shown that people are willing to pay much more for drinks, if you match their expectations when it comes to the shape of the glass.

    研究指出人們願意為了酒水多付錢,如果所提供的杯具符合他們期待的話。

  • Because of cultural influences, we tend to think that some drinks simply belong in certain glasses.

    基於文化上的影響,我們往往認為某些飲品就是要用特定的杯子喝。

  • Like a rounder, larger glass for red wines than for whites.

    像是一個杯身較大且圓潤的玻璃杯會更適合裝紅酒而非白酒。

  • And when there's a mismatch, that creates cognitive dissonance.

    而當有搭配錯誤的情況發生,則會產生與認知的分歧。

  • The stress we feel when a situation leads to conflicts between our attitudes, beliefs, or behaviors.

    這股壓迫感會使我們與自己原先的心態、看法及行為產生衝突。

  • You might not think of drinking hot chocolate from a water glass as something that would cause psychological anguish.

    你或許不覺得用玻璃水杯喝熱可可會造成心理上的極大痛苦。

  • But it does!

    但它確實會!

  • Which means we find the overall experience less pleasant, and we don't want to pay as much for it.

    這就意味著如果我們的整體消費經驗不是那麼愉快,我們就不會想多花錢。

  • Certain shapes can also get you to drink faster.

    特定的杯型也能讓你喝得更快。

  • In one study published in PLOS ONE in 2012, researchers found that we drink beer faster from curved glasses than straight ones.

    在 2012 年發表於《公共科學圖書館:綜合》期刊的一則研究中,研究者發現我們喝啤酒時,用曲線杯會比用直筒杯喝來得快。

  • That's probably because our brains tend to judge how much liquid is left based on how far up the glass it reaches.

    或許是因為我們的大腦傾向於由液體的高度去判斷喝剩的水量。

  • Even if the glass is much wider at the top.

    即使杯子的上層比較寬也是一樣。

  • So with a curved glass, it's harder for you to pace yourself.

    因此使用曲線杯的時候,你較難照習慣的步調去判斷。

  • And by the time you think you've finished half your beer, you're actually much more than halfway through.

    而當你喝完半杯的啤酒後,你其實已經喝掉不只一半了。

  • You might end up finishing the beer much faster than you wanted.

    最終你可能會喝得比你想像的還快。

  • And the faster you drink, the faster you need a refill.

    而你喝得越快,你就越快需要續杯。

  • We also tend to think tall, skinny glasses contain more than short, fat ones, even when they don't.

    我們也容易認為細高的玻璃杯裝得比矮胖款的多,即使事實並非如此。

  • Studies have found that we pour more into short, fat glasses, and we drink more from them.

    許多研究發現我們會倒更多到矮胖型的玻璃杯裡,同時也喝得更多。

  • Up to 88% more.

    多達 88 %。

  • That might come from what's known as the horizontal-vertical illusion.

    這可能源自於所謂的垂直水平錯視。

  • Where vertical lines seem longer than horizontal ones.

    其中垂直的物體看起來會比水平的來地長。

  • Psychologists aren't totally sure why the illusion works, but it might be because our visual field is wider than it is tall.

    心理學家並不確定這種錯覺是如何產生的,但可能是因為我們的視野範圍寬度大於高度。

  • So, like, a line of the same length takes up a greater percentage of what we see vertically than it does horizontally, which makes us think it's bigger.

    所以一個等長的物體垂直擺放會比水平擺放佔視野比例更多,使我們覺得它比較大。

  • Restaurants can even influence the way your food or drink tastes based on how they serve it to you.

    餐廳業者可以根據餐點呈現的樣式影響食物的風味。

  • One tactic uses what's known as shape symbolism, where we associate roundness with sweetness.

    一個常用的策略被稱為形態象徵,在其中我們會將圓潤的形狀與甜味做聯想。

  • And angles with bitterness.

    而有稜有角的形狀則與苦味有關。

  • Like with the horizontal-vertical illusion, we're not sure why this is.

    如同垂直水平錯視,我們不確定這現象的成因。

  • But it's possible that we conflate bitterness and physical sharpness because they can both be signs of danger.

    但或許我們將苦味與尖銳物相連結是因為兩者都可以是危險的象徵。

  • Whatever the reason, shape symbolism makes us perceive chocolate cut into rounds as sweeter than the exact same bar in chunks.

    不論原因為何,形態象徵使我們認為同一條巧克力切成圓形會比切成塊狀來的甜。

  • Or beer from a curved glass as fruitier.

    或是曲線杯裝的啤酒喝起來比較香甜。

  • And that's just the beginning.

    而這只不過是個開始。

  • A lot of flavor manipulation comes from a phenomenon called sensation transference.

    許多食物風味上的操弄源自於一個叫感知轉移的現象。

  • Where we transfer the properties of the plateware or utensil to the food we eat from it.

    意思是我們會將碗盤或餐具的特性轉移到我們所要吃的食物上。

  • So for example, if you want to make soda taste cooler and more refreshing, you can put it in a cool-colored container.

    所以舉例來說,如果你想讓汽水喝起來沁涼的話,你可以將它裝在一個清涼顏色的容器裡。

  • A tip: Pepsi took the heart.

    參考指南:百事可樂懂消費者的心。

  • Even the heft of your cutlery can make a difference.

    就連刀叉的重量都能帶來不同的影響。

  • Since we automatically associate weight with quality.

    由於我們會自然而然地將重量聯想到品質。

  • We'll think yogurt tastes better when we're eating it with a silver spoon than when we eat it with a plastic one.

    我們會覺得用銀匙吃優格會比用塑膠湯匙吃來得好吃。

  • And of course, as Iron Chef taught me, plating also matters.

    而當然,如同《鐵板教父》裡教會我的,擺盤也很重要。

  • In one study, researchers presented 60 people with a salad of the exact same ingredients tossed;

    在一則研究當中,研究者在 60 位受試者前呈上一盤有著相同佐料瓣醬;

  • neatly sorted, or arranged to look like a famous Kandinsky painting.

    擺盤簡潔或是擺的像 Kandinsky (俄國知名畫家) 的畫一樣的沙拉。

  • Before they even tried it, participants said they knew they'd like the artistic salad more.

    就連在他們嚐鮮之前,受試者就說他們知道自己會比較喜歡有藝術感的那盤沙拉。

  • And ultimately, they rated it 29% tastier than the other salads.

    而最終,受試者給藝術擺盤的美味度評分較一般擺盤高出 29 %。

  • So if you're trying to reduce how much you eat and drink, or how much you spend,

    所以如果你正嘗試減少你的飲食攝取或是花費。

  • You might want to keep an eye out for some of these tricks the next time you go out to eat.

    下次外出用餐時你可能會想更注意這些商人的把戲。

  • Or meet up at the bar with your friends.

    或跟朋友相約在酒吧時也是如此。

  • Because practically everything about that place is trying to sell you something.

    因為事實上有關餐廳的一切都是想要賣你東西。

  • Thanks for watching this episode of SciShow Psych!

    感謝收看本集的 SciShow Psych!

  • If you're interested in learning more about ways businesses use psychology to manipulate people.

    如果你有興趣了解更多有關企業運用心理學操控消費者的方式的話。

  • You can check out our video about the tactics advertisers used to persuade you.

    你可以看看我們有關廣告商用策略說服你的影片。

Whenever you go out for dinner or drinks, just know this: your brain is being hacked.

當你外出用餐或喝一杯時,記住:你的腦袋已經被業者入侵了。

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B1 中級 中文 美國腔 餐廳 錯覺 玻璃杯 消費者 花費 研究

在餐廳吃飯總是花很多錢?餐廳行銷心理學報你知!(How Restaurants Use Psychology to Make You Spend More Money)

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    Joyce Chiou 發佈於 2019 年 08 月 13 日
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