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  • Chances are you might have heard about China's new social credit system.

    你可能有聽過中國的社會信用系統。

  • You knowthe thing people are calling a scary dystopian surveillance program right out of George Orwell's book '1984.'

    就是那個出自 George Orwell 的書【一九八四】,大家稱之為反烏托邦監視系統的程式。

  • "It's almost like they're exporting dystopia."

    「他們幾乎是在把反烏托邦帶進現實。」

  • "China's dystopian future. The world's first digital dictatorship."

    「中國邁向反烏托邦的未來,全球第一個數位獨裁政權。」

  • It's been painted as a countrywide surveillance program that watches every single thing that you do.

    社會信用系統被全中國用來作為監管程式,你的一舉一動都會受到監視。

  • From what you're posting online to the way that you cross a street.

    從你在網路上的貼文,到你在街上走路的方式。

  • But what would you say if I told you that a country-wide behavioral monitoring system is NOT actually a thing in China?

    但如果我告訴你,這個全國性的行為監視系統在中國其實還沒開始盛行呢?

  • Well not yet, at least.

    至少,現在還沒。

  • So China wants to set up a massive, state-sanctioned system that would rank every citizen based on their behavior.

    中國想要建立一個廣大的、國家核准的系統,這個系統會依照每一位公民的行為將他們分等。

  • "So basically it's meant as a tool to enforce all kinds of different laws, regulations, and other policies more effectively."

    「基本上社會信用系統是一套讓執行不同法律、規範與政策更有效的工具。」

  • "By getting people to self-police their behavior."

    「讓人民監督自己的行為。」

  • "People and also legal entities, like companies."

    「監督人民,以及法律個體,例如企業。」

  • "So this is not just about regulating people's behavior, but also companies."

    「所以這不只是在規範人們的行為,也是監督企業行為。」

  • Behavior considered 'good' by the government would get a better ranking than behavior deemed 'bad', which would get a lower ranking.

    政府若認為該公民「行為優良」,就會獲得更高的排名;若被認為「行為不優」則將列入較低的排名。

  • And if you have a bad score, you get punished.

    而且如果你的社會信用成績不好,還會被懲罰。

  • You could be banned from flying.

    你可能會被禁止出境。

  • Your kids could be prevented from attending good schools.

    你的孩子可能會被限制,無法到較好的學校就讀。

  • And you could even lose out on a good job.

    你可能還會在一份好工作中失利。

  • And when reports of the system hit Western media, some people were terrified.

    而當社會信用系統的新聞傳入西方國家,許多人嚇壞了。

  • They compared the proposed system to that crazy episode of 'Black Mirror'.

    他們將這個系統與「黑鏡」裡其中一集的荒謬劇情做比較。

  • But the idea of a credit system that tracks you in certain ways;

    但信用系統透過某些方式追蹤你;

  • To determine how much or how little access you should have to certain things isn't new at all.

    或是決定你能在哪些事情上擁有多少權利,這樣的概念其實並不新穎。

  • Take the United States, for example.

    以美國為例好了。

  • It has a financial credit system where a number of different factors determine your credit score.

    美國的金融信用系統中,多種不同因素會決定你的信用成績。

  • If you don't have a good score, you can be denied housing, loans, or lines of credit.

    如果你的信用成績不佳,可能會面臨拒絕居住、申請貸款或信貸遭拒。

  • And although it has its problems, it does serve a purpose.

    雖然這個系統有它的問題,但它的存在是有目的的。

  • It helps determine whether someone can be trusted to repay their debts.

    它能幫我們決定一個人若償還債務是否值得被信任。

  • In China, the world's most populous country and second-largest economy, there hasn't been anything like that.

    在中國這個全球人口最多、世界第二大經濟體中,未曾出現過金融信用系統。

  • So their proposal? The social credit system.

    所以他們的提案是什麼?社會信用系統。

  • But China took the idea of credit one step further.

    但中國將信用的概念更進一步地執行。

  • On June 14 2014, the Chinese government formally announced its plans to create their social credit system.

    2014 年 6 月 14 日,中國政府正式宣佈其建立社會信用系統的計畫。

  • A policy it deemed essential in "Building a harmonious, socialist society".

    中國政府認定此為「構建社會主義和諧社會」不可或缺的一套系統。

  • "The way that this is presented in Chinese media is that, you know, China is a low trust society."

    「中國媒體帶來的觀感是,他們是一個低信用社會。」

  • "There is no trust between market participants."

    「市場參與者之間毫無信任。」

  • "Like, you can't really tell if a company or person's trustworthy, if they'll pay back the money."

    「你沒有辦法分辨一個公司或人是否值得信任,你不知道他們會不會償還你的錢。」

  • "So this social credit system is kind of presented as a cure-all of China's trust-based and supposed dishonesty-based problems."

    「所以這個社會信用系統有點像是中國針對信用與不實問題的萬靈丹。」

  • And under their proposed system, all behavior, not just financial, would be considered relevant in your ranking.

    而在這個系統底下,所有行為—不只金融方面,都會和你的排名相關。

  • So if you're caught doing things like jaywalking;

    所以如果你被抓到過馬路時闖紅燈;

  • Spending too much time playing video games;

    花太多時間玩線上遊戲;

  • Or posting things deemed inappropriate on social media, you could get penalized.

    或是在社群媒體上發布政府認為「不恰當」的內容,都有可能被罰。

  • But the exact methodology that the state will use to determine what is and isn't relevant remains unknown.

    但中國政府分辨哪些事情是否相關的確切準則與方法仍是未知數。

  • And that is probably because the government is still figuring out how they want this system to be implemented country-wide.

    這大概是因為政府還在思考如何將這套系統套用至全國各地執行。

  • "There are a number of cities that have kind of been designated as experimental zones in a way."

    「有好幾個城市某方面來說,已被指定成為實驗區。」

  • "Which is very common in China, that's often how Chinese policies are rolled out."

    「這在中國很常見,也經常是他們推出新政策的方式。」

  • "You try them out in certain districts, counties, and cities first and then you roll them out."

    「他們會先在特定的區域、縣或城市進行試驗,之後再推出新政策。」

  • And those pilots programs vary, some of them aren't as extreme as others.

    這些實驗計畫很多樣,有些沒有那麼極端。

  • There are those that aren't even digitally-based.

    有些計畫根本還沒數位化。

  • Meaning individuals have to be caught breaking the law or doing something deemed inappropriate in person.

    也就是這些人要真正被抓到觸法或做出政府認為不恰當的行為。

  • Or have someone report on them.

    或者被其他人檢舉。

  • And then there are those that monitor someone's social media and movement through camera systems.

    有些實驗計畫則會錄像系統監控民眾的社群媒體活動。

  • And Ohlberg says, in some pilots, those who 'exhibit desired behaviors' get good grades and:

    Ohlberg 也說,在一些實驗計畫裡,那些「行為表現符合期望」的人會獲得較佳的成績,並且:

  • "Supposedly those people are also treated differently."

    「照理來說,這些人還會擁有較好的待遇。」

  • "If they have, like, an A or an AAA, they kind of get preferential treatment and interaction with government ministries with the local government."

    「假設他們的成績是 A,或是 AAA,他們可能就擁有優先待遇,或是能和政府部門與地方政府交流。」

  • "And in the future, an increasing number of different benefits."

    「而在未來,還會增加一系列、多種利益。」

  • But just because it's not currently as widespread or problematic as Western media has made it out to be;

    但即便社會信用系統現階段不如西方媒體所說的,普及或問題重重;

  • Doesn't mean that there aren't significant ways the system could be misused.

    不代表這個系統不會被嚴重濫用。

  • "On the one hand it's supposed to make sure that companies that violate environmental regulations;"

    「一方面社會信用系統應該確保那些違反環境規章的企業;」

  • "Or labor regulations get punished for that."

    「或是違反勞工規範的企業會受罰。」

  • "But on the other hand it's also supposed to enforce very vague laws such as endangering national security."

    「但另一方面社會信用系統也會用來執行那些處於灰色地帶的法律,像是危及國家安全。」

  • Laws that, if used maliciously, can be used to target citizens.

    這些法律若是惡意使用,可能會被用來針對一般民眾。

  • We know that China has targeted and detained large numbers of ethnic Uyghur Muslims, placing them in government re-education camps.

    我們都知道中國針對並關押了維吾爾族穆斯林,將他們送大批送進政府的再教育營。

  • And even though the Western media is sensationalizing the hell out of this story;

    而且雖然西方媒體都以極為聳動的方式報導社會信用系統;

  • It is possible that once a nationwide credit system is implemented in China, it could be extremely problematic.

    一但全國性的信用系統在中國開始生效,它很有可能造成極大的問題。

  • "Ultimately the idea that different governments or companies collect and centralize information about us;"

    「不同政府或企業搜集並集中我們的資訊;」

  • "Try to profile us, try to rate us, ultimately is a problem that's going to affect all of us, Chinese or not."

    「嘗試剖析我們、嘗試將我們分等,這最終會成為問題並將影響全部人,不論我們是不是中國人。」

  • "Because even though what China is doing is kind of the extreme of this;"

    「因為即使中國實施社會信用系統的方式比較極端;」

  • "Ultimately it's a global problem that we are going to have to deal with."

    「它最終會成為一個全球性問題,我們都必須解決的問題。」

  • What do you think of the idea of a social credit system?

    你對社會信用系統的概念有什麼想法?

  • Do you think it's a necessary step that needs to be taken?

    你覺得這是我們必須採取的必要措施嗎?

  • Or do you think it's just an overreach by the Chinese government?

    還是你認為這只是中國政府過於野心勃勃,不自量力的產物?

  • Make sure to let me know what you think in the comments below.

    記得在底下留言區分享你的看法喔!

  • Thanks for watching Now This World and please don't forget to like and subscribe for more every week.

    謝謝你們收看 Now This World,記得按讚並訂閱我們的頻道,才能每週看更多新影片喔。

Chances are you might have heard about China's new social credit system.

你可能有聽過中國的社會信用系統。

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黑鏡劇情成真!中國的社會信用系統是什麼? (What Is China's Social Credit System? | NowThis World)

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    Celeste 發佈於 2019 年 07 月 18 日
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