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  • Sadie Pfeifer was 9 years old when this photo was taken.

    這張照片被拍下來時,Sadie Pfeifer 才 9 歲。

  • Operating heavy machinery that's nearly twice her height in a cotton mill in Lancaster, South Carolina, in 1908.

    1908 年,在南加州蘭開斯特的棉紡廠,她操作著比她高上兩倍的機器。

  • She was just one of many children working in mills, fields, factories, and mines.

    她還只是其中一個在製造廠、田地、工廠和礦井工作的孩子。

  • And although these kids were spread across the United States, working in separate industries, they all had one thing in common.

    雖然這些童工散佈在全美各處,為不同企業賣命工作,但他們有一個共通點。

  • They all met Lewis Hine.

    他們都見過 Lewis Hine。

  • At the turn of the 20th century, the United States knew it had a child labor problem.

    在即將邁入 20 世紀時,美國人知道它們有童工的問題。

  • The 1900 federal census revealed that 1.75 million children under the age of 16, more than one in five, were working at this time.

    1900 年,聯邦調查統計當時 16 歲以下的童工有 175 萬人,每 5 個之中就超過 1 個。

  • The Industrial Revolution had mechanized American and European manufacturing, and a cheap labor force was needed to complete repetitive tasks for hours on end.

    工業大革命讓美國和歐洲的製造業工業化,他們開始需要低廉的勞動力來執行重複的動作好幾個小時。

  • Children from poor families were targeted for these jobs because they would work for next to nothing and were less likely to strike than adults 

    來自貧困家庭的孩子就是這些工作的主力,因為他們願意為微薄的薪資工作,罷工的機率跟成年人比起來也較低。

  • State legislatures and the American public knew this was happening on a mass scale, but didn't act.

    各州議會跟美國大眾都知道童工問題正大規模上演,但沒有人採取任何行動。

  • Until they saw what it actually looked like.

    直到他們看見他們這些模樣。

  • Starting in 1908, the newly formed National Child Labor Committee hired a photographer to investigate and report on the industries employing children.

    自 1908 年起,新成立的國家童工委員會雇用了攝影師,來調查並回報企業雇用童工的情況。

  • That photographer was Lewis Wickes Hine: educator, sociologist, and member of the Progressive Movement.

    這位攝影師就是 Lewis Wickes Hine,他是一名教育家、社會學家,也是進步運動的一員。

  • A period in the United States that saw a wave of political activism and social reform.

    在此時期,美國正在經歷一波政治運動和社會改革的浪潮。

  • Hine emphasized the potential power of photography as a tool for social reform in a speech he gave in 1909 called "Social photography: how the camera may help."

    在 1909 的演說《攝影社會:相機如何幫助我們》,Hine 強調攝影作為社會改革工具的潛在力量。

  • He said, The dictum, then, of the social worker is "Let there be light;" and in this campaign for light we have for our advance agent the light-writerthe photograph.

    他說:社會工作者的格言就是「要有光」,在這起「尋光」的運動中,為我們發聲的代理人就是「攝影」。

  • He traveled extensively, gathering information, interviews, and images of working children across the country.

    他為此四處在美國奔波、收集資訊、進行訪談,並拍攝孩童工作的照片。

  • He visited coal mines in Pennsylvania.

    他訪視賓州的煤礦場。

  • Where adolescent "breaker boys" worked underground for hours, separating impurities from coal.

    正值青春期的採礦工人在地底下工作數小時,將雜質從煤中分離出來。

  • Sardine cutters in Maine.

    在緬因州切割沙丁魚的孩子。

  • Oyster shuckers in Louisiana, some as young as 4 years old.

    在路易斯安那州剝牡蠣的孩子,有些年紀才 4 歲這麼小。

  • Tobacco pickers in Kentucky.

    在肯塔基州採收菸草的孩子。

  • Cranberry pickers in Massachusetts.

    在麻薩諸塞州採收蔓越莓的孩子。

  • Beet farms in Colorado.

    在科羅拉多州的甜菜農場。

  • And young messengers and newsboys in cities all over the country.

    在全國各個城市的小小信差和小小送報人。

  • Many of the photos captured adults nearby, supervising the children as they worked.

    許多照片都捕捉到這些孩子附近站著大人,監督他們工作。

  • When Hine wasn't allowed access to the mills and factories, he waited outside and documented the comings and goings of its workers, whose shifts often lasted late into the night.

    當 Hine 不被允許進入製造廠或工廠時,他就會坐在外面,記錄下來來往往的工人們,他們通常都到很晚才輪班。

  • Laborers would pose for portraits and tell Hine a bit about themselves, their wages, and their work conditions.

    這些勞工會擺姿勢給 Hine 拍照,並告訴他一些自己的事,像是他們的薪資或工作狀況。

  • Sometimes they showed their horrific injuries and described what happened.

    有時他們會給他看那些可怕的傷口,並告訴他事發經過。

  • Like this boy from Bessemer City, North Carolina, whose hand got crushed in the gears of a cotton spinner.

    這名來自北加州貝瑟默城的小男孩,他的手就被棉紡織機的齒輪碾碎。

  • We know that because each photo, numbering over 5,000, includes a detailed caption written by Hine.

    我們會知道這些細節是因為在這 5000 多張照片中,都有 Hine 詳細記下的說明文字。

  • Hine coined the term "photo stories" to describe this marriage of images and text.

    他自創「用照片說故事」這個詞,來形容圖片和文字的結合。

  • And it's a big part of how the photos humanized the lives of child laborers to an indifferent public.

    圖文並茂的作法將童工的生活賦予人性,並讓冷漠的社會大眾看見。

  • But it's also his photographic technique that makes them feel so personal.

    但這也是因為他的攝影技術,才讓看到這些相片的人感同身受。

  • Let's use the photos of cotton mill workers like Sadie as an example.

    讓我們用棉紡織廠的工人 Sadie 來做個例子。

  • First, many of these photos are framed the exact same way, just substituting a different worker.

    首先,有很多相片的架構都如出一轍,只是換了不一樣的童工。

  • Hine was trying to show that each child's experience was part of a widespread problem, and the repetition in the images signals that.

    Hine 試著表現每個孩子的經驗都屬於這個普遍問題的一部分,而每張相片的重複之處便突顯了這個特質。

  • You can really see how intentional the framing is when you look at how the image of Sadie appeared when it was first published in a Progressive magazine, in 1909.

    Sadie 的照片首度在 1909 年出版的《進步》雜誌中亮相,其中你會發現她的照片很刻意地被安排過。

  • It's opposite a nearly identical photo of a different worker, set so that the symmetry of the two images makes the machinery seem to go on and on.

    照片的對面是另一張幾乎一模一樣的照片,只是是另一名工人,這兩張照片對稱的排版,會讓機器看起來好像是一台接著一台,無盡地延伸。

  • The left-hand caption says, "Spinner. A type of many in the mill."

    左手邊的標題寫著:紡紗工,眾多紡織廠的其中一個。

  • Hine's photographs are also shot with a very shallow depth of field, which basically means a narrow part of the photo is in focus, and the rest is blurred out.

    Hine 常以「淺景深」的手法拍攝,意思是離照片較近的物體會被聚焦,其餘則會變得模糊。

  • A photo with a deep depth of field would look like this one by Jacob Riis, who was photographing New York City slums around the same time.

    深景深的照片看起來會像 Jacob Riis 拍攝的這張,他在同時期拍攝紐約的貧民區。

  • Notice how the playground in the background is in focus, just like the kids in the foreground.

    有注意到背景的運動場連同跟前景的孩子一起聚焦了嗎?

  • Now look at Hine's portraits.

    再來看看 Hine 的人像。

  • In this one, the factory this boy works at looms behind him, but it's almost totally blurred out.

    在這張照片中,這個小男孩工作的工廠在他後方若隱若現,但基本上已經完全糊掉了。

  • This was a recurring visual themeto include the machinery or the workplace in the frame, but obscure it, favoring the worker instead.

    這是一種再現的視覺主題,照片中雖然也包含了機器或工作場所,但卻只突顯工人,將背景模糊化。

  • This narrow point of focus, combined with shooting from a lower angle.

    聚焦在一個點,並搭配由低角度拍攝的手法。

  • The eye level of these children is why these images are so effective at humanizing their subjects.

    這些孩子的視線高度就是照片在人性化主體這方面如此成功的原因。

  • Photos like the ones from the South Carolina cotton mills changed the public perception of child labor in the United States,

    這張在南卡羅萊納州的棉紡廠所拍攝的照片,改變了美國大眾對童工的認知。

  • Ultimately pressuring state legislatures to introduce laws regulating work for those under the age of 18 and sending kids back to school.

    終於讓各州議會設立法律,規範 18 歲以下的童工,讓孩子回到學校上學。

  • Lewis Hine went on to photograph the construction of the Empire State Building in New York City, using the same dignifying techniques he photographed child laborers with.

    Lewis Hine 運用能夠替人像增添威嚴的拍攝手法,拍攝興建中的紐約帝國大廈,就如同他當初在拍攝童工一樣。

  • Considering the perspective of his subjects with a narrow focus, emphasizing the worker, not the machinery.

    考量到聚焦的方法來呈現主體的視角,他強調的是工人,而非背景。

  • Hine was one of the first to use a camera as a tool for social documentary, to shine a light on the mostly unseen.

    Hine 是將相機作為工具來拍攝社會紀錄片的第一批人,照亮那些不被大多數人所見的陰暗角落。

  • He understood early on the power images have to tell stories.

    他早前就了解,那些富有影響力的照片要能夠說故事。

  • As he said in that 1909 speech: Take the photograph of a tiny spinner in a Carolina cotton mill.

    如同他在 1909 年的演說中說到:拍下羅萊納州紡織廠那小小紡織工的身影。

  • With a picture thus, sympathetically interpreted, what a lever we have for the social uplift.

    當人們以充滿同情心的方式來詮釋一張照片,我們就有了一支可以提升整體社會的槓桿。

  • Hey everyone, that was Darkroom season 1!

    大家好,這是「暗房」的第一季。

  • I'm going to take a break from it and work on some other stuff, like History Club with Phil.

    我要暫時先從這個系列休息一下,改拍其他影片,像是跟 Phil 一起拍「歷史俱樂部」。

  • If there are photos you think would make good stories for the next season, make sure to leave a comment below.

    如果你手邊有可以提供給下一季的優質照片,別忘了在下方留言區留言。

  • In the meantime, if you're looking for more great videos on photography in history, check out the documentary "The Man Who Shot Tutankhamun", available on CuriosityStream.

    如果你剛好也在尋找歷史方面的攝影好片,你可以看看這部紀錄片「射殺圖坦卡門的男人」,目前在 CuriosityStream 上映。

  • CuriosityStream is a subscription streaming service that offers thousands of documentaries and nonfiction titles from some of the world's best filmmakers.

    CuriosityStream 是訂閱串流服務,裡面提供了幾千部製片大師製作的紀錄片和紀實作品。

  • You can get unlimited access starting at $2.99 a monthand because you're a Vox fan, the first 31-days are free if you sign up at curiositystream.com/Vox and use the promo code "vox."

    你第一個月花費 2.99 美元無限觀看,但因為你是 Vox 的粉絲,只要你到 curiositystream.com/Vox 註冊,並使用我們的優惠碼「vox」,你前 31 天就可以免費使用。

  • Curiosity Stream doesn't impact our editorial, but their support makes videos like this one possible.

    Curiosity Stream 沒有影響我們的編輯自主權,但有他們的贊助,我們才能做出這支影片。

  • So go check them out!

    去看看吧!

Sadie Pfeifer was 9 years old when this photo was taken.

這張照片被拍下來時,Sadie Pfeifer 才 9 歲。

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B1 中級 中文 美國腔 Vox 照片 拍攝 孩子 工人 攝影

【人權教育】拯救美國童工的不是政府,而是這位用照片說故事的攝影師 (These photos ended child labor in the US)

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    Vvn Chen 發佈於 2019 年 07 月 27 日
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