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  • So, on the day after the Brexit vote,

    在英國脫歐公投後的次日,

  • in June 2016,

    那時是 2016 年 6 月,

  • when Britain woke up to the shock

    英國人從夢中驚醒過來,

  • of discovering that we're leaving the European Union,

    發現我們即將離開歐盟。

  • my editor at the "Observer" newspaper in the UK

    我們英國衛報的編輯

  • asked me to go back to South Wales, where I grew up, and to write a report.

    派我回到南威爾斯去寫個報導, 那裡是我成長的地方。

  • And so I went to a town called Ebbw Vale.

    於是我去到了一個叫做 埃布韋爾的小鎮。

  • Here it is.

    就是地圖上這個地方。

  • It's in the South Wales Valleys, which is this quite special place.

    它位於南威爾斯谷, 是個很特別的地方。

  • So it's had this very, sort of rich, working-class culture,

    這裡充滿著工薪階層的文化,

  • and it's famous for its Welsh male voice choirs and rugby and its coal.

    最著名的是威爾斯男聲合唱團、
 橄欖球,還有煤礦。

  • But when I was a teenager, the coal mines and the steelworks closed,

    但在我的青少年時期,
 煤礦和鋼鐵廠都關閉了,

  • and the entire area was devastated.

    整個地區遭受非常嚴重的挫敗。

  • And I went there because it had one of the highest "Leave" votes in the country.

    我去那裡是因為該地區 「贊成」脫歐率居全國之冠。

  • Sixty-two percent of the people here voted to leave the European Union.

    有 62% 的人贊成離開歐盟。

  • And I wanted to know why.

    我想知道為什麼。

  • When I got there, I was just a bit taken aback,

    到那裡之後,我有點吃驚,

  • because the last time I went to Ebbw Vale,

    因為上一回我到埃布韋爾時,

  • it looked like this.

    它看起來是這付模樣。

  • And now, it looks like this.

    而現在看起來是這個樣子。

  • This is a new 33-million-pound college of further education

    這是新建的高等教育學院, 花了 3300 萬英鎊,

  • that was mostly funded by the European Union.

    資金主要由歐盟提供。

  • And this is the new sports center

    這是新的運動中心,

  • that's at the middle of 350-million-pound regeneration project

    含在 3.5 億英鎊的重建項目內,

  • that's being funded by the European Union.

    由歐盟出資。

  • And this is the new 77-million-pound road-improvement scheme,

    這是 7700 萬英鎊的 新建道路改善計劃,

  • and there's a new train line, a new railway station,

    還有新的鐵道和新的車站,

  • and they're all being funded by the European Union.

    通通都由歐盟出資。

  • And it's not as if any of this is a secret,

    這些可不是秘密,

  • because there's big signs like this everywhere.

    因為到處都有這樣的大標示:

  • [EU Funds: Investing in Wales]

    【歐盟基金:投資威爾斯】

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • I had this sort of weird sense of unreality,

    我帶著這種如夢似幻的不真實感

  • walking around the town.

    走在這個鎮上。

  • And it came to a head

    就在這個時候,

  • when I met this young man in front of the sports center.

    我在運動中心前面遇到一個年輕人。

  • And he told me that he had voted to leave,

    他告訴我他投票贊成脫歐,

  • because the European Union had done nothing for him.

    因為歐盟對他毫無作為。

  • He was fed up with it.

    他受夠了。

  • And all around town, people told me the same thing.

    鎮上處處都有人對我說同樣的話。

  • They said that they wanted to take back control,

    他們宣稱要取回掌控權,

  • which was one of the slogans in the campaign.

    那是脫歐行動宣傳的口號之一。

  • And they told me that they were most fed up

    他們告訴我主要是

  • with the immigrants and with the refugees.

    他們受夠了移民和難民。

  • They'd had enough.

    他們真的受夠了。

  • Which was odd.

    這非常奇怪。

  • Because walking around, I didn't meet any immigrants or refugees.

    因為我走來走去,
 沒遇到半個移民或是難民。

  • I met one Polish woman who told me

    我遇到了一個波蘭的婦人告訴我

  • she was practically the only foreigner in town.

    事實上她是鎮上唯一的外國人。

  • And when I checked the figures,

    我去查了數字,

  • I discovered that Ebbw Vale actually has

    發現埃布韋爾事實上

  • one of the lowest rates of immigration in the country.

    是全英國
移民率最低的地方之一。

  • And so I was just a bit baffled,

    我百思不得其解,

  • because I couldn't really understand

    因為我全然不知道

  • where people were getting their information from.

    這裡的人是從哪兒得到資訊的。

  • Because it was the right-wing tabloid newspapers

    因為那些是右翼的小報紙

  • which printed all these stories about immigration.

    所報導的移民故事。

  • And this is a very much left-wing Labour stronghold.

    而這裡絕大部分人是左翼的勞工。

  • But then after the article came out, this woman got in touch with me.

    文章見報之後,
有位女士聯繫我。

  • And she was from Ebbw Vale,

    她是埃布韋爾人,

  • and she told me about all this stuff that she'd seen on Facebook.

    她告訴我她從臉書上看到的訊息。

  • I was like, "What stuff?"

    我納悶:「看到什麼呀?」

  • And she said it was all this quite scary stuff about immigration,

    她說是那些關於移民的恐怖故事,

  • and especially about Turkey.

    尤其是關於土耳其的。

  • So I tried to find it.

    於是我試著去找出來到底是什麼。

  • But there was nothing there.

    但是根本找不到任何東西。

  • Because there's no archive of ads that people had seen

    因為那些人看過的廣告沒被存檔,

  • or what had been pushed into their news feeds.

    推播給他們的新聞也沒被存檔。

  • No trace of anything, gone completely dark.

    沒任何痕跡,沒一點影子。

  • And this referendum that will have this profound effect forever on Britain --

    而此次公投的結果
將會 對英國造成永久的影響——

  • it's already had a profound effect:

    它已經影響深切:

  • the Japanese car manufacturers that came to Wales and the north east

    以前日本車廠到威爾斯 和英國東北部來設廠,

  • to replace the mining jobs --

    取代了採煤的工作——

  • they are already going because of Brexit.

    因為英國要脫歐, 日本車廠已經在撤出了。

  • And this entire referendum took place in darkness,

    這整個公投在暗中發生,

  • because it took place on Facebook.

    因為是發生在臉書上,

  • And what happens on Facebook stays on Facebook,

    而臉書上發生的事留在臉書裡頭,

  • because only you see your news feed, and then it vanishes,

    因為只有你看得到推播給你的新聞,
 之後那些新聞就完全消失了,

  • so it's impossible to research anything.

    所以根本無法研究任何東西。

  • So we have no idea who saw what ads

    我們完全不知道誰看了那些廣告,

  • or what impact they had,

    那些廣告造成什麼樣的影響,

  • or what data was used to target these people.

    或是哪些資料被運用到
那些 被設定為目標人群的身上。

  • Or even who placed the ads, or how much money was spent,

    甚至不知道是什麼人 花了多少錢置放那些廣告,

  • or even what nationality they were.

    甚至不知道他們到底是哪一國人。

  • But Facebook does.

    然而臉書知道這些答案。

  • Facebook has these answers,

    臉書瞭然於胸,

  • and it's refused to give them to us.

    卻拒絕讓我們曉得這些答案。

  • Our parliament has asked Mark Zuckerberg multiple times to come to Britain

    英國國會多次要求 馬克·祖克柏來英國

  • and to give us these answers.

    提供我們這些答案,

  • And every single time, he's refused.

    每一次他都拒絕了。

  • And you have to wonder why.

    你必然會納悶到底為什麼。

  • Because what I and other journalists have uncovered

    因為我和其他記者已經發現

  • is that multiple crimes took place during the referendum.

    在公投期間發生了多起罪行,

  • And they took place on Facebook.

    發生在臉書上。

  • It's because in Britain, we limit the amount of money

    因為我們英國 限制選舉可花費的金額。

  • that you can spend in an election.

    這是因為在 19 世紀時

  • And it's because in the 19th century,

    有人推著一整車的現金

  • people would walk around with literally wheelbarrows of cash

    去買票。

  • and just buy voters.

    因此我們訂立嚴格的法律 不讓這樣的情形再度發生。

  • So we passed these strict laws to stop that from happening.

    但是這些法律現在已經不適用了。

  • But those laws don't work anymore.

    此次公投幾乎全在線上舉行。

  • This referendum took place almost entirely online.

    不管你花多少錢在臉書、 谷歌
或 YouTube 上頭做廣告,

  • And you can spend any amount of money on Facebook or on Google or on YouTube ads

    沒有人會知道,
 因為那些根本就是黑箱。

  • and nobody will know, because they're black boxes.

    因此就發生了這情況。

  • And this is what happened.

    事實上我們根本不知道 牽涉有多廣。

  • We've actually got no idea of the full extent of it.

    但我們知道在即將舉行 英國脫歐公投的前幾天,

  • But we do know that in the last days before the Brexit vote,

    那個推動脫歐運動的正式機構

  • the official "Vote Leave" campaign

    擲下將近 75 萬英鎊,

  • laundered nearly three quarters of a million pounds

    透過另一個競選單位洗錢,

  • through another campaign entity

    被我們的選務機關判定為非法,

  • that our electoral commission has ruled was illegal,

    並已提報給警察機關。

  • and it's referred it to the police.

    該機構用這些非法的資金

  • And with this illegal cash,

    大量散佈假資訊。

  • "Vote Leave" unleashed a fire hose of disinformation.

    像這樣的廣告。

  • Ads like this.

    【土耳其的 7600 萬人加入歐盟】

  • [Turkey's 76m people joining the EU]

    這是謊言,全然的謊言。

  • This is a lie, it's a total lie.

    土耳其沒要加入歐盟。

  • Turkey is not joining the European Union.

    事實上連「討論」加入歐盟都沒有。

  • There's not even any discussions of it joining the European Union.

    我們大多數人從未見過這樣的廣告,

  • And most of us, we never saw these ads,

    因為這些廣告的目標不是我們。

  • because we were not the target of them.

    「脫歐」廣告針對少數特定的人,

  • "Vote Leave" identified a tiny sliver of people

    那些他們判定容易被說動的人。

  • who it identified as persuadable, and they saw them.

    而我們現在看得到這些的唯一原因

  • And the only reason we are seeing these now

    是因為國會強迫臉書交出來。

  • is because parliament forced Facebook to hand them over.

    或許你會想,

  • And maybe you think,

    「好吧,只是多花了點錢吧。

  • "Well, it was just a bit of overspending.

    不過是一點謊言。」

  • It's a few lies."

    然而這可是英國百年來 最大的選舉舞弊。

  • But this was the biggest electoral fraud in Britain for 100 years.

    這可是整個世代唯一一次

  • In a once-in-a-generation vote

    票數差別僅僅 1% 的選舉。

  • that hinged upon just one percent of the electorate.

    而且這只是此次公投的
眾多罪行之一。

  • And it was just one of the crimes that took place in the referendum.

    還有另一團體,

  • There was another group,

    由奈傑·法拉吉這個人主導,

  • which was headed by this man, Nigel Farage,

    是照片中川普右邊那個人。

  • the one to the right of Trump.

    他的「Leave.EU」脫歐團隊也違法。

  • And his group, "Leave.EU" -- it also broke the law.

    違反了英國選舉法和數據法,

  • It broke British electoral laws and British data laws,

    也被提報給警方。

  • and it's also being referred to the police.

    是阿龍·班克斯這個人 出錢推動脫歐運動。

  • And this man, Arron Banks, he funded this campaign.

    他在全然不同的另外一案中

  • And in a completely separate case,

    已經被移送至國家犯罪總署,

  • he's being referred to our National Crime Agency,

    相當於美國 FBI 的對等機構,

  • our equivalent of the FBI,

    因為我們的選務委員會已得出結論:

  • because our electoral commission

    不知道他的錢來自何方,

  • has concluded they don't know where his money came from.

    甚至不知道到底是不是英國的資金。

  • Or if it was even British.

    而我甚至不打算談論 阿龍·班克斯的謊言,

  • And I'm not even going to go into the lies that Arron Banks has told

    關於他跟俄國政府秘密關係的謊言。

  • about his covert relationship with the Russian government.

    也不提奈傑·法拉吉 詭異的會面時刻,

  • Or the weird timing of Nigel Farage's meetings with Julian Assange

    他與朱利安·亞桑傑

  • and with Trump's buddy, Roger Stone, now indicted,

    和他與川普現已被起訴的伙伴 羅傑·斯通的會面時間點,

  • immediately before two massive WikiLeaks dumps,

    恰好就在維基解密 兩次大規模傾倒資訊之前。

  • both of which happened to benefit Donald Trump.

    兩次都讓川普得益。

  • But I will tell you that Brexit and Trump were intimately entwined.

    但我要告訴大家

  • This man told me that Brexit was the petri dish for Trump.

    英國脫歐與川普密不可分。

  • And we know it's the same people, the same companies,

    這個人讓我知道 英國脫歐是川普的培養皿。

  • the same data, the same techniques,

    我們知道是同樣的人、同樣的公司、

  • the same use of hate and fear.

    同樣的數據、同樣的手法、

  • This is what they were posting on Facebook.

    同樣使用仇恨和恐懼。

  • And I don't even want to call this a lie,

    這是他們貼在臉書上的。 【未同化的移民等於入侵】

  • [Immigration without assimilation equals invasion]

    我甚至懶得說這是謊言,

  • because it feels more like a hate crime to me.

    因為我覺得這更像是仇恨罪。

  • I don't have to tell you

    不用我說,

  • that hate and fear are being sown online all across the world.

    仇恨與恐懼被深植於 世界各地的網上。

  • Not just in Britain and America, but in France and in Hungary

    不只英國、美國, 法國和匈牙利也有,

  • and Brazil and Myanmar and New Zealand.

    還有巴西、緬甸,和紐西蘭。

  • And we know there is this dark undertow which is connecting us all globally.

    我們知道這暗流 與全球的你和我連結著。

  • And it is flowing via the technology platforms.

    它透過技術平台流動。

  • But we only see a tiny amount of what's going on on the surface.

    我們只看到冰山上的一角。

  • And I only found out anything about this dark underbelly

    我得以看到這黑暗的軟肋

  • because I started looking into Trump's relationship to Farage,

    是因為我開始研究 川普和法拉吉的關係,

  • into a company called Cambridge Analytica.

    調查到一家叫做 「劍橋分析」的公司。

  • And I spent months tracking down an ex-employee, Christopher Wiley.

    我花了好幾個月的時間追查到

  • And he told me how this company, that worked for both Trump and Brexit,

    該公司的前員工克里斯多福·懷利。

  • had profiled people politically

    他告訴我這家公司 為川普和英國脫歐效力,

  • in order to understand their individual fears,

    他們怎樣側寫人們的政治傾向,

  • to better target them with Facebook ads.

    為的是了解這些人的個別恐懼,

  • And it did this by illicitly harvesting the profiles

    以用來針對他們散佈臉書廣告。

  • of 87 million people from Facebook.

    做法是非法地採集資料,

  • It took an entire year's work to get Christopher on the record.

    採收 8700 萬人的臉書資料。

  • And I had to turn myself from a feature writer

    花了一整年的功夫

  • into an investigative reporter to do it.

    才把克里斯多福的話記錄在案。

  • And he was extraordinarily brave,

    我得把我的角色

  • because the company is owned by Robert Mercer,

    從寫稿記者轉變為調查記者。

  • the billionaire who bankrolled Trump,

    他非常勇敢,

  • and he threatened to sue us multiple times,

    因為這個公司的所有人 是
羅伯特·默瑟,

  • to stop us from publishing.

    是個以財力支持川普的億萬富翁,

  • But we finally got there, and we were one day ahead of publication.

    他多次恐嚇要控告我們,

  • We got another legal threat.

    不讓我們報導。

  • Not from Cambridge Analytica this time,

    但我們終於完成了, 就在刊出的前一天,

  • but from Facebook.

    我們收到另一起訴訟威脅。

  • It told us that if we publish, they would sue us.

    這次不是劍橋分析公司,

  • We did it anyway.

    而是臉書。

  • (Applause)

    臉書威脅如果刊出就要告我們。

  • Facebook, you were on the wrong side of history in that.

    我們仍然刊出了。

  • And you were on the wrong side of history in this --

    (掌聲)

  • in refusing to give us the answers that we need.

    臉書,那回你的選擇 在史上留下惡名。

  • And that is why I am here.

    這回你又選擇再加一筆,

  • To address you directly, the gods of Silicon Valley.

    因為你拒絕提供我們需要的答案。

  • (Applause)

    這是為什麼我今天站在這裡,

  • Mark Zuckerberg ...

    直接對矽谷的神祇們喊話。

  • (Applause)

    (掌聲)

  • and Sheryl Sandberg and Larry Page and Sergey Brin and Jack Dorsey,

    馬克·祖克柏……

  • and your employees and your investors, too.

    (掌聲)

  • Because 100 years ago,

    還有雪柔·桑德伯格、賴利·佩吉、 謝爾蓋·布林,和傑克·多西,

  • the biggest danger in the South Wales coal mines was gas.

    以及你們的員工和金主。

  • Silent and deadly and invisible.

    因為 100 年前,

  • It's why they sent the canaries down first to check the air.

    南威爾斯煤礦面臨的 最大危險是天然氣。

  • And in this massive, global, online experiment that we are all living through,

    無聲、無形且致命。

  • we in Britain are the canary.

    那是他們帶金絲雀
進礦坑 監測裡頭空氣的原因。

  • We are what happens to a western democracy

    現在我們共同經歷
這大規模、 全球性的線上實驗,

  • when a hundred years of electoral laws are disrupted by technology.

    在英國的我們就是現代的金絲雀。

  • Our democracy is broken, our laws don't work anymore,

    我們正是西方民主世界的

  • and it's not me saying this,

    百年選舉法被科技毁壞的結果。

  • it's our parliament published a report saying this.

    我們的民主被摧毀,法令不再適用,

  • This technology that you have invented has been amazing.

    這話不是我說的,

  • But now, it's a crime scene.

    是我國國會發表的報告裡說的。

  • And you have the evidence.

    你們發明非常驚人的科技。

  • And it is not enough to say that you will do better in the future.

    但是現在卻變成了犯罪現場。

  • Because to have any hope of stopping this from happening again,

    你們掌握著證據。

  • we have to know the truth.

    光說「以後會做得更好」是不夠的。

  • And maybe you think, "Well, it was just a few ads.

    因為要能不重蹈覆轍的唯一希望

  • And people are smarter than that, right?"

    在於我們必須知道真相。

  • To which I would say, "Good luck with that."

    或許你認為: 「不過是幾則廣告而已。

  • Because what the Brexit vote demonstrates

    人們可沒那麼笨,對吧?」

  • is that liberal democracy is broken.

    對此我必須說:「祝你好運。」

  • And you broke it.

    因為英國脫歐公投顯示

  • This is not democracy --

    自由民主已被摧毁了。

  • spreading lies in darkness, paid for with illegal cash,

    是你們摧毁的。

  • from God knows where.

    這可不是民主——

  • It's subversion,

    在暗地裡散播謊言, 用非法的資金付廣告費,

  • and you are accessories to it.

    天知道這些錢從哪兒來的。

  • (Applause)

    這是顛覆,

  • Our parliament has been the first in the world

    而你們是共犯。

  • to try to hold you to account,

    (掌聲)

  • and it's failed.

    我們國會是世上第一個

  • You are literally beyond the reach of British law -- not just British laws,

    試圖要你們負責的,

  • this is nine parliaments, nine countries are represented here,

    卻失敗了。

  • who Mark Zuckerberg refused to come and give evidence to.

    在字面上英國法律對你們沒轍——

  • And what you don't seem to understand is that this is bigger than you.

    不僅僅是英國法律,

  • And it's bigger than any of us.

    這裡是代表九個國家的國會,