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  • Someone passes away.

    有人過世了。

  • A marriage ends.

    一段婚姻結束了。

  • A job is lost.

    工作沒有了。

  • Are these events good or bad?

    這些是好事,還是壞事呢?

  • It depends on the context.

    這取決於事件的背景。

  • We're sad if someone close to us passes away, but if it's someone who tyrannized us, we might be glad.

    當至親的人過世時我們會很難過,但如果是那些傷害我們的人,我們則會感到慶幸。

  • The end of our marriage is a bad thing, if we'll lose our last chance with the person we love.

    若我們失去最後一次與愛人相處的機會,這段婚姻的結束是件壞事。

  • And it's a good thing, if we'll suffer more in the long run by remaining with the person.

    但若我們因此擺脫讓自己受苦的人,婚姻的結束便成了件好事。

  • Losing a job can make us feel worthless, or it can be the moment that we realize that we're worth far more.

    失去工作會讓我們覺得自己沒有用處,又或能讓我們明白,其實我們值得擁有更好的。

  • We have the ability to write our own life stories and determine what everything means to us.

    我們能夠寫下自己生命的故事,並且決定它們對我們的意義。

  • Losing a job isn't bad in itself; no event is bad or good in itself.

    失去工作本不是壞事,每件事本身都沒有好與壞。

  • The story we write after we've lost the job determines whether it's a positive or negative event.

    在失去工作後,我們寫下的故事才會決定這是件好事或壞事。

  • As we write more and more stories about our life, they all come together to form our philosophy: a pair of lenses that we see everything in the world through.

    當我們寫下越來越多故事,它們會建立起我們的人生觀:一副看世界的鏡頭。

  • It's important that we craft a pair of lenses that empowers us and leads us towards a good life.

    我們如何造出這副鏡頭很重要,它能賦予我們能力,帶領我們走向更好的生活。

  • The beautiful thing about being human is that we can share our stories with each other and modify each other's lenses.

    生而為人的一件美事,就是我們能夠互相分享自己的故事,也能調整每一個人的眼光。

  • In this video, I'd like to share with you the philosophy of Marcus Aurelius.

    在這部影片中,我會和你們分享關於馬可斯.奧理略的哲學。

  • And we'll discover the story that allowed him to become the last of the "Five Good Emperors" of Rome, an inspiration for leaders like Theodore Roosevelt and Nelson Mandela, someone who people still go to for advice over 1800 years after his death.

    我們也會來認識他是如何成為羅馬五賢帝的最後一個皇帝,他給了許多領袖啟示,像是羅斯福、曼德拉,即便他已過世了 1800 年,許多人還是會從他的哲學裡尋求解答。

  • Marcus believed that we're all parts of a greater whole which he called Nature.

    馬可斯認為我們都是整體世界的一部分,他稱之為「自然」。

  • You can think of it like a giant organism that we're all tiny pieces of.

    你可以把它想像一個巨大的生物,而我們是其中的一小部分。

  • We're like the fingers on a hand of a body.

    我們像是手上的手指頭。

  • And just like the fingers of a hand work together to serve the body, Marcus believed that all organisms were meant to work together to serve Nature.

    而就如同手指頭一起工作、幫助身體的運作,馬可斯認為:所有生物都是為了幫助大自然的運作而存在。

  • As a small piece of this larger body, we can control our own perceptions and actions.

    即便只是這龐大身體的一小部分,我們可以控制自己的思想及行為。

  • We can control what we do, but we can't control what happens to us.

    我們能決定做什麼事情,但無法掌握什麼事情會發生。

  • Marcus believed that Nature has its own goals, and it was up to us to find these goals and live in accordance with them.

    馬可斯認為:「自然」有其自己的目標,而找出這些目標並依循它們而活,則是取決於我們。

  • A finger that doesn't serve the body is unnatural.

    手指頭若不為身體效力,即是不正常的。

  • All the parts of a body need to be harmonized to serve the goal of the Whole body.

    身體的所有部位必須協調一致,才能合作完成「身體」的目標。

  • For Marcus, a good life is one that's lived in accordance with Nature.

    對馬可斯來說,好的生命就是能遵循「自然」而活。

  • With this worldview in mind, he believed that we needed mainly two virtues to live a good life: justice and piety.

    有了這樣的世界觀,他認為我們需要兩種德行才能擁有好的生命:公義及信念。

  • Justice is when a finger cooperates with other fingers and does what's good for the Whole body.

    「公義」是指一根手指頭和其他隻合作,並且做對身體有益的事情。

  • It's about focusing on what's in our control and doing what's good for society.

    這關乎我們專注於自己所能掌握的,並且做對社會有益的事。

  • Think about all of the great ideas and technology that you have access to, most of them came from someone other than yourself.

    想想那些你得以應用的技術和想法,它們大多都來自於他人而非你自己。

  • Someone sacrificed their time and energy to bring something new into the world and share it with us.

    有人犧牲他們的時間和體力,為世界帶來新的事物,並和我們一同分享。

  • Life is a lot better and richer when we cooperate.

    當我們一起合作時,生命會更加美好、更加豐富。

  • Marcus believed that what's good for the body is good for the finger, or what's good for society is ultimately good for the individual.

    馬可斯相信 —— 對身體好的,對手指頭一定也是好的;對整體社會好的,最終對個體也是好的。

  • On the other hand, an unjust person acts selfishly: they're a finger that sabotages the body without realizing they're attached to it.

    反之,一個不公義的人會有自私的表現,這樣的手指頭會拖垮身體,因為沒有意識到自己也是其中一員。

  • Helping one another is in accordance with Nature and harming one another is not.

    「互助」與「自然」的旨意相符,「互相傷害」則非如此。

  • This view of Justice helped Marcus avoid getting angry with others.

    這種公義觀點幫助馬可斯遏制對他人的怒氣。

  • It oriented him towards being cooperative and understanding.

    也教導他成為懂得替人著想、幫助他人的人。

  • He realized that being negative towards others would ultimately just harm himself.

    他了解到,帶著負面情緒面對他人,最終受傷的其實是自己。

  • We're two Parts of the same Whole.

    因為我們同屬於一個大構造底下的兩個小齒輪。

  • On the other hand, how good could a relationship, a home, or a society get if everyone shared new ideas, technology, and invested their energy for the good of one another?

    換句話說,如果人們彼此交流意見和技術,且付出自己的力量造就彼此,每一段關係、每個家庭和社會將獲得多少正面影響?

  • How good could the world get if we acted justly?

    如果我們都依循公義而行動,這世界該會變得多好?

  • Piety is when a finger realizes that it can't control other fingers and the Whole body has its own goals.

    「信念」則是指,當一根手指明白他無法操控其他手指,也知道身體有其自己的目標。

  • The finger can't always control what happens to it.

    手指無法決定什麼事情會發生。

  • Even though we may set out to serve others, there's no guarantee that they'll let us, or that they'll serve us back.

    即便我們或許幫助了他人,也無法保證他人會願意接受,或能得到任何回報。

  • There's no guarantee that things will unfold how we expect them to, or that others will live justly.

    無法保證事情會如我們想的一樣,也無法確定他人能否有公義的行為。

  • Marcus, like most Stoics, encourages us to love our fate.

    馬可斯,如同斯多亞學派,鼓勵我們要喜愛自己的命運。

  • The Whole body is smarter than the finger.

    「身體」是比「手指頭」聰明的。

  • Whatever happens to us was meant to happen as a part of the web of cause and effect.

    所有發生在我們身上的事都屬於因果關係的一環,是註定會發生的。

  • For Marcus, our only duty is to hold ourselves accountable for our own actions, and do what's in our power to serve the common good.

    對馬可斯來說,我們唯一的職責就是盡好自己的本分,用我們有的能力為整體帶來益處。

  • This view of Piety allowed him to endure hardship.

    這樣的觀點幫助他忍受艱辛。

  • No matter what happened to him, he did what was in his power to do, and for everything that wasn't, he trusted the will of Nature.

    不論發生什麼事情,他盡力去面對,而那些無法掌握的,他願意相信自然的旨意。

  • With the concepts of Nature, Justice, and Piety in mind, we can see Marcus' solution for a good life: serve the common good and love all that happens to you.

    心中謹記自然、公正與信念的概念,我們可以了解,馬可斯認為一個好的生命就是:為整體帶來益處,並且愛發生在自己身上的所有事。

Someone passes away.

有人過世了。

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A2 初級 中文 美國腔 手指頭 公義 身體 自然 壞事 整體

覺得自己的生活一團糟嗎?哲學家教你如何過更好! (Marcus Aurelius - How to Live A Good Life)

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    莊采妮 發佈於 2019 年 07 月 13 日
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