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  • On April 26th, 1937,

    譯者: Lilian Chiu 審譯者: Helen Chang

  • Fascist forces bombed the Basque village of Guernica in Northern Spain.

    1937 年 4 月 26 日,

  • It was one of the worst civilian casualties of the Spanish Civil War,

    法西斯軍隊轟炸了西班牙北部 格爾尼卡的巴斯克村。

  • waged between the democratic republic and General Franco's fascist contingent.

    那是西班牙內戰中 平民死傷最慘烈的事件之一,

  • For Pablo Picasso, the tragedy sparked a frenzied period of work

    戰爭雙邊為民主共和派 和佛朗哥將軍的法西斯軍隊。

  • in which he produced a massive anti-war mural,

    對畢卡索而言,這場悲劇 激發了一段瘋狂的創作時期,

  • aptly titled \"Guernica.\"

    這段期間,他創作出了 一幅大型的反戰壁畫,

  • The painting is a powerful work of historical documentation

    命名也很巧妙,叫《格爾尼卡》。

  • and political protest.

    這幅畫是很強而有力的作品,

  • But while Picasso's artistic motivations are clear,

    既是歷史記錄,也是政治抗議。

  • the symbolism of the painting can be as confusing and chaotic as war itself.

    但,雖然畢卡索的 藝術動機很清楚明確,

  • How can we make sense of this overwhelming image,

    這幅畫的象徵性則是 和戰爭本身一樣混亂且讓人困惑。

  • and what exactly makes it a masterpiece of anti-war art?

    我們要如何理解這幅強大的影像?

  • The painting's monumental canvas is disorienting from the start,

    是什麼原因讓它成為 反戰藝術的傑作?

  • rendered in the abstracted Cubist style Picasso pioneered.

    這幅畫的紀念性畫布 打從一開始就讓人迷惘,

  • Cubism deliberately emphasized the two-dimensionality of the canvas

    用畢卡索率先創造的 立體派風格來呈現。

  • by flattening the objects being painted.

    立體派會故意去強調 畫布的二維性質,

  • This afforded viewers multiple

    做法是將被繪製的對象平面化。

  • and often impossible perspectives on the same object;

    這麼做會讓觀者有多重視角,

  • a technique considered shocking even in Picasso's domestic scenes.

    且通常是不可能出現的視角, 來看同一個目標對象;

  • But in this context,

    即使在畢卡索的居家畫作中, 這項技巧也被認為很震撼。

  • the style offers a profoundly overwhelming view

    但在這種情境之下,

  • of violence, destruction, and casualties.

    這種風格能形成 很深刻且強大的觀點,

  • Multiple perspectives only compound the horror on display

    來看待暴力、毀滅,和傷亡。

  • sending the eyes hurtling around the frame in a futile hunt for peace.

    多重視角只是加重了 呈現出來的恐怖——

  • On the far left, a woman holding her dead child releases a scream;

    讓目光在畫框內四處飛馳, 徒勞地尋找和平。

  • her eyes sliding down her face in the shape of tears

    在最左邊,一名女子抱著 她死去的孩子,放聲大叫;

  • and her head bending back unnaturally to echo her baby's.

    她的眼睛以眼淚的形狀 沿著她的臉頰滑落,

  • There is the statue of a soldier present below,

    她的頭部不自然地向後彎曲, 以呼應她孩子的頭部。

  • but he is unable to defend the woman and child.

    在底下,有一個士兵的雕像,

  • Instead his broken body lies in pieces,

    但他沒辦法保衞這名女子和孩子。

  • his arm clutching a splintered sword in a signal of utmost defeat.

    反之,他的身體破碎成四散的碎片,

  • The tip of his sword meets a woman's foot as she attempts to flee the devastation.

    他的手臂抓著斷裂的劍, 表示最大的戰敗。

  • But her other leg appears rooted to the spot,

    劍的尖端碰到女子的腳, 她在嘗試逃離這蹂躪。

  • locked in the corner of the canvas even as she stretches to move it.

    但她的另一隻腳 很顯然固定在原處,

  • Another victim appears behind this slouching figure.

    即使她延伸身體想要移動它, 它仍然被鎖在畫布的角落。

  • Falling helplessly as flames lick around her,

    在這低頭垂肩的身影背後 出現了另一位受害者。

  • she too is caught in her own hopeless scene.

    當火焰吞捲了她的周圍時, 她無助地倒下,

  • Each of these figures bordering the painting are horribly trapped,

    她同樣也是被困在 她自己那沒希望的場景中。

  • giving the work an acute sense of claustrophobia.

    這些人物形成了這幅畫的邊界, 他們都被以恐怖的方式困住,

  • And where you might expect the canvas' massive size to counteract this feeling,

    讓這件作品有種強烈的幽閉恐怖感。

  • its scale only highlights the nearly life-sized atrocities on display.

    你本來預期這畫布的巨大尺寸 應該可以抵消掉這種感覺,

  • Some possible relief comes from a lamp

    但它的規模反而讓作品上 接近真實大小的殘暴更為明顯。

  • held tightly by a ghostly woman reaching out her window.

    可能讓人鬆口氣的地方是一盞燈,

  • But is her lantern's hopeful glow truly lighting the scene?

    一名像鬼一樣的女子從她的窗戶 伸出手,緊緊抓著那盞燈。

  • Or is it the jagged lightbulb

    但,她的提燈所發出的希望之光 真的能夠點亮這個場景嗎?

  • thought to represent the technologies of modern warfare

    或者,是這個鋸齒狀的燈泡——

  • which illuminates her view of the chaos below?

    一般認為它是代表 現代戰爭的技術——

  • From the coffin-like confines of her window,

    照亮了下方的混亂, 讓她看得更清楚?

  • her arm guides the viewer back into the fray,

    她的窗戶就像是 棺材一樣侷限著她,

  • to perhaps the most controversial symbols of all

    從這扇窗戶,她的手臂 引導著觀者回到爭鬥中,

  • two ghostly animals caught in the destruction.

    回到可能是畫作中 最爭議的象徵——

  • Does the screaming horse embody the threat of Franco's military nationalism;

    兩隻像鬼一樣的動物, 被困在毀滅當中。

  • or does the spike running through its body convey its victimhood?

    大聲叫著的馬兒是否具體呈現了 佛朗哥軍隊的民族主義?

  • Does the white bull represent Spain,

    或者,穿過牠身體的尖刺 傳達了它的受害者狀態?

  • the country of matadors and a common theme in Picasso's work

    白色的公牛是否代表西班牙?

  • or does it stand for the brutality of war?

    西班牙是個鬥牛的國家, 也是畢卡索作品的常見主題——

  • In this scene of strife, these animals raise more questions than answers.

    或者它代表的是戰爭的殘酷?

  • And additional elements hidden throughout the frame

    在這個衝突的場景中, 這些動物帶來的問題比答案更多。

  • offer even more secrets for close observers.

    在畫中各處隱藏的額外元素

  • At the top of the canvas flashes a bird desperate to escape the carnage.

    帶給仔細觀賞的觀者更多的秘密。

  • And the abundance of animals on display may hint at the bombing's date

    在畫布的上方,掠過一隻小鳥, 迫切地想要逃離大屠殺。

  • a market day which flooded the streets

    有這麼多動物呈現在畫作中, 可能是在暗示轟炸的日期——

  • with villagers, animals, and other potential causalities.

    那天是市場日,

  • Like the bombing of Guernica itself,

    滿街都是村民、動物, 及其他可能的受害者。

  • Picasso's painting is dense with destruction.

    如同格爾尼卡的轟炸事件本身,

  • But hidden beneath this supposed chaos, are carefully crafted scenes and symbols,

    畢卡索的畫作中也滿是毀滅。

  • carrying out the painting's multifaceted attack on fascism.

    但,在這片混亂的背後藏著 精心製作的景象和象徵,

  • Decades after its creation,

    實現這幅畫作對於法西斯主義 最多面向的攻擊。

  • \"Guernica\" retains its power to shock viewers and ignite debate,

    在完成後數十年,

  • and is often referenced at anti-war gatherings around the world.

    《格爾尼卡》仍然有可以 震撼觀者和引發辯論的威力,

  • Hundred of viewers have grappled with its harsh imagery, shattering symbolism

    在全世界的反戰聚會上, 也常常會提到它。

  • and complex political messaging.

    數百名觀者在努力破解它的 嚴酷意象、令人不安的象徵性,

  • But even without a close understanding of it's complicated subtext,

    以及傳遞的複雜政治訊息。

  • Picasso's work remains a searing reminder of the true casualties of violence.

    但,即使無法精準了解 它那複雜的弦外之音,

On April 26th, 1937,

譯者: Lilian Chiu 審譯者: Helen Chang

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這幅畫為何如此震撼?- Iseult Gillespie (Why is this painting so shocking? - Iseult Gillespie)

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