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  • A few weeks ago,

    譯者: Lilian Chiu 審譯者: JIAWEN ZHANG

  • somebody tweeted during the midterm elections in the United States

    幾週前,

  • that Election Day should be made a holiday.

    在美國中期選舉期間, 有人用推特發文,

  • And I retweeted, saying,

    說選舉日應該要放假。

  • \"Well, you're welcome to come to my country and vote.

    我回推,說:

  • You'll get the whole week off to allow the military to count it.\"

    「歡迎你來我的國家投票。

  • I come from Togo, by the way.

    你可以放一整週的假, 讓軍隊來計票。」

  • It is a beautiful country located in West Africa.

    順便一提,我來自多哥。

  • There are some cool, interesting facts about my country.

    它是個美麗的國家,位在西非。

  • Togo has been ruled by the same family for 51 years,

    我的國家有一些很酷 且很有趣的狀況。

  • making us the oldest autocracy in Africa.

    多哥已經被同一個家族 統治了五十一年,

  • That's a record.

    這表示我們是非洲 最長的獨裁統治國家。

  • We have a second-coolest record:

    那是一項記錄。

  • we have been ranked three times as the unhappiest country on earth.

    我們還有一項第二酷的記錄:

  • You are all invited.

    我們有三次被評為: 地球上最不快樂的國家。

  • (Laughter)

    歡迎各位來我的國家。

  • So just to let you know,

    (笑聲)

  • it's not very cool to live under an autocracy.

    只是想告訴各位,

  • But the interesting thing is that I have met, throughout the course of my activism,

    在獨裁統治之下生活 不是件很酷的事。

  • so many people from different countries,

    但有趣的是,在我參與 激進主義的過程中,

  • and when I tell them about Togo, their reaction is always,

    我見到好多來自不同國家的人,

  • \"How can you guys allow the same people to terrorize you for 51 years?

    我跟他們提到多哥時, 他們的反應總是:

  • You know, like, you Togolese, you must be very patient.\"

    「你們怎麼能夠允許同一批人, 對你們進行恐怖統治五十一年?

  • That's their diplomatic way of saying \"stupid.\"

    你們多哥人是很有耐心 還是怎樣?」

  • (Laughter)

    他們是在用圓滑的方式說「愚蠢」。

  • And when you live in a free country,

    (笑聲)

  • there's this tendency of assuming that those who are oppressed

    當你生活在一個自由國家,

  • tolerate their oppression or are comfortable with it,

    通常會假設那些被壓迫的人

  • and democracy is projected as a progressive form of governance

    可以容忍那些壓迫, 或是已經適應了,

  • in such a way that those people who don't live under democratic countries

    而民主被推斷為 一種先進的治理形式,

  • are seen as people who are not intellectually or maybe morally

    彷彿那些住在非民主國家的人

  • as advanced as others.

    會被視為是在智力上或道德上

  • But it's not the case.

    不如其他人先進。

  • The reason why people have that perception

    但並不是這樣的。

  • has to do with the way stories are covered about dictatorships.

    大家會有那樣的感受 ,

  • In the course of my activism,

    是受到關於獨裁主義的故事所影響。

  • I have had to interview with so many news outlets out there,

    在我參與激進主義的過程中,

  • and usually it would always start with, \"What got you started?

    我和許多新聞媒體做過訪談,

  • What inspired you?\"

    通常訪談總是這樣開頭: 「是什麼讓你開始的?

  • And I reply, \"I wasn't inspired. I was triggered.\"

    是什麼鼓舞了你?」

  • And it goes on. \"Well, what triggered you?\"

    我會回:「我沒有受到鼓舞。 我是被觸發的。」

  • And I go on about how my father was arrested when I was 13, and tortured,

    對話會繼續下去。 「是什麼觸發了你?」

  • all the history ... I don't want to get into details now,

    我會接著說我十三歲時 父親被逮捕、嚴刑逼供的事情,

  • because you'll start sleeping.

    還有所有的歷史…… 我現在不想說細節,

  • But the thing is, at the end of the day, what interests them the most is:

    因為你們會開始睡覺。

  • How was he tortured?

    但,重點是,到頭來, 他們最感興趣的是:

  • For how many days? How many people died?

    他是怎麼被嚴刑?

  • They are interested in the abuse, in the killing,

    持續了多少天?有多少人喪命?

  • because they believe that will gain attention and sympathy.

    他們感興趣的是虐待,是殺戮,

  • But in reality, it serves the purpose of the dictator.

    因為他們相信那些題材 能吸引到注意力和同情心。

  • It helps them advertise their cruelty.

    然而現實上,

  • In 2011, I cofounded a movement I call \"Faure Must Go,\"

    這正順應了獨裁者的目的。

  • because Faure is the first name of our president.

    那麼做便宣揚了他們的殘酷。

  • Togo is a French-speaking country, by the way,

    2011 年,我合夥創立了一個運動, 我稱之為「福雷下台」,

  • but I chose English because I had my issues with France as well.

    因為福雷是我們總統的名字。

  • But then --

    順道一提,多哥是說法語的國家,

  • (Laughter)

    但我選擇英文, 因為我對法國也有些意見。

  • But then, when I started Faure Must Go,

    但,接著——

  • I made a video, and I came on camera,

    (笑聲)

  • and I said, \"Well, Faure Gnassingbé, I give you 60 days to resign as president,

    但當我開始「福雷下台」行動時,

  • because if you don't,

    我做了一支影片,我站到攝影機前,

  • we the youth in Togo will organize and we will bring you down,

    我說:「福雷納辛貝, 我給你六十天辭去總統職務,

  • because you have killed over 500 of our countrymen

    因為,如果你不辭,

  • to seize power when your father died.

    我們多哥的年輕人 會組織起來,把你拉下台,

  • We have not chosen you.

    因為你已經殺害了 至少五百名我們的同胞,

  • You are an imposter, and we will remove you.\"

    以在你父親過世時取得權力。

  • But I was the only known face of the movement.

    我們沒有選擇你。

  • Why? Because I was the only stupid one.

    你是冒名頂替,我們會趕走你。」

  • (Laughter)

    但在那項運動中, 我是唯一公開的面孔,

  • And the backlashes followed.

    為什麼?因為我是唯一的笨蛋。

  • My family started receiving threats.

    (笑聲)

  • My siblings called me one morning.

    接著就造成強烈的反對。

  • They said, \"You know what?

    我的家人開始受到各種威脅。

  • When they come here to kill you, we don't want to die with you,

    有一天,我的手足打電話給我。

  • so move out.\"

    他們說:「你知道嗎?

  • So yes, I moved out.

    如果他們來這裡殺你, 我們不想跟你一起死,

  • And I'm so angry at them, so I haven't talked to them in five years.

    所以,搬出去吧。」

  • Anyway, moving forward ...

    所以,是的,我搬出去了。

  • For the past nine years, I have been working with countries

    我對他們很生氣, 五年都不跟他們說話。

  • to raise awareness of Togo,

    總之,繼續下去……

  • to help the people of Togo overcome their fear

    過去九年間,

  • so they, too, can come and say they want change.

    我和許多國家合作,

  • I have received a lot of persecution

    提升大家對於多哥的意識,

  • that I cannot disclose,

    來協助多哥人民克服他們的恐懼,

  • a lot of threats, a lot of abuse,

    這樣他們才能夠也站出來 說他們想要改變。

  • psychologically.

    我已經受到了很多

  • But I don't like talking about them,

    我無法公開的迫害,

  • because I know that my job as an activist is to mobilize,

    各種威脅,各種虐待,

  • is to organize,

    精神上的。

  • is to help every single Togolese citizen understand that, as citizens,

    但我不想要談它們,

  • we hold the power,

    因為我知道,身為激進分子, 我的工作是要動員,

  • we are the boss and we decide.

    是要組織,

  • And the punishment that the dictators are using to intimidate them

    是要協助每一位多哥公民了解,

  • must not prevent us from getting what we want.

    身為公民,我們持有權力,

  • That is why I said it is very important to cover the stories of activists

    我們是老闆,我們能做決定。

  • in the way that it helps mobilize people,

    獨裁者用來脅迫他們的手段

  • not in the way that it helps deter their action

    不應該阻止我們得到想要的。

  • and force even more their subjugation to the oppressive system.

    那就是為什麼我推崇: 在報導激進分子的故事時,

  • During these years that I've been an activist,

    要用能動員大家的方式來報導,

  • there are days that I felt like quitting because I couldn't take it.

    而不是以威嚇他們行動的方式,

  • Well then, what kept me going?

    迫使他們更屈從於壓迫的體制。

  • The one thing that kept me going:

    在我身為激進分子的這些年間,

  • I remember the story of my grandfather,

    有些時候我也好想放棄, 因為我無法承受了。

  • and how he used to walk 465 miles from his village to the city,

    那,是什麼讓我繼續下去?

  • just to protest for independence.

    讓我繼續下去的其中一項動力:

  • Then I remember the sacrifice of my father,

    我記得我祖父的故事,

  • who was tortured so many times

    也記得他曾經走了 465 英里路 從他的村落到城市,

  • for daring to protest against the regime.

    只是為了獨立而抗議。

  • Back in the '70s, they would write pamphlets

    我還想起我父親的犧牲,

  • to raise awareness on the dictatorship,

    因為他敢於對政權抗爭,

  • and because they couldn't afford to make copies,

    所以他被拷問了好多次。

  • they would reproduce the same pamphlet 500 times each

    回到 70 年代,他們會寫小冊子,

  • and distribute them.

    增加大家對獨裁統治的意識,

  • It got to a point where the military knew their handwriting,

    因為他們沒錢去印製,

  • so as soon as they stumbled upon one, they'd go and get them.

    他們便重複抄寫 500 次,

  • But I look at that and I'm like, you know, today you have a blog.

    然後拿去分發。

  • I don't have to copy the same thing 500 times.

    以至於軍隊也認得他們的筆跡。

  • I blog and thousands of people read it.

    所以只要他們發現這些傳單, 就會去抓他們。

  • By the way, in Togo, they like calling me the WhatsApp girl,

    但,對於這個狀況, 我心想,現今有博客了。

  • because I am always on WhatsApp attacking the government.

    我不用複製五百份。

  • (Laughter)

    我撰寫博客,就會有數千人閱讀。

  • So it's much easier.

    順便一提,在多哥, 他們稱為我 WhatsApp 女孩,

  • When I'm angry at the government, I just make an angry note,

    因為我總是在 WhatsApp 上攻擊政府。

  • and I send it out and thousands of people share it.

    (笑聲)

  • I'm rarely this composed. I'm always angry, by the way.

    所以,現在簡單多了。

  • (Laughter)

    當我對政府很生氣時, 我就寫下憤怒的文字,

  • (Applause)

    我會把它發出去,便有數千人分享。

  • So I was talking about the necessity to showcase our stories,

    我很少這麼鎮定,我總是很生氣。

  • because when I think about the sacrifices that were made for us,

    (笑聲)

  • it helped me keep going.

    (掌聲)

  • One of the very first actions of our Faure Must Go movement

    我要說的是,我們要把 我們的故事展現出來,

  • was to come up with a petition, asking citizens to sign

    因為當我談到別人 為我們所做出的犧牲時,

  • so that we can demand new elections, as the constitution allows.

    那能夠協助我堅持下去。

  • People were scared to put their names

    我們的「福雷下台」 最初的行動之一,

  • because, they said, they don't want to get in trouble.

    是提出一項請願,請公民來簽署,

  • Even in the diaspora, people were scared.

    讓我們可以依憲法規定 來要求新的選舉。

  • They were like, \"We have family at home.\"

    大家都很怕寫下自己的名字,

  • But there was this woman who was in her 60s.

    因為,他們說,他們不想惹麻煩。

  • When she heard about it, she took the petition,

    即使是在海外的人,他們也會怕。

  • and she went home,

    他們說:「我們在家鄉還有家人。」

  • and by herself she collected over 1,000 [signatures].

    但,有一位六十多歲的女子。

  • That inspired me so much, and I was like,

    她聽說這件事時,她帶走了請願書,

  • if a 60-year-old that has nothing more to gain in this regime

    她回到家後,

  • can do this for us, the young ones,

    靠她自己就收集到了 超過一千個簽署。

  • then why should I quit?

    那對我是好大的鼓勵,我心想,

  • It is the stories of resistance, the stories of defiance,

    如果一個六十歲,已經無法 從這個政體中獲得什麼的人,

  • the stories of resilience,

    還願意為我們年輕人這樣做,

  • that inspire people to get involved,

    那我怎能放棄?

  • not the stories of abuse and killings and hurt,

    正是那些抵抗、反抗、

  • because as humans, it's only natural for us to be scared.

    堅毅不拔的故事,

  • I would like to share with you a few characteristics of dictatorships

    鼓舞大家參與,

  • so that you can assess your own country

    而非虐待、殺戮和傷害的故事,

  • and see if you are also at risk of joining us.

    因為害怕是人性的弱點。

  • (Laughter and cheers)

    我想要和各位分享 獨裁統治的幾項特性,

  • (Applause)

    讓你們可以評估你們自己的國家,

  • Number one thing to look at: concentration of power.

    看看你是否有可能會加入我們。

  • Is the power in your country concentrated in the hands of a few, an elite?

    (笑聲和歡呼)

  • It can be a political elite, ideological elite.

    (掌聲)

  • And you have a strongman,

    首先要看的事:權力集中。

  • because we always have one guy who is presented as the messiah

    你的國家的權力是否集中在 少數人或一位菁英的手中?

  • who will save us from the world.

    可能是政治菁英、思想領袖。

  • The second point is propaganda.

    且你們有一個鐵腕人物,

  • Dictators feed on propaganda.

    因為總是會有個傢伙, 以救世主之姿出現,

  • They like giving the impression that they are the saviors,

    要將我們從世界拯救出來。

  • and without them, the country will fall apart.

    第二點是宣傳。

  • And they are always fighting some foreign forces, you know?

    獨裁者要靠宣傳來維生。

  • The Christians, the Jewish, the Muslims,

    他們喜歡製造他們是救星的印象,

  • the voodoo priests are coming for you.

    若沒有他們,國家就會四分五裂。

  • The Communists, when they get here, we'll all be broke.

    他們總是在對抗著某些外來的力量。

  • These kinds of things.

    基督徒、猶太人、穆斯林、

  • And our president, in particular, he fights pirates.

    要來抓你的巫毒祭師。

  • (Laughter)

    共產黨,當他們到來時, 我們都會完蛋。

  • I am very serious.

    這類事物。

  • Last year, he bought a boat that's 13 million dollars to fight pirates,

    而我們的總統很特別, 他對抗的是海盜。

  • and 60 percent of our people are starving.

    (笑聲)

  • So they are always protecting us from some foreign forces.

    我是說真的。

  • And this leads to point three: militarization.

    去年,他花了一千三百萬美金 買了一艘船來對抗海盜,

  • Dictators survive by instigating fear,

    而六成的人民沒飯吃。

  • and they use the military to suppress dissident voices,

    所以,他們總是在保護我們 不受外來勢力的侵犯。

  • even though they try to give the impression

    這就帶出了第三點:軍事化。

  • that the military is to protect the nation.

    獨裁者的生存方式是煽動恐懼,

  • And they suppress institutions and destroy them

    他們用軍隊來壓迫意見不同的聲音,

  • so that they don't have to be held accountable.

    不過他們試圖製造的印象

  • So do you have a heavily militarized country?

    是軍隊在保護國家。

  • And this leads to point four, what I call human cruelty.

    他們會打壓和摧毀制度,

  • You know when we talk about animals,

    這樣他們就不用負責。

  • we say animal cruelty when animals are abused,

    你們的國家是重度武裝的國家嗎?

  • because there's no charter acknowledged by the UN

    這就帶出第四點, 我稱之為人類虐待。

  • saying animal rights charter.

    當我們談論動物時,

  • Point one: all animals are created equal. So you don't have that.

    當動物被傷害, 我們會說動物虐待,

  • So whenever animals are abused, we say animal cruelty.

    因為聯合國沒有,

  • But when it comes to humans, we say human rights abuses,

    任何認可動物權利憲章。

  • because we assume that all humans have rights.

    第一點:動物生而平等。 而你們並沒有這一點。

  • But some of us are actually still fighting for our right to have rights.

    所以,當動物被傷害時, 我們會說動物虐待。

  • So in that condition, I don't talk about human rights abuse or violation.

    但就人類的情況來說, 我們會說人權侵害,

  • When you live in a country and you have an issue with the president

    因為我們假設所有人類都有權利。

  • and the worst thing that can happen is he bans you from the presidency,

    但有些人仍然在為 「擁有權利」的權利而戰。

  • you are lucky.

    所以,在那樣的情況下, 我不會談侵害或違反人權。

  • When you come to my country and have an issue with the president,

    當你生活的國家 擁有與你不同意見的總統,

  • you just run, disappear; you vanish from the universe,

    而最糟糕的狀況是 在他任期內不讓你出來選總統,

  • because they can still find you in Turkey.

    那你很幸運。

  • So people like myself, we don't get to live in Togo anymore.

    在我的國家,若對總統有意見,

  • And people like myself,

    你就得逃跑、消失;從人間蒸發,

  • we don't get to live in the same place for more than a month,

    因為他們仍然會在土耳其找到你。

  • because we don't want to be traced.

    所以,像我這樣的人, 我們不能再住在多哥。

  • The way they abuse people,

    像我這樣的人,

  • the type of cruelty that happens in all impunity under dictatorships

    不能在同一個地方住超過一個月,

  • are beyond human imagination.

    因為我們不想要被追蹤。

  • The stories of some of the activists that were killed,

    他們傷害人民的方式,

  • their bodies dumped in the sea,

    在獨裁統治下,那種可以 不受懲罰的情況下而進行的虐待,

  • that were tortured

    是超乎人類想像的。

  • to the point where they lost their hearing or their sight --

    有些被殺害的激進分子,

  • those stories still haunt me.

    他們的屍體被丟入海中,

  • And sometimes, as an activist,

    他們被用刑,

  • I am less concerned about dying than how it will happen.

    而導致失明或失聰——

  • Sometimes I just sit down and I imagine all scenarios.

    那些故事在我心頭揮之不去。

  • What are they going to do? Are they going to cut my ears first?

    有時,身為激進分子,

  • Or are they going to cut my tongue because I'm always insulting them?

    比起死亡會如何發生, 我比較不在乎死亡本身。

  • It sounds cruel, but it is the reality.

    有時,我會坐下來,想像各種情境。

  • We live in a very cruel world.

    他們會怎麼做?他們會 先把我的耳朵割下來嗎?

  • Dictators are cruel monsters,

    或者他們會割掉我的舌頭, 因為我總是在侮辱他們?

  • and I am not saying it to be nice.

    聽起來很殘酷,但那是現實。

  • So yes, that is the final characteristic.

    我們生活在一個殘酷的世界中。

  • The list goes on,

    獨裁者是殘酷的禽獸,

  • but that's the final thing that I want to share about autocracies,

    我不是為了扮演好人才這麼說的。

  • so that you look at your country and see if there are risks there.

    所以,是的,那是最後一項特性。

  • It is important that you acknowledge the gains of freedom that you have today,

    這份清單還很長,

  • because some people had to give their lives for you to have it.

    但那是我想與各位分享的 最後一項獨裁政治特性,

  • So don't take this for granted.

    所以,看看你的國家, 找找有沒有風險存在。

  • But then at the same time, you also need to know

    很重要的是,你要感謝 你現今擁有的自由,

  • that no country is actually destined to be oppressed,

    因為有些人犧牲了生命 才讓你擁有自由。

  • while at the same time,

    不要把它視為理所當然。

  • no country or no people are immune to oppression and dictatorship.

    但,同時,你也需要知道,

  • Thank you.

    沒有任何國家註定要被壓迫,

  • (Applause)

    同時,

A few weeks ago,

譯者: Lilian Chiu 審譯者: JIAWEN ZHANG