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  • In 2015, 25 teams from around the world

    譯者: Lilian Chiu 審譯者: Amanda Zhu

  • competed to build robots for disaster response

    2015 年,全世界的二十五個團隊

  • that could perform a number of tasks,

    比賽建造災害應變機器人,

  • such as using a power tool,

    機器人必須要能做幾項工作,

  • working on uneven terrain

    比如,使用電動工具、

  • and driving a car.

    在不平坦的地形上工作,

  • That all sounds impressive, and it is,

    以及開車。

  • but look at the body of the winning robot, HUBO.

    這些聽起來都很讓人欽佩,的確,

  • Here, HUBO is trying to get out of a car,

    但,看看得獎機器人 HUBO 的身體。

  • and keep in mind,

    這裡,HUBO 在試圖下車,

  • the video is sped up three times.

    別忘了,

  • (Laughter)

    影片已經是用三倍速播放。

  • HUBO, from team KAIST out of Korea, is a state-of-the-art robot

    (笑聲)

  • with impressive capabilities,

    HUBO 是韓國團隊 KAIST 打造的最先進機器人,

  • but this body doesn't look all that different

    它的能力讓人印象深刻,

  • from robots we've seen a few decades ago.

    但它的身體看起來仍很像

  • If you look at the other robots in the competition,

    我們幾十年前看到的機器人。

  • their movements also still look, well, very robotic.

    如果你們去看看 比賽中的其他機器人,

  • Their bodies are complex mechanical structures

    它們的動作看起來仍然, 嗯,非常像機器人。

  • using rigid materials

    它們的身體是複雜的機械結構,

  • such as metal and traditional rigid electric motors.

    用的是堅硬的材料,

  • They certainly weren't designed

    比如金屬及傳統的剛性電動馬達。

  • to be low-cost, safe near people

    它們的設計理念肯定不是低成本,

  • and adaptable to unpredictable challenges.

    不是為了在人類身邊很安全, 或適應不可預測的困難。

  • We've made good progress with the brains of robots,

    我們對機器人的大腦有很好的進展,

  • but their bodies are still primitive.

    但它們的身體仍然很原始。

  • This is my daughter Nadia.

    這位是我女兒娜迪雅。

  • She's only five years old

    她才五歲,

  • and she can get out of the car way faster than HUBO.

    她下車的速度都比 HUBO 快。

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • She can also swing around on monkey bars with ease,

    她還可以輕鬆在兒童 攀爬的猴架上盪來盪去,

  • much better than any current human-like robot could do.

    任何人形機器人都沒她做得好。

  • In contrast to HUBO,

    相對於 HUBO,

  • the human body makes extensive use of soft and deformable materials

    人類的身體大量使用 軟性且可變形的材料,

  • such as muscle and skin.

    像是肌肉和皮膚。

  • We need a new generation of robot bodies

    我們需要一種 新世代的機器人身體,

  • that is inspired by the elegance, efficiency and by the soft materials

    採用自然界中優雅、有效率, 以及使用軟性材料的設計。

  • of the designs found in nature.

    這個想法已經成了一個 新研究領域的核心概念,

  • And indeed, this has become the key idea of a new field of research

    這領域叫做「軟性機器人學」。

  • called soft robotics.

    我的研究團隊和全世界的合作夥伴

  • My research group and collaborators around the world

    採用的軟性元件, 靈感來自肌肉和皮膚,

  • are using soft components inspired by muscle and skin

    用這些元件打造的機器人, 在敏捷度和靈巧度上,

  • to build robots with agility and dexterity

    會越來越接近

  • that comes closer and closer

    大自然中的有機體 所擁有的驚人能力。

  • to the astonishing capabilities of the organisms found in nature.

    生物肌肉總是特別讓我有靈感。

  • I've always been particularly inspired by biological muscle.

    那並不讓人意外。

  • Now, that's not surprising.

    我也是奧地利人,我知道我的口音 有點像阿諾,魔鬼終結者。

  • I'm also Austrian, and I know that I sound a bit like Arnie, the Terminator.

    (笑聲)

  • (Laughter)

    生物肌肉是演化中的真正傑作。

  • Biological muscle is a true masterpiece of evolution.

    在受傷之後它會復元,

  • It can heal after damage

    且它和感官神經元密切整合,

  • and it's tightly integrated with sensory neurons

    以便得到動作 和環境的回饋資訊。

  • for feedback on motion and the environment.

    肌肉可以快速收縮,

  • It can contract fast enough to power the high-speed wings

    讓蜂鳥的翅膀以高速拍打;

  • of a hummingbird;

    它可以成長到非常強壯, 讓大象能夠移動;

  • it can grow strong enough to move an elephant;

    它的適應力好到可以被用在

  • and it's adaptable enough to be used in the extremely versatile arms

    非常多變化的章魚觸手上,

  • of an octopus,

    章魚可以讓它的身體 擠壓穿過小小的洞。

  • an animal that can squeeze its entire body through tiny holes.

    機器人的促動器 就像是動物的肌肉:

  • Actuators are for robots what muscles are for animals:

    是組成身體的關鍵元件,

  • key components of the body

    讓身體可以移動, 和世界進行互動。

  • that enable movement and interaction with the world.

    所以,如果我們能 打造出軟性促動器,

  • So if we could build soft actuators,

    或人造肌肉,

  • or artificial muscles,

    且多變化、適應力強,

  • that are as versatile, adaptable

    能和真實的肌肉有同樣的表現,

  • and could have the same performance as the real thing,

    那麼就能打造幾乎 任何種類的機器人 ,

  • we could build almost any type of robot

    應用在幾乎任何用途上。

  • for almost any type of use.

    不意外,數十年來人們都在嘗試

  • Not surprisingly, people have tried for many decades

    複製肌肉的驚人能力,

  • to replicate the astonishing capabilities of muscle,

    但這非常困難。

  • but it's been really hard.

    大約十年前,

  • About 10 years ago,

    當我在奧地利攻讀博士學位時,

  • when I did my PhD back in Austria,

    我和我的同事重新發現了

  • my colleagues and I rediscovered

    一篇人造肌肉的文章, 可能是最早刊出的這類文章,

  • what is likely one of the very first publications on artificial muscle,

    出版年是 1880 年。

  • published in 1880.

    「電力如何造成誘電性身體的 形狀和大小改變」,

  • \"On the shape and volume changes of dielectric bodies

    作者是德國物理學家威廉倫琴。

  • caused by electricity,\"

    大部分的人聽過他, 是因為他發現了 X 光。

  • published by German physicist Wilhelmntgen.

    我們遵循他的指示, 用了一對針頭。

  • Most of you know him as the discoverer of the X-ray.

    將針頭連結到高電壓的電源,

  • Following his instructions, we used a pair of needles.

    把它放置在透明橡膠的旁邊,

  • We connected it to a high-voltage source,

    它已先被拉伸並固定在塑膠框上。

  • and we placed it near a transparent piece of rubber

    當我們打開電源,

  • that was prestretched onto a plastic frame.

    橡膠就變形了,

  • When we switched on the voltage,

    就像我們手臂上的 二頭肌收縮屈曲,

  • the rubber deformed,

    橡膠會讓塑膠框收縮。

  • and just like our biceps flexes our arm,

    很像魔術。針頭甚至 還沒有接觸到橡膠。

  • the rubber flexed the plastic frame.

    用兩根這種針頭來操作人造肌肉,

  • It looks like magic.

    並不是很實際的方法,

  • The needles don't even touch the rubber.

    但這次很不可思議的實驗, 讓我迷上了這個主題。

  • Now, having two such needles is not a practical way

    我想要創造出新的方法, 來打造人造肌肉,

  • of operating artificial muscles,

    且能夠應用到真實世界上。

  • but this amazing experiment got me hooked on the topic.

    接下來的數年間, 我嘗試了數種不同的技術,

  • I wanted to create new ways to build artificial muscles

    全都看來有希望,

  • that would work well for real-world applications.

    但也都有一些難以克服的困難。

  • For the next years, I worked on a number of different technologies

    2015 年,

  • that all showed promise,

    我在科羅拉多大學波德分校 有了自己的實驗室,

  • but they all had remaining challenges that are hard to overcome.

    我想要嘗試一個全新的點子。

  • In 2015,

    我想要把電力驅動促動器的

  • when I started my own lab at CU Boulder,

    高速度和高效率

  • I wanted to try an entirely new idea.

    和軟性流體促動器的 多功能性結合。

  • I wanted to combine the high speed and efficiency

    因此,我心想,

  • of electrically driven actuators

    也許我可以嘗試用新的方法 來使用非常舊的科學。

  • with the versatility of soft, fluidic actuators.

    這張圖上所呈現的

  • Therefore, I thought,

    是所謂的馬克士威應力張量。

  • maybe I can try using really old science in a new way.

    拿兩片金屬板,

  • The diagram you see here

    把它們放在一個裝滿油的容器中,

  • shows an effect called Maxwell stress.

    接著開啟電壓,

  • When you take two metal plates

    馬克士威應力張量就會迫使油 向上跑到兩片板子中間,

  • and place them in a container filled with oil,

    像圖上這樣子。

  • and then switch on a voltage,

    關鍵的想法是,

  • the Maxwell stress forces the oil up in between the two plates,

    我們能否在軟性、 可伸縮的結構中,

  • and that's what you see here.

    利用這種效應來推動油?

  • So the key idea was,

    的確可以,結果非常成功,

  • can we use this effect to push around oil

    老實說,比我預期的還要好很多。

  • contained in soft stretchy structures?

    我和我一群出色的學生

  • And indeed, this worked surprisingly well,

    用這個想法當作起始點,

  • quite honestly, much better than I expected.

    來開發一種新技術, 叫做 HASEL 人造肌肉。

  • Together with my outstanding team of students,

    HASEL 很溫柔, 可以完好地拿起覆盆子,

  • we used this idea as a starting point

    不會損傷它。

  • to develop a new technology called HASEL artificial muscles.

    它們可以像真實肌肉 一樣延展和收縮。

  • HASELs are gentle enough to pick up a raspberry

    且它們動作的速度 會比真實肌肉快。

  • without damaging it.

    也可以把它們再強化, 來發出很大的力量。

  • They can expand and contract like real muscle.

    在這裡可以看見 它們舉起一加侖的水。

  • And they can be operated faster than the real thing.

    它們可以用來驅動機械手臂,

  • They can also be scaled up to deliver large forces.

    它們甚至可以感覺到自己的位置。

  • Here you see them lifting a gallon filled with water.

    HASEL 可以用來 做非常精準的動作,

  • They can be used to drive a robotic arm,

    但它們也能做出非常流暢、 類似肌肉的動作,

  • and they can even self-sense their position.

    還能爆發出力量,將球丟向空中。

  • HASELs can be used for very precise movement,

    浸入油裡面之後,

  • but they can also deliver very fluidic, muscle-like movement

    就看不見 HASEL 人造肌肉了。

  • and bursts of power to shoot up a ball into the air.

    所以,HASEL 人造肌肉怎麼運作?

  • When submerged in oil,

    你們可能會很驚訝。

  • HASEL artificial muscles can be made invisible.

    它們所使用的材料 一點也不貴,且很容易取得。

  • So how do HASEL artificial muscles work?

    我建議你們可以在家 試試主要的原理。

  • You might be surprised.

    拿幾個密封塑膠袋,裝滿橄欖油。

  • They're based on very inexpensive, easily available materials.

    盡可能把氣泡擠出去。

  • You can even try, and I recommend it,

    拿一個玻璃盤子, 放在袋子的一側。

  • the main principle at home.

    向下壓時,你會看到袋子收縮。

  • Take a few Ziploc bags and fill them with olive oil.

    收縮的大小很容易控制。

  • Try to push out air bubbles as much as you can.

    用輕的重量去壓, 就會產生些微的收縮。

  • Now take a glass plate and place it on one side of the bag.

    用中等的重量去壓, 就會產生中等的收縮。

  • When you press down, you see the bag contract.

    用重的重量去壓, 就會產生極大的收縮。

  • Now the amount of contraction is easy to control.

    HASEL 唯一的差別 就是用電力來取代

  • When you take a small weight, you get a small contraction.

    手的力量或是重量。

  • With a medium weight, we get a medium contraction.

    HASEL 是「透過水壓來擴大的 自我治癒靜電促動器」的縮寫。

  • And with a large weight, you get a large contraction.

    各位看到的這個幾何形狀叫做 皮亞諾-HASEL 促動器,

  • Now for HASELs, the only change is to replace the force of your hand

    是許多可能的設計之一。

  • or the weight with an electrical force.

    同樣的,可以用柔韌的聚合物, 比如密封塑膠袋,

  • HASEL stands for \"hydraulically amplified self-healing electrostatic actuators.\"

    裝滿絕緣的液體,比如橄欖油,

  • Here you see a geometry called Peano-HASEL actuators,

    這次,不用玻璃盤,

  • one of many possible designs.

    改用電導體,放在袋子的一側。

  • Again, you take a flexible polymer such as our Ziploc bag,

    創造出看起來像是 肌肉纖維的東西,

  • you fill it with an insulating liquid, such as olive oil,

    可以把幾個袋子連接在一起,

  • and now, instead of the glass plate,

    在一端加上重量。

  • you place an electrical conductor on one side of the pouch.

    接著,加上電壓。

  • To create something that looks more like a muscle fiber,

    電場現在開始影響到液體。

  • you can connect a few pouches together

    它會移開液體,

  • and attached a weight on one side.

    並會強迫肌肉收縮。

  • Next, we apply voltage.

    各位在這裡看到的是完成的 皮亞諾-HASEL 促動器,

  • Now, the electric field starts acting on the liquid.

    以及在加上電壓之後 它會如何延展和收縮。

  • It displaces the liquid,

    從側面看,

  • and it forces the muscle to contract.

    可以看到這些袋子的形狀 變成比較像是圓柱狀,

  • Here you see a completed Peano-HASEL actuator

    像剛才看到的密封塑膠袋一樣。

  • and how it expands and contracts when voltage is applied.

    我們也可以把幾條 肌肉纖維排在一起,

  • Viewed from the side,

    創造出更像肌肉的東西,

  • you can really see those pouches take a more cylindrical shape,

    能夠在橫斷面上收縮和延展。

  • such as we saw with the Ziploc bags.

    這些 HASEL 所舉起的重量,

  • We can also place a few such muscle fibers next to each other

    比它們自身的重量還要重兩百倍。

  • to create something that looks even more like a muscle

    這是我們的最新設計之一, 叫做四分之一甜甜圈 HASEL,

  • that also contracts and expands in cross section.

    它們在延展和收縮。

  • These HASELs here are lifting a weight that's about 200 times heavier

    它們可以動得非常快速, 達到超人的速度。

  • than their own weight.

    它們甚至強到可以跳離地面。

  • Here you see one of our newest designs, called quadrant donut HASELs

    (笑聲)

  • and how they expand and contract.

    總的來說,HASEL 的前景看好, 很可能成為第一種能夠

  • They can be operated incredibly fast, reaching superhuman speeds.

    匹敵或超越生物肌肉表現的技術,

  • They are even powerful enough to jump off the ground.

    且它還可以大規模生產。

  • (Laughter)

    這種技術還很新,我們才剛起步。

  • Overall, HASELs show promise to become the first technology

    我們有很多如何 大幅改善性能的點子,

  • that matches or exceeds the performance of biological muscle

    包括用新材料以及新設計, 來達到更高的性能,

  • while being compatible with large-scale manufacturing.

    超越生物肌肉,也超越 傳統的剛性電動馬達。

  • This is also a very young technology. We are just getting started.

    接著是更複雜的設計,靈感來自 生物的機器人學所用的 HASEL,

  • We have many ideas how to drastically improve performance,

    這個是我們的人造蝎子,

  • using new materials and new designs to reach a level of performance

    能用尾巴來捕食獵物,

  • beyond biological muscle and also beyond traditional rigid electric motors.

    這裡的獵物是橡皮氣球。

  • Moving towards more complex designs of HASEL for bio-inspired robotics,

    (笑聲)

  • here you see our artificial scorpion

    回到我們初始的靈感,

  • that can use its tail to hunt prey,

    章魚手臂的變化性 以及大象的鼻子,

  • in this case, a rubber balloon.

    現在,我們能夠打造出 軟性連續促動器,

  • (Laughter)

    越來越接近真實肌肉的能力。

  • Going back to our initial inspiration,

    最讓我感到興奮的是

  • the versatility of octopus arms and elephant trunks,

    HASEL 人造肌肉的實際應用。

  • we are now able to build soft continuum actuators

    有了它,就可以做出

  • that come closer and closer to the capabilities of the real thing.

    能夠改善生活品質的 軟性機器人裝置。

  • I am most excited about the practical applications

    軟性機器人學讓更逼真的 新世代義肢成為可能,

  • of HASEL artificial muscles.

    能用來協助失去某些身體部位的人。

  • They'll enable soft robotic devices

    這是我實驗室中的 HASEL,

  • that can improve the quality of life.

    早期的測試,驅動的是義肢手指。

  • Soft robotics will enable a new generation of more lifelike prosthetics

    將來,我們甚至可以 將我們的身體和機器部位結合。

  • for people who have lost parts of their bodies.

    我知道一開始聽起來是挺可怕的。

  • Here you see some HASELs in my lab,

    但,當我想到我的祖父母,

  • early testing, driving a prosthetic finger.

    想到他們變得越來越依賴其他人,

  • One day, we may even merge our bodies with robotic parts.

    即使簡單的日常小事也要別人幫忙, 比如他們無法獨自上廁所,

  • I know that sounds very scary at first.

    他們總覺得自己成為別人的負擔。

  • But when I think about my grandparents

    有了軟性機器人學,

  • and the way they become more dependent on others

    我們將可以強化和恢復 敏捷度和靈巧度,

  • to perform simple everyday tasks such as using the restroom alone,

    這麼一來,就可以協助老人

  • they often feel like they're becoming a burden.

    在人生中保有更長時間的自主能力。

  • With soft robotics, we will be able to enhance and restore

    也許我們可以稱之為 「抗老化機器人學」,

  • agility and dexterity,

    或甚至人類演化的下一階段。

  • and thereby help older people maintain autonomy

    和傳統僵硬的機器人不同,

  • for longer parts of their lives.

    軟性逼真的機器人能夠 在人類周圍安全地運作,

  • Maybe we can call that \"robotics for antiaging\"

    並在家中協助人類。

  • or even a next stage of human evolution.

    軟性機器人學還是個很新的領域。

  • Unlike their traditional rigid counterparts,

    我們才剛起步。

  • soft life-like robots will safely operate near people and help us at home.

    我希望許多不同背景的年輕人 能加入這趟讓人興奮的旅程,

  • Soft robotics is a very young field. We're just getting started.

    利用來自大自然的靈感,

  • I hope that many young people from many different backgrounds

    帶入新觀念,協助塑造 機器人學的未來。

  • join us on this exciting journey

    如果我們能把這件事做對,

  • and help shape the future of robotics

    就能改善生活的品質,造福眾人。

  • by introducing new concepts inspired by nature.

    謝謝。

  • If we do this right,

    (掌聲)

  • we can improve the quality of life

  • for all of us.

  • Thank you.

  • (Applause)

In 2015, 25 teams from around the world

譯者: Lilian Chiu 審譯者: Amanda Zhu

字幕與單字

影片操作 你可以在這邊進行「影片」的調整,以及「字幕」的顯示

B1 中級 中文 美國腔 TED 肌肉 機器人 身體 重量 電壓

TED】Christoph Keplinger:未來機器人的人工肌肉(The artificial muscles that will power robots of the future | Christoph Keplinger)。 (【TED】Christoph Keplinger: The artificial muscles that will power robots of the future (The artificial muscles that will power robots of

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    林宜悉 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
影片單字