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  • In the 1600s, the Dutch East India Company employed hundreds of ships to trade gold, porcelain, spices, and silks around the globe.

    在十六世紀,荷蘭東印度公司僱用了上百艘船,往返於世界各地交易黃金、瓷器、香料和絲綢。

  • But running this massive operation wasn't cheap.

    但這筆大生意做起來可不便宜。

  • In order to fund their expensive voyages, the company turned to private citizensindividuals who could invest money to support the trip in exchange for a share of the ship's profits.

    為了擁有大筆資金遠航,公司轉向普通公民 —— 那些能夠投資航行以換取部分獲利的個人戶。

  • This practice allowed the company to afford even grander voyages, increasing profits for both themselves and their savvy investors.

    這個辦法讓公司得以進行更大規模的航行,替自己和有遠見的投資人提升獲利。

  • Selling these shares in coffee houses and shipping ports across the continent, the Dutch East India Company unknowingly invented the world's first stock market.

    藉由在各地的咖啡廳和港口販售這些股份,荷蘭東印度公司不知不覺間發明了世界上第一個股票市場。

  • Since then, companies have been collecting funds from willing investors to support all kinds of businesses.

    自那時開始,公司向有意的投資人收集資金,來進行各項商業活動。

  • And today, the stock market has schools, careers, and even whole television channels dedicated to understanding it.

    在今日,甚至有學校、職業和一整個電視頻道專門在研究股票市場。

  • But the modern stock market is significantly more complicated than its original incarnation.

    但現代的股票市場遠比一開始的樣貌複雜許多。

  • So how do companies and investors use the market today?

    所以今日的公司及投資人是如何利用市場的?

  • Let's imagine a new coffee company that decides to launch on the market.

    我們來設想一間新的咖啡公司試圖推出產品上市。

  • First, the company will advertise itself to big investors.

    首先,該公司會向大型投資人宣傳並推銷自己。

  • If they think the company is a good idea, they get the first crack at investing, and then sponsor the company's initial public offering, or IPO.

    如果他們認為該公司發想不錯,他們就會進行首次投資,然後贊助公司的首次公開發行,或稱為 IPO。

  • This launches the company onto the official public market, where any company or individual who believes the business could be profitable might buy a stock.

    這讓公司正式上市,任何相信該企業有利可圖的公司或個人皆可購買股票。

  • Buying stocks makes those investors partial owners in the business.

    購買股票讓那些投資人成為該公司的部分所有人。

  • Their investment helps the company to grow, and as it becomes more successful, more buyers may see potential and start buying stocks.

    他們的投資幫助公司成長,而當公司成功,更多的買家或許會注意到它的潛力,開始購買股票。

  • As demand for those stocks increases, so does their price, increasing the cost for prospective buyers, and raising the value of the company's stocks people already own.

    當那些股票的市場需求提升,價格隨著提升,也就增加了未來買家的花費,已購買的該公司股票也增值。

  • For the company, this increased interest helps fund new initiatives, and also boosts its overall market value by showing how many people are willing to invest in their idea.

    對公司而言,這些增加的獲利幫助進行更多新投資,並藉由股東人數多寡推進該公司的整體市場價值。

  • However, if for some reason a company starts to seem less profitable the reverse can also happen.

    然而,要是一間公司出於某原因顯得不那麼有利可圖了,情況就可能翻轉。

  • If investors think their stock value is going to decline, they'll sell their stocks with the hopes of making a profit before the company loses more value.

    如果投資人認為他們的股票價值要下跌了,他們就會在公司貶值更多之前賣掉股份、試圖獲利。

  • As stocks are sold and demand for the stock goes down, the stock price falls, and with it, the company's market value.

    隨著股票被販售,市場對該股票的需求降低,價值就會降低,公司的市場價值也隨之下跌。

  • This can leave investors with big lossesunless the company starts to look profitable again.

    這可能令投資人損失慘重,除非該公司的價值恢復以往。

  • This see-saw of supply and demand is influenced by many factors.

    供需的蹺蹺板被許多因素影響。

  • Companies are under the unavoidable influence of market forcessuch as the fluctuating price of materials, changes in production technology, and the shifting costs of labor.

    公司難免受到市場力量的影響 —— 例如通貨膨脹、生產技術的改變,以及人力成本的增減。

  • Investors may be worried about changes in leadership, bad publicity, or larger factors like new laws and trade policies.

    投資人或許會擔憂領導人的改變、糟糕的宣傳,或是新法案和商業政策等大型因素。

  • And of course, plenty of investors are simply ready to sell valuable stocks and pursue personal interests.

    而理所當然的,多數投資人基本上隨時準備好販售有價值的股票、追求個人利益。

  • All these variables cause day-to-day noise in the market, which can make companies appear more or less successful.

    這所有變動性會造成每日市場波動,使得企業的成功度起起伏伏。

  • And in the stock market, appearing to lose value often leads to losing investors, and in turn, losing actual value.

    而在股票市場,看似即將貶值將導致投資人出走,因此失去實際價值。

  • Human confidence in the market has the power to trigger everything from economic booms to financial crises.

    人們對市場的信心程度足以使經濟突飛猛進,或是造成金融危機。

  • And this difficult-to-track variable is why most professionals promote reliable long-term investing over trying to make quick cash.

    基於這種難以預測的變動性,多數專業人士推薦值得信賴的長期投資,而非短期獲利。

  • However, experts are constantly building tools in efforts to increase their chances of success in this highly unpredictable system.

    然而專家隨時在建設工具,企圖在這難以預測的系統中增加自己成功的機會。

  • But the stock market is not just for the rich and powerful.

    但股票市場並非專屬於權貴。

  • With the dawn of the Internet, everyday investors can buy stocks in many of the exact same ways a large investor would.

    隨著網路的到來,人人每天都能像大型投資人一樣購買股票。

  • And as more people educate themselves about this complex system they too can trade stocks, support the businesses they believe in, and pursue their financial goals.

    而隨著越來越多人學習這套複雜的系統,他們同樣能夠購買股票、贊助他們相信的企業,並且追求自己的財務目標。

  • The first step is getting invested.

    第一步就是開始投資。

In the 1600s, the Dutch East India Company employed hundreds of ships to trade gold, porcelain, spices, and silks around the globe.

在十六世紀,荷蘭東印度公司僱用了上百艘船,往返於世界各地交易黃金、瓷器、香料和絲綢。

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B1 中級 中文 美國腔 TED-Ed 股票 投資人 公司 市場 獲利

想投資股票嗎?股票市場究竟如何運作? (How does the stock market work? - Oliver Elfenbaum)

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    April Lu 發佈於 2019 年 09 月 08 日
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