Placeholder Image

字幕列表 影片播放

已審核 字幕已審核
  • The Oval Office,

    白宮橢圓形辦公室…

  • Inauguration Day,

    美國總統就職日…

  • Rose Garden signings,

    在白宮玫瑰園簽署法案…

  • and secret service agents

    特勤人員戴著

  • with dark sunglasses and cool wrist radios.

    墨鏡和很酷的手錶無線電…

  • For a moment, forget all of it.

    現在全忘了吧!

  • Toss out everything you know about the President.

    拋開你對總統所知的每件事

  • Now, start over.

    現在,重新開始

  • What would you do if you had to invent the President?

    要怎樣設計總統這個職位?

  • That was the question facing the 55 men

    這問題正考驗著 55 個人

  • who got together in secret

    他們秘密聚在一起

  • to draw up the plans for a new American government

    要畫出新美國政府的藍圖

  • in the summer of 1787 in Philadelphia,

    這是 1787 年夏天的費城

  • in the same place where the Declaration of Independence

    正是獨立宣言

  • had been written eleven years earlier.

    11 年前撰寫的地方

  • Declaring independence had been risky business,

    宣布獨立非常危險

  • demanding ferocious courage

    需要極大的勇氣

  • that put lives and fortunes in jeopardy.

    必須置生死於度外

  • But, inventing a new government was no field day either,

    設計新政府制度也不輕鬆

  • especially when it's summer

    特別是在夏天

  • and you're in scratchy suits,

    穿著令人發癢的西裝

  • and the windows are closed

    所有門窗緊閉

  • because you don't want anybody

    因為不想讓任何人

  • to hear what you are saying,

    聽到你們所說的話

  • and the air conditioning doesn't work

    而且沒有冷氣

  • because it won't be invented for nearly 200 years.

    因為要 200 年後才發明

  • And, when you don't agree on things,

    當大家意見不同時

  • it gets even hotter.

    還會覺得更熱

  • For the framers, the question they argued over most

    對建國者而言

  • while writing the Constitution

    撰寫憲法時

  • and creating three branches of government

    要創建三權分立的政府

  • had to do with the executive department.

    最大的爭論在行政部門

  • One man or three to do the job?

    該由一個或三個人管理?

  • How long should he serve?

    該任職多久?

  • What would he really do?

    職權是什麼?

  • Who would pick him?

    怎麼選出來?

  • How to get rid of him

    要如何處理掉他

  • if he's doing a bad job or he's a crook?

    如果他做不好,或是個騙子的話?

  • And, of course, they all meant him,

    當然,他得是男性

  • and he would be a white man.

    而且是白種男性

  • The idea of a woman

    假如是女性

  • or an African American, for instance,

    或非裔美國人

  • holding this high office

    掌握這權力

  • was not a glimmer in their eyes.

    他們絕不會接受

  • But the framers knew they needed

    但建國者知道,必須找到

  • someone who could take charge,

    能掌管這個政府的人

  • especially in a crisis, like an invasion or a rebellion,

    尤其在受到侵略、叛變等危機

  • or negotiating treaties.

    以及協商條約時

  • Congress was not very good

    國會不擅長

  • at making such important decisions

    在沒有爭論和延遲下

  • without debates and delays.

    做出重要決定

  • But the framers thought America needed a man

    建國者認為美國需要一位領袖

  • who was decisive and could act quickly.

    有決策力、且行動快速

  • They called it energy and dispatch.

    他們稱之活力與執行力

  • One thing they were dead-set against:

    他們堅決反對一件事

  • there would be no king.

    不會有國王

  • They had fought a war against a country with a monarch

    他們剛和一個君主國家作戰

  • and were afraid that one man

    因此擔心,若領袖的

  • with unchecked powers, in charge of an army,

    權力不受約束,他可能會指揮軍隊

  • could take over the country.

    接管國家

  • Instead, they settled on a president

    因此他們決定總統

  • and laid out his powers in Article 2 of the Constitution.

    職權僅限於憲法第二條所列

  • But who would choose him?

    那要怎麼選出這個人呢?

  • Not the people, they were too liable to be misled

    不能是民眾,他們太容易被誤導

  • as one framer worried.

    一位建國者擔心這點

  • Not the legislature, that would lead to cabal and factions.

    不能是國會,容易產生陰謀和派系

  • Got it: electors, wise, informed men

    想到了,選舉人!有智慧又有知識

  • who have time to make a good decision.

    有時間可以做出好決定

  • And if they didn't produce a winner,

    如果沒有人勝出

  • then the decision would go to one

    決定權則交給

  • of the other branches of government, the Congress.

    三權政府的另一權-國會

  • The House of Representatives would step in

    由眾議院接手

  • and make the choice,

    做出決定

  • which they did in 1801 and 1825.

    1801 和 1825 年就是這樣

  • In the long, hot summer of 1787,

    在 1787 年漫長炙熱的夏天

  • compromises were made to invent the presidency,

    設計總統職位時有許多妥協

  • like counting slaves as 3/5 of a person,

    例如把奴隸視為 3/5 個人

  • giving the President command of the army

    讓總統可以指揮軍隊

  • but Congress the power to declare war,

    但國會才有宣戰的權力

  • and unlimited four-year terms.

    而且四年一任,沒有連任限制

  • Since then, some of those compromises have been amended

    此後許多妥協陸續被修正 (限連任一次)

  • and the men in office have sometimes been too strong or too weak.

    這位領袖有時太強勢、有時太弱勢

  • But, if you could start from scratch,

    但若可從頭開始

  • how would you redesign the Oval Office?

    你會怎麼重新設計總統職位呢?

The Oval Office,

白宮橢圓形辦公室…

字幕與單字
已審核 字幕已審核

影片操作 你可以在這邊進行「影片」的調整,以及「字幕」的顯示

B1 中級 中文 TED-Ed 總統 國會 職位 政府 連任

【TED-Ed】:美國總統制的發明 (Inventing the American presidency - Kenneth C. Davis)

  • 2505 241
    lsy 發佈於 2013 年 10 月 27 日
影片單字