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  • A rabbit attempts to play a church organ, while a knight fights a giant snail and a naked man blows a trumpet with his rear end.

    一隻彈奏管風琴的兔子、一位和巨型蝸牛打鬥的騎士,以及一個用屁股吹號角的裸體男。

  • Painted with squirrel-hair brushes on vellum or parchment by monks, nuns, and urban craftspeople, these bizarre images populate the margins of the most prized books from the Middle Ages.

    這些怪異圖片由僧侶、修女和城市匠人用松鼠毛筆描繪在牛皮紙上,中世紀名著的頁邊上都可見它們的蹤跡。

  • Their illustrations often tell a second story as rich as the text itself.

    他們的插畫往往訴說著另一個和書本內容一樣饒富趣味的故事。

  • Some images appear in many different illuminated manuscripts, and often reinforce the religious content of the books they decorated.

    一些插畫出現在多份不同的泥金裝飾手抄本中,而且通常用於強調該書的宗教意涵。

  • For example, a porcupine picking up fruit on its spines could represent the devil stealing the fruits of faith-- or Christ taking up the sins of mankind.

    舉例來說,「一隻豪豬用自己的刺拾起果實」可能代表「惡魔奪去信實的果子」,或是「基督除去人類的罪惡」。

  • Medieval lore stated that a hunter could only capture a unicorn when it lay its horn in the lap of a virgin, so a unicorn could symbolize either sexual temptation or Christ being captured by his enemies.

    中世紀傳說表示:「只有在獨角獸將角放置於處女的大腿上時,獵人才能獵捕牠」,所以「獨角獸」可能象徵了「性誘惑」或是「基督受敵人虜獲」。

  • Rabbits, meanwhile, could represent human's lustful naturesand could redeem themselves through attempts to make sacred music despite their failings.

    另一方面,「兔子」則可以象徵「人類的肉慾」,但能夠透過神聖音樂獲得救贖,即便已然墮落。

  • All of these references would have been familiar to medieval Europeans from other art forms and oral tradition, though some have grown more mysterious over the centuries.

    基於日常接觸的其他藝術作品和口傳故事,中世紀歐洲人或許都對這些象徵不陌生,雖然其中一些在幾世紀後變得更加神秘。

  • Today, no one can say for sure what the common motif of a knight fighting a snail meansor why the knight so often appears to be losing.

    在今日,沒人說得準「騎士和蝸牛搏鬥」的普遍意涵是什麼,或為什麼騎士往往打輸蝸牛。

  • The snail might be a symbol of the inevitability of death, which defeats even the strongest knights.

    「蝸牛」或許代表了「死亡的必然性」,即便是最強的騎士也無法打敗。

  • Or it could represent humility, and a knight's need to vanquish his own pride.

    或者它可能代表「謙遜」以及「身為騎士必當剷除自傲」這個道理。

  • Many illuminated manuscripts were copies of religious or classical texts, and the bookmakers incorporated their own ideas and opinions in illustrations.

    許多泥金裝飾手抄本都是抄寫自宗教和經典著作,製作這本書的人會將他們自己的想法和意見加到插畫裡。

  • The butt tuba, for example, was likely shorthand to express disapproval with-- or add an ironic spin to-- the action in the text.

    屁股號角呢,舉例來說,有可能是隨手速記來表達對於故事中某舉止的不苟同,或是用來添加諷刺意味。

  • Illuminations could also be used to make subversive political commentary.

    手抄本也能用來對政治做出顛覆性評論。

  • The text of the "Smithfield Decretals" details the Church's laws and punishments for lawbreakers.

    《史密斯菲爾德法令》詳細記載了教會針對違法者的法條和懲罰。

  • But the margins show a fox being hanged by geese, a possible allusion to the common people turning on their powerful oppressors.

    但頁邊畫了一隻狐狸被鵝吊死,或許暗示了老百姓推翻強大的壓迫者。

  • In the "Chronica Majora," Matthew Paris summarized a scandal of his day, in which the Welsh prince Griffin plummeted to his death from the tower of London.

    在《英國編年史》中,馬修.派瑞斯概述了他們那時代的一條醜聞:威爾士王子格林從倫敦塔上墜落而死。

  • Some believed the prince fell, Paris wrote, while others thought he was pushed.

    派瑞斯寫道,一些人相信王子是不小心跌落的,有些人則認為他是被推下去的。

  • He added his own take in the margins, which show the prince falling to his death while trying to escape on a rope made of bed-sheets.

    他在頁邊畫了自己的看法:王子試圖用床單繩逃出高塔時墜落致死。

  • Some margins told stories of a more personal nature.

    一些頁邊插畫則訴說了比較私人的一面。

  • "The Luttrell Psalter," a book of psalms and prayers commissioned by Sir Geoffrey Luttrell, shows a young woman having her hair done, while a young man catches a bird in a net.

    《魯垂詩集》,一本由傑佛瑞.魯垂爵士所委製的聖詩和祈禱文集,描繪了一名年輕女子編著頭髮,身邊有一位年輕男子用網抓鳥。

  • The shaved patch on his head is growing out, indicating that he is a clergyman neglecting his duties.

    他頭上理掉的頭髮又長出來了,意味著他是一個怠忽職守的教士。

  • This alludes to a family scandal where a young cleric ran away with Sir Geoffrey's daughter Elizabeth.

    這在影射一起家族醜聞:一位年輕的牧師和傑佛瑞爵士的女兒伊莉莎白私奔。

  • The family's personal spiritual advisor likely painted it into the book to remind his clients of their failings and encourage their spiritual development.

    該家族的私人精神導師畫了這幅插畫,或許是為了提醒他的委託人勿忘過往的缺失,並鼓勵他們進一步增進靈性修養。

  • Some artists even painted themselves into the manuscripts.

    一些藝術家甚至會將自己畫進手稿。

  • The opening image of Christine de Pisan's collected works shows de Pisan presenting the book to the Queen of France.

    克里斯蒂娜.德.皮桑的作品合集開場插畫描繪了她將那本書獻給法國皇后。

  • The queen was so impressed by de Pisan's previous work that she commissioned her own copy.

    皇后被德.皮桑過去的作品大為驚艷,於是委託她特別製作一份。

  • Such royal patronage enabled her to establish her own publishing house in Paris.

    皇家贊助使她得以在巴黎創立自己的出版社。

  • The tradition of illuminated manuscripts lasted for over a thousand years.

    泥金裝飾手抄本的這種傳統持續了超過一千年。

  • The books were created by individuals or teams for uses as wide-ranging as private prayer aids, service books in churches, textbooks, and protective talismans to take into battle.

    書本由個人或是團體製作,用途廣泛,提供給私人禱告時用、當做教會的祈禱書、教科書,或是給戰士當做護身符帶上戰場。

  • Across all this variation, those tricky little drawings in the margins are a unique window into the minds of medieval artists.

    這些巧妙的頁邊小插圖各有變異,它們成為獨特的窗口,讓我們得以一窺中世紀藝術家的想法。

A rabbit attempts to play a church organ, while a knight fights a giant snail and a naked man blows a trumpet with his rear end.

一隻彈奏管風琴的兔子、一位和巨型蝸牛打鬥的騎士,以及一個用屁股吹號角的裸體男。

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B2 中高級 中文 英國腔 TED-Ed 騎士 王子 裝飾 屁股 基督

用屁股吹號角?中世紀藝術原來那麼狂! (What is a butt tuba and why is it in medieval art? - Michelle Brown)

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    April Lu   發佈於 2019 年 06 月 16 日
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