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  • These photos look like they're from a hotel, or a fancy college dorm room.

    這些照片看起來好像來自飯店,或是豪華大學宿舍房間。

  • There's a gym, common areas, and private bedrooms.

    有健身房、公共區域和私人書房。

  • But this place, just outside Halden, Norway, is a prison.

    但這個位於挪威哈爾登的建築,是一所監獄。

  • There's no barbed wire, lots of greenery, and striking contemporary art.

    這裡沒有鐵絲網,有很多綠化,和醒目的當代藝術。

  • Inmates even have pretty great views out of their cell windows.

    這些住民從他們的牢房看出去甚至有不錯的景觀。

  • It's all part of a plan to make prisons more humanethrough design.

    這全起因於一個計劃,企圖透過「設計」讓監獄更顯人道。

  • The underlying philosophy behind humane prison design argues that the look and feel of a prison shouldn't be a punishment.

    人道監獄設計的出發點為:監獄的外觀和給人的感受不該是一種懲罰。

  • The sentence is taking away the freedom.

    刑期已經奪走了自由。

  • Everyday life shouldn't be a... a sentence.

    日常生活不該是一種 ... 刑期。

  • And the first thing designers focus on is the basic architecture of prison buildings.

    設計師首先關注的,是監獄建築群的基本構造。

  • In most prison architecture, facilities are consolidated into one contiguous building.

    大多數監獄構造和設施都是合併為單一毗鄰的建築。

  • A courtyard design uses a rectangular building around a central outdoor space.

    「中庭設計」採用了方形建築圍繞中央開放空間。

  • In a telephone pole design, rows of buildings are stacked like a ladder.

    「電線桿設計」是一列列的建築如梯子般排列。

  • And radial designs have corridors that branch out from a central hub, like spokes on a wheel.

    「放射型設計」則是從一個中央分支出各個廊道,就好像輪子上的輻軸。

  • While these layouts are good for moving lots of inmates around efficiently, they restrict prisoners to identical indoor hallways day after day, and tight quarters can unintentionally create tension and conflict.

    這些佈局方式雖然方便有效移動大量服刑人,卻限制了囚犯每日移動的途徑,且密集的住處有可能在無意中製造緊張情緒和衝突。

  • So humane prisons are often laid out in a campus design, where facilities are split between separate buildings, with a surrounding perimeter wall.

    所以人道監獄通常採取一種「校園設計」,設施獨立於不同的建築內,外圍則有一圈墻。

  • At Norway's Halden Prison, housing is located here, while education and visitation spaces are here, in separate buildings.

    在挪威的哈爾登監獄,住宿區在這,教育和探視區域在這裡,都在個別的建築內。

  • This means most inmates have to start their day with a commutemimicking life in the outside world and providing easy access to outdoor physical activity.

    這代表大多數服刑人需要通勤來開始一天,模擬外界的生活,並且提供一個簡單的途徑做室外運動。

  • And unlike other layouts, which have windows that look out onto the prison itself, campus design gives inmates a rich view of their surrounding environment.

    不同的還有,其他佈局方式的窗戶通常面向監獄本身,「校園設計」則予以受刑人大大的窗子看向戶外環境。

  • This access to nature also helps inmates track the passage of time.

    透過接觸大自然,受刑人能感受時間的流動。

  • The inmates felt that they were in a diving bell.

    受刑人感覺自己好像在潛水鐘裡。

  • They were disconnected with time and with space.

    他們和時間還有空間都脫節了。

  • Spending time outside and seeing days and seasons pass through windows helps reduce this problem.

    在外頭待待,或是透過窗子看日夜變換和季節的轉變,都有助於減少脫節感。

  • Plus, the grounds of humane prisons are usually landscaped carefully.

    再者,人道監獄的周邊通常都有精心的景觀設計。

  • At Halden, tall birch and pine trees dwarf the buildings and obscure the perimeter wall, lending what designers call an "anti-authoritarian" feel to the campus: inmates are never made to feel intimidated by the architecture itself.

    在哈爾登,高大的樺樹使監獄變得矮小,模糊化了圍墻,套句設計師的話:校園設計給人「反獨裁」的感受,受刑人絕不會震懾於建築物本身。

  • Building materials influence humane design too.

    人道設計也有關建築用材本身。

  • In other prisons, interiors are made from hard materials like concrete, linoleum, and steel.

    在其它監獄,室內設計採用堅硬的材料,像是水泥、油地氈和鋼鐵。

  • Materials like this block light, are visually unappealing, and constantly reflect noise.

    這類材料阻擋了光線,視覺上不好看,且經常造成噪音反彈。

  • In prisons like Halden, you'll see glass to let in natural light, and materials like cork and wood to muffle noise.

    在哈爾登監獄,你會看到玻璃讓自然光撒入室內,還有像是軟木和木頭的材料減少噪音。

  • But humane prison design isn't just about architecture and materials.

    但人道監獄的設計可不止有關建築和用料。

  • It's also about what happens inside the walls.

    也和裡頭發生的事有關。

  • Halden's design affects the way correctional officers and inmates interact.

    哈爾登的設計改變了矯正人員和受刑人互動的方式。

  • Because housing is broken up into small communities with a shared kitchen and communal space, correctional officers can easily monitor inmates through regular face-to-face contact, instead of observing large groups of people from a distance.

    由於住宿區被分為各個小區,有共用的廚房和公共區域,矯正人員就能藉著日常的面對面看守受刑人,而不是遠遠地觀察一大群。

  • And the guards' rooms are intentionally designed too small, to incentivize them to move out into the inmates' common area.

    而且守衛的房間也特別設計得過窄,促使他們出去到受刑人所在的區域。

  • And thisthat the guards are together with the inmates is a very important security system.

    這一點 —— 守衛和受刑人處在一起,是非常重要的安全系統。

  • Campus layouts help that relationship flourish.

    校園方式的佈局幫助這類相處模式的進展。

  • A study of architecture in Dutch correctional facilities found that campus design ranked highest in inmate-staff relationships.

    一項針對荷蘭矯正機構建築的研究發現:「校園設計」能帶來最佳的受刑人與監獄職員關係。

  • And US prison studies from the late '90s found that this style of direct contact resulted in fewer violent or security-related incidents.

    90 年代後期的美國監獄研究也發現:這種面對面的相處模式能夠減少暴力的發生以及安全意外。

  • Designing these humane prisons costs money.

    設計這種人道監獄可要花上一筆錢。

  • Which is why most of the groundbreaking work is happening in Western Europe and Scandinavia, where smaller prison populations and more robust social support systems allow for more flexible experimentation.

    這也是為什麼這類突破創新大多發生在西歐和斯堪地那維亞,那裡受刑人比較少且社會支持系統穩健,得以實施更有彈性的實驗做法。

  • And because US prisons often prize cost-saving over design, it's still uncommon to see them here.

    而且因為美國監獄通常比較看重開支而非設計,人道監獄還不常見。

  • But places like Halden are setting a new precedent for what the prison of the future could look like.

    但哈爾登開創了一個先例,讓人們看到監獄在未來的可能性。

  • It's so important to have a human behavior towards the people, so they are not so angry.

    用人道方式面對人群,這是很重要的,他們才不會那麼憤怒。

  • But give them... give them dignity.

    並給予他們 ... 尊嚴。

  • It might feel counterintuitive to create pleasant, well-designed spaces like this for people who've committed crimes.

    替犯下罪行的人創造舒適、良好設計的空間,這看來或許不合常理。

  • But under a design philosophy like this, being imprisoned is the punishmentthe architecture doesn't have to be.

    但在這種設計哲學下,「被監禁」本身即是種懲罰,建築本身則不需如此。

These photos look like they're from a hotel, or a fancy college dorm room.

這些照片看起來好像來自飯店,或是豪華大學宿舍房間。

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挪威設計讓你大吃一驚!你絕沒見過那麼美的監獄!(How Norway designed a more humane prison)

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    April Lu 發佈於 2019 年 06 月 16 日
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