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  • I'm a brain scientist, and as a brain scientist,

    我是個腦神經科學家。身為一個腦神經科學家

  • I'm actually interested in how the brain learns,

    我對大腦如何學習很感興趣,

  • and I'm especially interested in a possibility of

    其中,最令我感興趣的是如何讓頭腦

  • making our brains smarter, better and faster.

    變得更聰明、更好、更有效率。

  • This is in this context I'm going to tell you

    在這個大前提之下,我將會談到電玩遊戲。

  • about video games. When we say video games,

    當我們談起電玩遊戲時

  • most of you think about children.

    大部分的人都會想到小孩子

  • It's true. Ninety percent of children do play video games.

    沒錯。百分之九十的小孩都有玩電玩遊戲

  • But let's be frank.

    但是,坦白講

  • When the kids are in bed, who is in front of the PlayStation?

    當小孩們都就寢時,是誰還待在電子遊樂器 PlayStation 前呢?

  • Most of you. The average age of a gamer is 33 years old,

    是絕大部分的你們。電玩玩家的平均年齡大約是 33 歲,

  • not eight years old, and in fact, if we look

    並非八歲的小朋友。實際上,如果我們看看

  • at the projected demographics of video game play,

    電玩遊戲的人口統計推算

  • the video game players of tomorrow are

    未來的玩家將會是

  • older adults. (Laughter)

    較年長的成人。(大笑)

  • So video [gaming] is pervasive throughout our society.

    所以電玩遊戲在我們的社會中是很常見的

  • It is clearly here to stay. It has an amazing impact

    它們會繼續存在於社會上,對於我們的日常生活來說

  • on our everyday life. Consider these statistics

    這具有不可思議的影響力看看這些由 Activision 發佈的統計數字

  • released by Activision. After one month of release

    在發行「決勝時刻:黑色行動」的一個月後

  • of the game "Call Of Duty: Black Ops," it had been played

    這款遊戲讓全世界

  • for 68,000 years

    的玩家花上 68,000 年

  • worldwide, right?

    對不對?

  • Would any of you complain if this was the case

    如果人們花同樣的時間在練習線性代數

  • about doing linear algebra?

    在場的各位會有埋怨嗎?

  • So what we are asking in the lab is, how can we leverage that power?

    所以在我們的實驗室裡,我們在思考如何發揮利用這樣的潛力?

  • Now I want to step back a bit.

    現在,我想要退一步來談談別的

  • I know most of you have had the experience of coming back

    我知道你們大部分都有這樣的經驗 -- 回到家

  • home and finding your kids playing these kinds of games.

    發現你的孩子在玩類似的遊戲

  • (Shooting noises) The name of the game is to get

    (射擊的聲音) 這款遊戲

  • after your enemy zombie bad guys

    要你在殭屍敵人抓住你之前

  • before they get to you, right?

    打倒它們,對嗎?

  • And I'm almost sure most of you have thought,

    我幾乎百分之百肯定你們大多數會想

  • "Oh, come on, can't you do something more intelligent

    「拜託,難道你除了射擊殭屍

  • than shooting at zombies?"

    就不能幹一些更聰明的事嗎?」

  • I'd like you to put this kind of knee-jerk reaction

    我想你把這樣的第一反應

  • in the context of what you would have thought

    套用到以下的情境

  • if you had found your girl playing sudoku

    如果你發現你的小女兒在玩數獨

  • or your boy reading Shakespeare. Right?

    或是你的小兒子在閱讀「莎士比亞」,你會怎樣想呢?

  • Most parents would find that great.

    大多數的父母認為他們太棒了

  • Well, I'm not going to tell you that playing video games

    嗯.. 我說的並不是,日以繼夜玩著電玩

  • days in and days out is actually good for your health.

    對你的健康是有益的

  • It's not, and binging is never good.

    並非如此。過分沈迷從來就沒有好處

  • But I'm going to argue that in reasonable doses,

    但是,我想論證的是適量地玩電玩遊戲

  • actually the very game I showed you at the beginning,

    特別是我在演講剛開始時展示的那種動作電玩的射擊遊戲

  • those action-packed shooter games

    特別是我在演講剛開始時展示的那種動作電玩的射擊遊戲

  • have quite powerful effects and positive effects

    對於我們許多不同的行為

  • on many different aspects of our behavior.

    有強大和正面的影響。

  • There's not one week that goes without some major

    媒體的頭條上,沒有一個星期

  • headlines in the media about whether video games are

    不是在討論到底電玩遊戲對你

  • good or bad for you, right? You're all bombarded with that.

    是有益的還是有害的,對嗎?你們都被這個議題疲勞轟炸了

  • I'd like to put this kind of Friday night bar discussion aside

    我想將這些星期五晚上的酒吧話題攔置一旁

  • and get you to actually step into the lab.

    帶你進入實驗室

  • What we do in the lab is actually measure directly,

    在實驗室裡,我們採用量化的測量方式

  • in a quantitative fashion, what is the impact

    實實在在測試電玩遊戲對大腦

  • of video games on the brain.

    造成那些影響。

  • And so I'm going to take a few examples from our work.

    我將會從我們的研究中挑選幾個例子。

  • One first saying that I'm sure you all have heard

    首先提到的,我相信你們都一定聽說過

  • is the fact that too much screen time

    使用螢幕的時間過久

  • makes your eyesight worse.

    會使你的視力的變差。

  • That's a statement about vision.

    這是一項對於視覺的陳述。

  • There may be vision scientists among you.

    也許,在場的各位當中有視覺方面的科學家。

  • We actually know how to test that statement.

    其實,我們知道如何測試這個陳述

  • We can step into the lab and measure how good your vision is.

    我們可以走進實驗室裡,然後測試你的視力有多好

  • Well, guess what? People that don't play a lot

    嗯... 你能想得到嗎? 那些不常玩電玩動作遊戲的人

  • of action games, that don't actually spend a lot of time

    或是那些沒花長時間在螢幕前的人

  • in front of screens, have normal, or what we call

    有著正常,或者我們說

  • corrective-to-normal vision. That's okay.

    經糾正的視力,這沒什麼稀奇的。

  • The issue is what happens with these guys that actually

    問題是這些沉迷

  • indulge into playing video games like five hours per week,

    在電玩的世界裡的人,像那些每個星期會花5個小時、

  • 10 hours per week, 15 hours per week.

    10個小時或15個小時在電玩上會變得怎樣呢?

  • By that statement, their vision should be really bad, right?

    誠如上述所敘,他們的視力應該會很糟糕才對,是嗎?

  • Guess what? Their vision is really, really good.

    你能想得到嗎?他們的視力真的是好的不得了

  • It's better than those that don't play.

    比那些不玩電玩的人還要好

  • And it's better in two different ways.

    他們的視力在兩方面比一般人優勝

  • The first way is that they're actually able to resolve

    第一個是他們有足夠的能力

  • small detail in the context of clutter, and though that means

    在雜亂的背景中分辨微小細節,所以這意謂著

  • being able to read the fine print on a prescription

    他們可以清楚地看到醫生處方上微細字體

  • rather than using magnifier glasses, you can actually do it

    而不用放大鏡,事實上你可以

  • with just your eyesight.

    在裸視的情況這樣做

  • The other way that they are better is actually being able

    另一個方面則是他們其實有更佳的能力

  • to resolve different levels of gray.

    去辨別不同程度的灰色。

  • Imagine you're driving in a fog. That makes a difference

    想像你在一片霧茫茫的地方開車,分辨灰色的能力

  • between seeing the car in front of you

    能夠令你看到前方的汽車、

  • and avoiding the accident, or getting into an accident.

    避免發生意外,而非遇上意外

  • So we're actually leveraging that work to develop games

    所以,我們為視力較差的病人

  • for patients with low vision, and to have an impact

    開發一些遊戲,以此來訓練

  • on retraining their brain to see better.

    他們的大腦,讓他們能夠看得較清楚。

  • Clearly, when it comes to action video games,

    實驗顯示,關於玩動作電玩

  • screen time doesn't make your eyesight worse.

    使用螢幕並不會讓你的視力變差

  • Another saying that I'm sure you have all heard around:

    另外一個說法是,我相信你們都聽過:

  • Video games lead to attention problems and greater distractability.

    電玩遊戲會導致注意力的問題並且使人難集中精神

  • Okay, we know how to measure attention in the lab.

    沒問題,我們知道如何在實驗室裡測量注意力

  • I'm actually going to give you an example of how we do so.

    我將會舉個例子來說明這是如何進行的

  • I'm going to ask you to participate, so you're going to have

    我想請你們參與其中,所以你將會

  • to actually play the game with me. I'm going to show you

    跟我一起玩這個遊戲。接下來,我會展示一些彩色的文字

  • colored words. I want you to shout out the color of the ink.

    我要你大聲地唸出該文字的顏色

  • Right? So this is the first example.

    沒問題吧? 先看第一個例子

  • ["Chair"]

    [椅子]

  • Orange, good. ["Table"] Green.

    橙色,好。[桌子] 綠色

  • ["Board"] Audience: Red.Daphne Bavelier: Red.

    [板子] 觀眾:紅色達芙妮‧芭菲莉亞:紅色

  • ["Horse"] DB: Yellow. Audience: Yellow.

    [馬] 達芙妮‧芭菲莉亞:黃色觀眾:黃色

  • ["Yellow"] DB: Red. Audience: Yellow.

    [黃色] 達芙妮‧芭菲莉亞:紅色觀眾:黃色

  • ["Blue"] DB: Yellow.

    [藍色] 達芙妮‧芭菲莉亞:黃色。

  • Okay, you get my point, right? (Laughter)

    好的,你懂我的意思了吧? (大笑)

  • You're getting better, but it's hard. Why is it hard?

    你會越做越好的,但是其實是有難度的。為什麼你會覺得很難呢?

  • Because I introduced a conflict between

    因為我讓你看到了

  • the word itself and its color.

    文字與顏色之間的衝突

  • How good your attention is determines actually how fast

    你的注意力高低決定了你

  • you resolve that conflict, so the young guys here

    解決這種衝突的快慢,所以在這場遊戲裡

  • at the top of their game probably, like, did a little better

    頂尖的年輕佼佼者可能做得比

  • than some of us that are older.

    一些我們當中較年長的人好

  • What we can show is that when you do this kind of task

    我們傳達訊息是,當你用這個方式

  • with people that play a lot of action games,

    測試那些經常玩動作電玩遊戲的人

  • they actually resolve the conflict faster.

    你會發現他們能以較快的速度解決這類衝突。

  • So clearly playing those action games doesn't lead

    所以,很明顯的,玩動作電玩並不會

  • to attention problems.

    導致注意力問題

  • Actually, those action video game players have

    實際上,這些動作電玩遊戲的玩家

  • many other advantages in terms of attention, and one

    有著許多有關注意力的特長

  • aspect of attention which is also improved for the better

    動作電玩遊戲能夠改善

  • is our ability to track objects around in the world.

    我們在這世界裡追蹤物體的能力。

  • This is something we use all the time. When you're driving,

    這些是我們平日常用的能力。我們在開車時,

  • you're tracking, keeping track of the cars around you.

    你會追隨前方的車,持續地追蹤在你附近的車

  • You're also keeping track of the pedestrian, the running dog,

    你也會隨時注意行人、正在奔跑的狗。

  • and that's how you can actually be safe driving, right?

    這些事都是令你能夠安全駕駛,對吧?

  • In the lab, we get people to come to the lab,

    在實驗室裡,我們讓受測者走進實驗室,

  • sit in front of a computer screen, and we give them

    坐在電腦螢幕前,然後給他們一些小任務。

  • little tasks that I'm going to get you to do again.

    我將會給你們相同的任務讓你們再做一次。

  • You're going to see yellow happy faces

    你會看到黃色的笑臉

  • and a few sad blue faces. These are children

    和藍色的哭臉。這些都是在冬天的日內瓦

  • in the schoolyard in Geneva during a recess

    某個校園裏課間休息的小孩。

  • during the winter. Most kids are happy. It's actually recess.

    大部分的小孩都很開心,課間休息嘛

  • But a few kids are sad and blue because they've forgotten their coat.

    但是一些小孩則是很傷心且是憂鬱的,因為他們忘記帶外套。

  • Everybody begins to move around, and your task

    大家開始隨意活動,而你的任務是

  • is to keep track of who had a coat at the beginning

    持續追蹤那些在一開始有穿外套和

  • and who didn't. So I'm just going to show you an example

    後來沒有穿外套的小孩。接著,我將會展示一個例子,

  • where there is only one sad kid. It's easy because you can

    只有一個傷心的小孩。這非常的簡單

  • actually track it with your eyes. You can track,

    因為你只需要追蹤一個小孩。你可以追蹤,

  • you can track, and then when it stops, and there is

    你可以追蹤,然後他停下來的時候,

  • a question mark, and I ask you, did this kid have a coat or not?

    這裏會出現一個問號,我問你,這個小孩有穿外套嗎?

  • Was it yellow initially or blue?

    他本來是黃色還是藍色呢?

  • I hear a few yellow. Good. So most of you have a brain. (Laughter)

    我聽到一些人說"黃色"。好,那證明你們大部分都有點腦袋 (笑聲)

  • I'm now going to ask you to do the task, but now with

    我現在想再給你們一個任務,但這次

  • a little more challenging task. There are going to be

    會是一個更難的任務。這裏有

  • three of them that are blue. Don't move your eyes.

    三個藍色的小孩。不要移動你的眼晴

  • Please don't move your eyes. Keep your eyes fixated

    請不要移動你的眼晴。盡量將你的視線保持

  • and expand, pull your attention. That's the only way

    及放大,牽動你的 注意力。這是唯一

  • you can actually do it. If you move your eyes, you're doomed.

    令你可以完成這個任務的方法。如果你移動你的眼晴,你注定要失敗了

  • Yellow or blue?

    黃色還是藍色?

  • Audience: Yellow.DB: Good.

    觀眾: 黃色。 達芙妮‧芭菲莉亞: 好!

  • So your typical normal young adult

    一個正常成年人的注意力

  • can have a span of about three or four objects of attention.

    大概可以追蹤三至四個物件

  • That's what we just did. Your action video game player

    就像我們剛完成的任務。一個動作電玩遊戲玩家的注意力

  • has a span of about six to seven objects of attention,

    令他可以同時追踨六至七個物件

  • which is what is shown in this video here.

    就像這個片段中展示的那樣

  • That's for you guys, action video game players.

    這是你們這些動作電玩遊戲玩家能做到的

  • A bit more challenging, right? (Laughter)

    有一點挑戰性,是嗎? (笑聲)

  • Yellow or blue? Blue. We have some people

    黃色還是藍色呢? 藍色,我們當中有些人

  • that are serious out there. Yeah. (Laughter)

    相當認真呢! 好極了! (笑聲)

  • Good. So in the same way that we actually see

    好! 就像我們能夠觀察到

  • the effects of video games on people's behavior,

    電玩玩家行為上的變化一樣

  • we can use brain imaging and look at the impact

    我們可以利用腦掃描技術,看看這些電玩遊戲

  • of video games on the brain, and we do find many changes,

    對大腦的影響,我們發現很多的變化

  • but the main changes are actually to the brain networks

    但是最多的變化出現在用於控制注意力

  • that control attention. So one part is the parietal cortex

    的神經網絡。其中一個部分是在大腦頂葉 (parietal lobe)、

  • which is very well known to control the orientation of attention.

    用於控制的注意力運用的大腦區域

  • The other one is the frontal lobe, which controls

    第二個是大腦額葉 (frontal lobe),它控制

  • how we sustain attention, and another one

    我們的持續專注力

  • is the anterior cingulate, which controls how we allocate

    以及前帶狀皮層 (anterior cingulate),它控制我們怎樣

  • and regulate attention and resolve conflict.

    分配及管理注意力及解決衝突

  • Now, when we do brain imaging, we find that all three

    我們參考腦掃描影像的時候,發現

  • of these networks are actually much more efficient

    動作遊戲玩家的這三個神經網絡

  • in people that play action games.

    效率特別高

  • This actually leads me to a rather counterintuitive finding

    這引領我到一個在學術文獻中

  • in the literature about technology and the brain.

    有關科技與大腦的驚喜發現

  • You all know about multitasking. You all have been faulty

    你們都知道甚麼是「多任務處理」(multitasking)吧。

  • of multitasking when you're driving

    你們都試過做多任務處理的壞事吧。

  • and you pick up your cellphone. Bad idea. Very bad idea.

    在駕車時用手機就是其中一個例子。不是很明智的想法,非常壞的想法。

  • Why? Because as your attention shifts to your cell phone,

    為甚麼? 因為當你的注意力移到手機的時候

  • you are actually losing the capacity to react swiftly

    你實際上是失去了

  • to the car braking in front of you, and so you're

    敏捷剎車的能力,這時你遇上交通意外

  • much more likely to get engaged into a car accident.

    的機會大大提高。

  • Now, we can measure that kind of skills in the lab.

    現在,我們可以在實驗室裏量度這種技能

  • We obviously don't ask people to drive around and see

    我們當然不會要求參加者漫無目的地駕駛

  • how many car accidents they have. That would be a little

    跟著量度他們的意外率。這會是一個

  • costly proposition. But we design tasks on the computer

    代價相當高的主張。但是我們設計了一些在電腦上運行的實驗

  • where we can measure, to millisecond accuracy,

    令我們可以以毫秒的準確度

  • how good they are at switching from one task to another.

    去量度參加者從一個任務轉移到另一個任務的能力

  • When we do that, we actually find that people

    我們這樣做的時候,我們發現

  • that play a lot of action games are really, really good.

    動作遊戲玩家的表現非常、非常的優異

  • They switch really fast, very swiftly. They pay a very small cost.

    他們在轉移任務上相當快,非常迅速。轉移任務的代價相對很少

  • Now I'd like you to remember that result, and put it

    我想你們記住這一個發現,並將它

  • in the context of another group of technology users,

    套用到另一組的科技用家上

  • a group which is actually much revered by society,

    一個社會大眾都崇敬的群組

  • which are people that engage in multimedia-tasking.

    他們是經常作「多媒體任務處理」 (multimedia-tasking) 的一群

  • What is multimedia-tasking? It's the fact that most of us,

    甚麼是「多媒體任務處理」呢? 大部分我們的孩子當中

  • most of our children, are engaged with listening to music

    他們在網上搜尋資訊的時候

  • at the same time as they're doing search on the web

    一邊聽著音樂

  • at the same time as they're chatting on Facebook with their friends.

    一邊與朋友在臉書 (facebook) 上交談

  • That's a multimedia-tasker.

    這就是會做多媒體任務處理的人

  • There was a first study done by colleagues at Stanford

    在史丹福大學的同事首先發表了一個研究

  • and that we replicated that showed that

    我們也複制了一樣的實驗結果

  • those people that identify as being high multimedia-taskers

    這些被界定為高效的多媒體任務處理者

  • are absolutely abysmal at multitasking.

    其實是糟透的多任務處理者

  • When we measure them in the lab, they're really bad.

    當我們量度他們的表現時,他們的表現相當差

  • Right? So these kinds of results really

    真的嗎? 這些實驗結果告訴我們

  • makes two main points.

    兩個重點

  • The first one is that not all media are created equal.

    第一,不同媒體對我們的表現有不同的影響

  • You can't compare the effect of multimedia-tasking

    你不能直接比較多媒體處理

  • and the effect of playing action games. They have

    與參加電玩動作遊戲的影響

  • totally different effects on different aspects of cognition,

    它們對於我們眾多的認知能力,如感知、注意力方面

  • perception and attention.

    有截然不同的影響

  • Even within video games, I'm telling you right now

    我告訴你們,即使不同的電玩遊戲

  • about these action-packed video games.

    這些充滿動作的電玩遊戲

  • Different video games have a different effect on your brains.

    對你們的大腦亦會產生不同的影響

  • So we actually need to step into the lab and really measure

    我們真的要踏進實驗室

  • what is the effect of each video game.

    去量度每個遊戲所產生的影響

  • The other lesson is that general wisdom carries no weight.

    另外一件我學到的事就是大眾智慧不一定準確

  • I showed that to you already, like we looked at the fact that

    我已經向你展示,就像我們知道

  • despite a lot of screen time, those action gamers

    即使長期對著電腦螢幕,那些動作遊戲玩家

  • have a lot of very good vision, etc.

    有很好的視力,諸如此類...

  • Here, what was really striking is that these undergraduates

    這裏,令人吃驚的是

  • that actually report engaging in a lot of high

    這些指自已經常作多媒體處理的大學本科生

  • multimedia-tasking are convinced they aced the test.

    真的相信自己在測試中做得很棒

  • So you show them their data, you show them they are bad

    你給他們看數據,看到自己那些糟糕的表現

  • and they're like, "Not possible." You know, they have

    他們會說: 不可能。你知道,他們

  • this sort of gut feeling that, really, they are doing really, really good.

    有著這種直覺,就是覺得他們自己表現得非常、非常的優異

  • That's another argument for why we need to step into the lab

    這就是另一個我們要踏進實驗室的原因

  • and really measure the impact of technology on the brain.

    去實際測量科技對我們的大腦產生的變化。

  • Now in a sense, when we think about the effect

    在某一個程度上,當我們想著電玩遊戲

  • of video games on the brain, it's very similar

    對我們大腦的影響,就正如