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  • We're standing in the piazza, the square in front of the Pantheon.

    我們現在位於萬神殿前的露天廣場。

  • This is the best preserved ancient Roman monument.

    這是保存最良好的古羅馬紀念性建築。

  • And yet, look at the sense of age.

    但是看看那年代感。

  • Look at the weathering.

    看看那褪色、侵蝕。

  • Look at the way in which its history is revealed through its surface.

    看看這建築表面如何體現出所經歷的年歲。

  • It's been attacked.

    它曾經遭到攻擊。

  • Its original bronze fittings have been ripped off.

    它原本的黃銅飾件已經剝落。

  • Look at the numerous holes, for instance, in pediment, that tell of all the different purposes that this building has been put to.

    看看那些坑洞,例如看看三角牆上,它們訴說著萬神殿從古至今發揮什麼樣的功能。

  • Originally a temple to the gods, then sanctified and made into a church.

    最初為崇敬眾神的廟宇,(獻給羅馬教皇後) 被神聖化為一座教堂。

  • Now of course, it's also a major tourist attraction.

    當然現在它也是重要的觀光景點。

  • This is a building that has had just a tremendously complex history.

    此建築背後有著極其複雜的歷史。

  • And you can see it all over its surface.

    從建築表面就看得出來。

  • We're seeing it very differently than anyone in antiquity would have seen it.

    相較於古代,現代人眼中的萬神殿非常不同。

  • In fact, we're standing many feet higher than we would have been in the ancient world.

    事實上我們所佔的位置比以前還高上好幾英呎。

  • Rome accumulated elevation from the debris of history.

    羅馬從歷史遺跡裡一步步向上發展。

  • Once, you would have stepped up to the porch of the Pantheon.

    在以前你可以踏上萬神殿的門廊。

  • Now, we actually lie downhill.

    我們現在其實處在下坡位置。

  • And the space in front of the Pantheon was framed by a colonnade.

    列柱圍起了萬神殿前面的空間。

  • The colonnade and the other buildings that would have originally surrounded this building would have obscured the barrel on the side, and so that we would have only seen this very traditional temple front.

    列柱還有其他建築原本環繞著萬神殿、遮住側邊的桶狀拱頂;我們以前只會看到十分傳統的廟宇正面。

  • Exactly.

    沒錯。

  • It would have been something very familiar.

    以前看起來會是似曾相似的模樣。

  • And the surprise was what happened as you approached the threshold.

    當你接近門檻,會有意想不到的事物出現。

  • I have to tell you that I'm absolutely in love with those massive columns.

    我必須說我完全對那些巨大的柱子感到著迷不已。

  • They are supported by these enormous marble bases.

    柱子有巨大的大理石基柱支撐著。

  • They rise up unarticulated, without any fluting.

    它們恣意地向上延伸,柱體沒有任何溝槽。

  • And then... and in these massive fragments of what were originally marble Corinthian capitals.

    而這些巨型碎塊原本來自科林斯式大理石柱。

  • These are monoliths.

    這些是獨石柱。

  • They're single pieces of stone.

    它們是獨塊巨石。

  • Unlike Greek columns, they were not segmented.

    不像希臘式柱子那般劃分成不同區塊。

  • They were not cut.

    它們未經切割。

  • And they were imported from Egypt, which was symbolic of Rome's power over most of the Mediterranean under the emperor Hadrian, who was responsible for the construction of this building.

    這些巨石從埃及引進。在哈德良皇帝的統治下,羅馬的權利幾乎遍及地中海,埃及正是其權利表徵;而也是哈德良下令修築萬神殿。

  • So let's go in.

    我們入內參觀吧!

  • Let's go under the porch.

    我們走進門廊。

  • Let's go through those massive bronze doors.

    我們穿過巨大的黃銅大門。

  • We just walked in under the strictly rectilinear porch.

    我們剛剛穿過完美筆直的門廊。

  • And then the space opens up.

    接著整個空間在眼前開展。

  • Opens up into this vast circular space.

    呈現出如此開闊的圓形空間。

  • The width of the building and the height of the building completely fills my field of vision.

    建築的寬度、高度占滿了我的視野。

  • And it is, in a sense, an expression of the limits of my sight.

    從某個角度來看,這象徵著人類視野的界線。

  • Unlike a basilica, this is a radial building.

    不像宗座聖殿,萬神殿是放射狀的建築。

  • That is to say that it has a central point and radiates outward from that central point.

    也就是說它有個中心點,並從中央往外放射出整個空間。

  • But what's fascinating about this building is that it's not a traditional radial structure, in that the point would be on the floor.

    但奇特的地方在於它並非傳統的放射性建築設計;典型的放射中心點會在地板上。

  • The central point, its focus, is midway between the floor and the ceiling, and midway between its walls.

    萬神殿的中心點、焦點則是位在地板、天花板,還有牆壁之間的中介處。

  • It is large enough, and geometrically perfect enough, to accommodate a perfect sphere.

    它夠寬廣,且幾何設計足夠精確,才能呈現出完美的圓形空間。

  • And, as soon as you walk in, you notice that there's a kind of obsession with circles, with rectangles, with squares, with those kinds of perfect geometrical shapes.

    你一走進去就會發現萬神殿對於圓形、長方形、正方形等幾何形狀的要求一絲不苟。

  • This is a structure that is concerned with the ideal geometries.

    此建築結構考量到最理想的幾何設計。

  • But it also locates our place within those geometries.

    同樣地,它也用那些幾何形狀標出我們的所在位置。

  • But the experience of being in this space is anything but static.

    但這空間給人的感覺絕不是靜止的。

  • No, it's really dynamic, in fact.

    不,它實際上非常具有動態感。

  • One of the causes of that is if we move our eye up the columns, you can see that they're beautifully aligned with the frieze of false windows that are just above them.

    其中一個原因是當我們沿著柱子往上看,就會發覺柱子與正上方內嵌式窗戶的簷壁飾帶恰好切齊。

  • But then all of that does not align with the dome.

    可是這些卻沒有對齊圓頂。

  • That's right. They don't align with the coffers that we see in the dome.

    沒錯。它們並未對齊圓頂內部的下凹處。

  • What that does is creates this feeling that the barrel that the dome rests on is independent from the dome, and almost makes it feel as if the dome could rotate.

    這使得支撐圓頂的拱頂結構感覺上與圓頂分離,讓圓頂看起來好像會旋轉。

  • That complex visual relationship between the dome and the decorative structures in the barrel remind us that this actual structural system here is dependent on concrete, and not these decorative columns that we see on the interior.

    圓頂和飾物之間如此複雜的視覺效果提醒我們:建築結構是奠基在水泥地,而非內部的飾柱。

  • Exactly.

    沒錯。

  • There's thick, thick barrel of concrete that supports the dome.

    水泥製成的厚重桶狀拱頂支撐住圓頂。

  • Because a dome pushes down and out, Roman architects had to think about how to support the weight and pressure of the dome.

    因為圓頂結構會向下、向外施加壓力,羅馬建築師必須想辦法來支撐這樣的重量。

  • And one of the things that's doing that are the thick concrete walls of the barrel.

    其中一項解決之道就是拱頂厚厚的水泥牆。

  • You know, the Romans had really perfected concrete.

    你知道,羅馬人著實提升了水泥的應用層次。

  • And this is one of the buildings that shows what was possible.

    萬神殿是其中一座拓展建築潛力的作品。

  • This is shaping space, because concrete could be continuous.

    它用水泥架構了空間,因為水泥具有延展性。

  • It could be built upward continuously with wooden forms, which would then be removed and then could open the space up in a way that post and lintel architecture never could.

    水泥可以跟著木框一起不斷往上蓋,接著移除木框就能拓展空間;這是邊柱和過樑結構無法做出的效果。

  • So concrete could be laid onto a wooden support or mold, and could be shaped in a way that you can't do with post and lintel architecture.

    水泥可以塗抹在木頭支架或模型上,且形塑出邊柱、過樑達不到的效果。

  • Well, what it does is it allows for this vast, open, uninterrupted space.

    水泥能夠做出這般寬廣、開放、無阻礙的空間。

  • We walk into the space and we feel freed.

    走進這個空間後會產生被解放的感覺。

  • We are given a tremendous amount of freedom in terms of how we move and how we see through this space.

    在移動、觀賞方面,這空間給我們極大的自由。

  • Because of the Roman use of concrete, the idea that architecture could be something that shaped space and that could have a different kind of relationship to the viewer.

    因為羅馬使用水泥的方式,建築可以形塑空間,可以與觀賞者建立不同的關係。

  • It is even now, in the 21st century, awesome.

    即便到了今天—21 世紀,萬神殿依舊令人讚嘆。

  • The emperor Hadrian, under whose direction this building was constructed, apparently loved the building and loved to actually have visitors come to him here.

    下令修築的哈德良皇帝據說非常喜愛萬神殿,喜歡到在裡面接見賓客。

  • One could imagine him even in the back apse opposite the entrance.

    皇帝有時候甚至會跑到入口對面的教堂後殿。

  • The Pantheon originally contained sculptures of the gods, of the deified emperors, we think.

    起初萬神殿裡有眾神的雕像,我們認為那些是神格化的皇帝。

  • It really was about the divine.

    當時萬神殿是神聖的。

  • It was about the earthly sphere meeting the heavenly sphere.

    那是人間與天上世界的交會場域。

  • And also in some way about human perception.

    並且在某些層面上關係到人類的感知。

  • Look how rich the surface is.

    看看這個表面多麼富有變化。

  • And there would've been much more in antiquity, when the coffers probably had gilded rosettes.

    以前應該有更多,圓頂下凹處當時可能有鍍金的玫瑰花型裝飾。

  • As we look at the drum, we see colored marble.

    觀察圓頂下的桶狀建築結構時,我們會看到上了色的大理石。

  • We see purples, and oranges, and blues.

    有紫色、橘色、藍色。

  • Remember, these marbles are taken from around the Roman Empire.

    注意,這些大理石是從羅馬帝國周圍蒐羅而來的。

  • So this is really an expression of Hadrian's wealth and Hadrian's power.

    所以它其實是哈德良皇帝財富與權力的表徵。

  • This is the empire being able to reach across the globe to draw in these precious materials.

    當時這個帝國可以橫跨全球,收集這些貴重的建材。

  • Perhaps the most exciting part of this space is the oculus.

    其中最精彩的部分是這處「眼睛」("oculus" 為 "eye" 的拉丁文)。

  • Because it almost seems to defy reason.

    因為它似乎是違反理性的設計。

  • How could there be a hole in the center of that dome?

    圓頂的中央處怎麼會有個洞?

  • It doesn't make sense.

    這不合理吧!

  • Well, it's the only light that comes into this space, with the exception of some light wells in some of the recessed areas, and of course, the grill just above the door, and the door itself.

    除了從牆壁凹處、門上方的鏤空花紋,以及門本身溢出的少許光線,「眼睛」是這個空間唯一的光線來源。

  • There is one great window.

    那裡有座宏偉的窗戶。

  • And my students for years have asked, is there glass?

    多年來我的學生都會問:「窗戶上有玻璃嗎?」

  • And of course, the answer is no.

    當然,答案是否定的。

  • When it rains, the floor gets wet.

    下雨的時候地板會濕掉。

  • The perfect circle of that oculus.

    「眼睛」的完美圓形。

  • The perfect circle of the dome.

    圓頂的完美圓形。

  • The oculus is critical in the issues that you had raised before.

    「眼睛」在你之前提出的問題裡扮演關鍵的角色。

  • This is a building that in some way is a reflection of the movement of the heavens.

    此建築在某些層面上反映了天上世界的活動。

  • And what happens is light moves into this space from the sun.

    太陽光線會射入這個空間。

  • It projects often a very sharp circle on the dome, and moves across the floor of the building as the sun moves across the sky, and then eventually creeps up the other side of the dome.

    在圓頂上投射出非常鮮明的圓形,隨著太陽在天空中移動,圓形在建築地板的位置也會改變,最終爬上圓頂的另一邊。

  • And so this entire building functions in some ways almost like a sundial.

    因此從某個角度來看,整個萬神殿幾乎就像是日晷一般。

  • It makes visible the movements of the heavens and makes them manifest here on Earth.

    它讓天上的活動變得可見、體現於人間。

  • We've been talking about this building as a great monument of the ancient world.

    我們口中的萬神殿一直是古代世界的偉大紀念建築。

  • But it was admired and copied in the Renaissance, and in fact is perhaps the most influential building in architecture in the Renaissance and in the modern era.

    可是在文藝復興時期人們景仰、複製萬神殿,事實上它或許是文藝復興與現代最具影響力的建築。

  • I mean, think about all of the different architects that have referenced this building.

    想想看有多少不同的建築師曾經參考這座建築。

  • I'm looking down at the floors and the geometry that you spoke of, the circles and squares.

    我正向下望著地板、你提過的幾何圖案,圓形和方形。

  • And I'm thinking about the pavement in front of the Guggenheim Museum on Fifth Avenue in New York.

    這讓我想到了紐約第五大道上古根漢美術館前的人行道。

  • Actually, once you know the Pantheon, you begin to see copies of it and pieces of it everywhere.

    一旦了解萬神殿,你就會注意到好多地方都仿造萬神殿,應用萬神殿的某個元素。

  • It's true.

    沒錯。

  • The dome especially is perhaps the most copied element, especially with the oculus.

    加上「眼睛」的圓頂或許是最廣受模仿的元素。

  • You can see that, for instance, in the National Gallery in Washington.

    舉例來說,你可以在華盛頓的國家藝廊找到。

  • You can see it in almost every Neoclassical building in Europe and North America.

    在歐洲、北美,幾乎每一棟新古典建築都可以看到。

  • But before we leave, I'd love to go and pay homage to Raphael, who's buried just over there.

    在我們離開之前,我想去向長眠與此地的拉斐爾致敬。

We're standing in the piazza, the square in front of the Pantheon.

我們現在位於萬神殿前的露天廣場。

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旅遊義大利 屹立千年的萬神殿 (The Pantheon)

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    Liang Chen 發佈於 2019 年 06 月 13 日
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