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  • Hello there!

    哈囉大家!

  • How would you like a ticket to one of the most influential forms of mass communication the world has ever known?

    你想不想要了解世界上最具影響力的大眾傳播媒介?

  • It's a universal language that lets us tell stories about our collective hopes and fears, to make sense of the world and the people around us.

    這個共通性的語言讓我們可以用說故事的方式傳達共同的希望或恐懼,藉此理解這個世界和我們周遭的人。

  • I'm talking about film.

    我就是在說「電影」。

  • You probably figured that out because of the title for this video, but, yeah, I'm talking about film.

    你大概已經猜到了,因為這部影片的標題就有寫,可是...對啦,我就是在說電影。

  • This powerful medium sits in a sweet spot of human culture, at the intersection of art, industry, technology, and politics.

    這個強大的媒介在人類文化中所處的位置之重要,不論是藝術、工業、科技或政治都跟它有關。

  • It's inescapable, like FBI piracy warnings, and trailers that give away the entire movie.

    這是無可避免的,像是聯邦調查局的版權警告和看了就知道整部劇情的預告片。

  • I'm looking at you, Batman versus Superman.

    我就是在說你,蝙蝠俠對超人。

  • And also versus Wonder Woman, apparently, 'cause I learned that from the trailer.

    還有對神力女超人,因為我已經從預告片看到了。

  • But before we get to a mouse named Mickey, a little Tramp, and whether or not Han shot first, we're going back to the beginning...

    但在我們開始討論米奇、小流浪漢、或是不是韓.索羅先開槍 (星際大戰劇情) 之前,我們要先回溯到電影的起源。

  • In a galaxy far, far...well, right here.

    在一個遙遠的銀河系....呃,就在地球啦。

  • We have to go all the way back to the beginning because the creation of this cornerstone of modern entertainment was basically an accident.

    我們必須從頭開始講起,因為這項現代娛樂的奠基石其實是無意間誕生的產物。

  • We owe it all to inventors and artists who were experimenting with new technologies and trying to capture snippets of reality, to see the world in a whole new way.

    我們要感謝那些發明家和藝術家,他們不斷嘗試新的技術、捕捉現實生活中各種片段,用有別於以往的角度看待這個世界。

  • I'm Craig Benzine, and this is Crash Course Film History.

    我是 Craig Benzine,這裡是 Crash Course 的「電影史小學堂」。

  • Ready? Lights! Camera! Action!

    準備好了嗎?燈光!攝影!開拍!

  • Roll the intro now.

    上前導片。

  • We should roll the intro, I think.

    我們應該要放前導影片了吧,我猜啦!

  • (Theme Music)

    (主題音樂)

  • The term "film" was first used to describe a specific technology.

    film 這個字原本是指一個特定的技術。

  • A thin, flexible material coated in light-sensitive emulsion that retains an image after it's exposed to light.

    是指一種又薄又有彈性的材料包覆著感光乳膠,將它暴露在燈光下後就能夠保留影像的技術。

  • It's also the end product of that photochemical process.

    它也是光化學過程結束後的產物。

  • A film is a movie.

    film 可以是「電影」。

  • But it's also a verb to describe the process of capturing moving pictures, as in, "I'm going to film a movie today."

    但它也可以是一個動詞,敘述捕捉移動的畫面的過程,像是「我今天要來拍攝電影!」

  • Or, "Nick is filming me right this very second."

    或是「現在 Nick 正在拍我。」

  • Or, "I'm gonna film a film on film."

    又或是「我要用底片來拍攝一部電影。」

  • Over time, the original film technology has switched to analog and digital substitutes.

    經過時間推演,這項最原本的拍攝技術已經轉變為類比、數位的形式。

  • First things like VHS or Beta, and eventually digital video, like when you record something on your phone.

    首先出現了大帶、小帶 (皆為錄影帶格式),直到後來演變成數位錄影,像是你用你的手機錄東西就是數位錄影。

  • Now, at the very beginning of its history, before all these innovations existed, film started out as a collection of still images viewed one after another in rapid succession, which creates the illusion of motion.

    回到歷史最前頭,回到這些東西被發明之前,電影最初是由一連串靜態的圖像組成,用迅速且連續的方式看過去後,就會產生畫面移動的錯覺。

  • Like what you're seeing right now!

    就像你現在看到的!

  • It was a magic trick!

    這就像魔術的手法!

  • And from that trick came an art form that's a blend of literature, drama, photography, and music.

    有了這種手法,融合了文學、戲劇、攝影和音樂的藝術形式也隨之而生。

  • So how does this illusion actually work?

    這種錯覺是怎麼運作的呢?

  • It all comes down to a couple quirks of human perception, tricks your eyes play on your brain, or your brain plays on your eyes, or maybe both.

    歸根究底,就是跟人類在感知方面的特性有關,這種手法讓你的眼睛欺騙大腦、大腦欺騙眼睛...或兩者皆是。

  • The 19th century British scholar Peter Mark Roget was the first to describe one of these tricks, called Persistence of Vision.

    19 世紀的英國學者彼得.馬克.羅傑是第一位描述此現象的人,他將這種手法稱為視覺暫留。

  • Basically, this is the phenomenon that keeps you from seeing the black spaces between the frames of a projected film.

    基本上,這個現象可以讓你無法察覺畫面和畫面之間沒有影像的部分。

  • Now, frame can mean a lot of things in film language, but in this case, it's what we call one of the still images that make up a movie.

    frame 這個字在電影的語言中可以指涉很多東西,但這裡是指組成一部電影的一格靜止畫面。

  • It turns out that if a frame flashes in front of your eyes, your brain retains that image for about a fifth of a second after it's gone.

    如果一個畫面快速地閃過你的眼前,這個影像大約還會在你的腦中存留五分之一秒。

  • If another frame appears within that fifth of a second, your brain won't register the black space between them.

    如果另一個畫面在五分之一秒內又出現,你的大腦就不會察覺到兩個畫面之間的空白。

  • You'll just perceive the next image.

    而是會直接看到下一個影像。

  • So when a film flashes 24 frames per second in front of your eyes, your brain doesn't interpret it as 24 images separated by flashes of black.

    所以在影片 1 秒就有 24 個畫面閃過你眼前的情況下,你的大腦並不會將它解讀成被黑色畫面分開的 24 張影像。

  • Instead, it looks like a constant picture.

    反之,它看起來就像連續性的圖片。

  • This effect can be combined with another oddity of perception called the Phi Phenomenon, defined in 1912 by the Czech-born psychologist Max Wertheimer.

    這個效果還可以跟另一個感知上的特性結合,這個特性叫「飛現象」,1912 年由生於捷克的心理學家馬科斯.韋特墨提出。

  • Incidentally, "oddity of perception" – my nickname in high school.

    順帶一提,我高中時的綽號就叫「感知怪人」。

  • The Phi Phenomenon is an optical illusion that lets you see a series of images in rapid succession as continuous motion.

    飛現象是一種視覺錯覺,讓你在快速地看一連串的影像時,會將它視為連續性的移動。

  • Think of those flip books you played with as a kid.

    回想那些你小時候玩的手翻書。

  • Take a series of still pictures, shot or drawn in sequence, flip them quickly before your eyes.

    拿一系列連續的照片或圖畫在你眼前快速地翻閱。

  • And...voilá! The illusion of motion.

    然後...將將!這就是物體移動的錯覺。

  • You have yourself a "motion picture," or a "moving picture."

    你就看到了「動圖」就是所謂的「電影」。

  • In other words, a moving-picturey.

    換句話說,就是「會動的圖片」。

  • Better yet, a "movie."

    但這還不足以被稱為「電影」。

  • Write that down, that's what we're going with.

    寫下來!我們就是在講這個。

  • Now, people have been telling stories since we've had language, and they've been using pictureseven animating themfor almost as long.

    自從有了語言,人類就開始講故事,同時也用圖片或是更生動的方式來乘載這些故事。

  • One line of thinking traces "movies" all the way back to cave paintings in places like Chauvet, France or El Castillo, Spain.

    有一派說法可以讓電影的起源追溯至洞穴壁畫,像是法國的肖维岩洞或西班牙的埃爾卡斯蒂山洞。

  • You knowthose images of animals, trees, and human figures, painted on stone walls as far back as 32,000 years ago.

    這些動物、樹木、人像的圖案,在三萬兩千年前就被刻畫在石牆上。

  • Scientists think the original artists might have used flickering torchlight to make them appear to move.

    科學家認為最早的藝術家們會使用閃爍的火炬讓這些圖像看起來在移動。

  • Fast forward to just 5000 years ago, and we find people inventing more sophisticated devices to create that same illusion of motion.

    快轉到五千年前,我們發現當時的人發明了更精密的工具,也是用於讓物體產生移動的錯覺。

  • Among these pre-film animation tools, the ones we're most familiar with are called zoetropes.

    在電影發明之前的動畫工具中,我們最為我們熟知的就是西洋鏡。

  • This like a bowl or a deep cylinder with sequential images painted on the inside and small slits or windows cut into the edges.

    這個碗狀或是圓柱狀的物體內側繪有連續的圖像,邊緣上開有狹縫或小窗。

  • Spin the bowl and peer through the slits andthanks to Persistence of Vision and the Phi Phenomenonthe pictures seem to move.

    轉動西洋鏡並從狹縫中看進去,這些圖像就會像是在動一般,這都要感謝視覺暫留和飛現象。

  • Oooh!

    噢!

  • Over the centuries, these devices came in lots of different forms and just as many names: phenakistoscope, stroboscopes, stereoscopes...all kinds of scopes.

    幾世紀以來,西洋鏡發展出各種形式,也有許多不同的名字,像費納奇鏡、閃頻鏡和立體鏡等各式各樣的鏡。

  • But not Scope, the mouthwashthat's something else.

    但我不是在說 Scope 漱口水,那是另一個東西。

  • And for a long, long time, this is as close as we ever got to film.

    在好長好長的一段時間內,這就是我們最接近電影的時候。

  • Until photography came along.

    直到攝影技術問世。

  • Now, it's important to remember that no one set out to invent movies.

    你應該要記得這點:沒有人是懷著想要發明電影的心去發明電影的。

  • There was no one mastermind, and no grand plan to revolutionize communication or art on a global scale.

    既沒有優秀的策劃人,也沒有針對傳播或藝術進行全球性革命的遠大計劃。

  • If I was around, it would've been me, but there wasn't anyone.

    如果我出生在當時,那就會是我啦,但那時候沒有人這樣做就對了。

  • Instead, film as we know it today exists because of a series of happy accidents, technical innovations, and scientific by-products.

    反之,我們現在所熟知的電影之所以會存在,其實是因為一連串美麗的意外、科技上的創新加上科學研究的副產物。

  • 'Cause really, at the beginning, nobody knew what they were doing.

    因為在剛開始根本沒人知道他們在幹嘛。

  • Just like now!

    就跟現在一樣!

  • I'm lookin' at you, Batman versus Superman.

    我就是在說你,蝙蝠俠對超人。

  • Photography came about in the early-to-mid-19th century, at a time of great scientific and artistic innovation.

    攝影大約在 19 世紀中期問世,當時科學和藝術領域都有很大的創新。

  • People of means all over the world were tinkering in their spare time, playing around with technology and seeing what they could create, combine, augment, or transform.

    有錢人會在閒暇時嘗試各種新科技,看他們可以玩出什麼新花樣。

  • Before the photograph was invented, people were isolating images of the world around them with devices like the camera obscura.

    在攝影技術出現之前,人們只能用暗箱這類的設備拍出一張張獨立的照片。

  • From the Latin meaning "dark chamber," a camera obscura is essentially a box, tent, or room with a lens or pinhole in one end, and a reflective surface like a mirror at the other.

    camera obscura 拉丁文的意思就是「暗室」,暗箱基本上就是一個箱子、帳篷或房間,一側有鏡頭或小孔,另一側則是像鏡子的反射面。

  • Light travels through the hole and displays an inverted image on the mirror.

    光線穿過這個孔洞,在鏡子中呈現倒轉的影像。

  • Like most of these pre-photography technologies, the camera obscura was mostly a novelty, a toy, or sometimes a tool that let artists create images to study or trace.

    就跟攝影問世前的技術一樣,暗箱就是個新奇的東西、小玩具,或讓藝術家用來拍出影像並加以研究的工具。

  • As the 19th century dawned, folks started playing around with photosensitive chemicals, to figure out their properties while trying not to melt themselves with acid.

    19 世紀初,人們開始試驗感光的化學物質,在嘗試不要讓它們溶解於酸類時,也瞭解了其特性。

  • Which we should all try to do, in practice.

    我們應該都要實際做做看。

  • In the 1820s, a French inventor named Joseph Nicéphore Niépce took the first known camera photograph.

    1820 年代,一名法國發明家約瑟夫.尼塞福爾.涅普斯拍出了世界上第一張相片。

  • He called it "View from the Window at Le Gras."

    他將它取名為「在 Le Gras 窗外的景色」。

  • Niépce used a camera obscura to project an image onto a pewter plate coated in a light-sensitive chemical.

    涅普斯將暗箱的影像投影在塗有感光化學藥劑的白蠟製盤面上。

  • The areas of the chemical that were hit with the brightest light hardened, but the areas touched by weaker light could be washed away.

    經過強光照射的區域,塗料會固化;光照較弱的區域,塗料則會被沖洗掉。

  • So a crude permanent record of the original image survived.

    影像就得以粗糙地永久保存下來。

  • Scientists now believe it took a couple days of exposing the plate to light for the image to finally show up.

    科學家認為將盤子暴露在陽光下要花上好幾天才能讓圖像顯現出來。

  • So we're still a long way from movies!

    所以我們離電影還有好長一段距離呢!

  • But we're getting closer. Get excited.

    但會越來越接近的!興奮一下吧!

  • Louis Daguerreanother Frenchman, and a close buddy of Niépcewas able to shorten the exposure time to just a couple of minutes.

    路易.達蓋爾是另一名法國人,他跟涅普斯也是好麻吉,達蓋爾可以將曝光時間縮短至幾分鐘。

  • His daguerreotype process became the first commercially-available, mass-market means of taking photographs in 1839.

    他的銀板照相法在 1939 年成了第一個可用於商業、大眾市場的攝影法。

  • And this is usually considered to be photography's birthday.

    這天通常都被認定為是攝影術誕生的日子。

  • Hooray! Happy birthday...

    好耶!祝你生日快...

  • But hold on, the daguerreotype still had a few problems to work out.

    但先等一下,銀板照相法還是會有一些無法解決的問題。

  • The photographs were pretty fragile, they weren't easy to replicate, and the chemicals were, shall we say, toxic.

    照片非常脆弱,它們極不容易複製,且這些使用的化學物質具有毒性。

  • Along came George Eastman, an American entrepreneur and the founder of Eastman Kodak, who invented a way of taking pictures on paper, rather than metal or glass plates.

    喬治.伊士曼是一名美國企業家,也是伊士曼柯達公司的創辦人,他發明了將影像投影在紙面上,而非金屬或玻璃盤的方法

  • This method also didn't need as many chemicals, which probably saved a lot of snap-happy inventors from health problems.

    這個方法不需要用到這麼多化學藥劑,也因此讓那些拍照成癡的發明家們免於健康危害。

  • Now photography was off to the races.

    這時攝影就成了一場競賽遊戲。

  • Literally.

    毫不誇張。

  • So let's go to the thought bubble and see how photographs were used to pause time and take a closer look at movement.

    讓我們一起進入回想泡泡來一窺攝影是如何暫停時間並細細觀察物體的運動。

  • Take it away, thought bubble!

    上吧!回想泡泡!

  • Well, I...I will take it...I'm gonna narrate, so...

    呃...我自己來...我會自己敘述...就...

  • In 1872, Leland Stanford, the former governor of California and a horse race aficionado, made a bet with another bigwig that a horse at full gallop raises all four hooves off the ground at some point.

    1872 年,前加州州長利蘭.史丹佛也是一名賽馬迷,他和另一個大人物打賭說,在馬兒全力奔馳時,他們的四蹄會同時離開地面。

  • To settle the bet, Stanford commissioned a photographer and inventor named Eadweard Muybridge to find photographic proof.

    為了看看誰輸誰贏,史丹佛委託一名叫埃德沃德.邁布里奇的攝影師兼發明家用攝影來證明。

  • So, Muybridge set up twelve cameras along a racetrack, each triggered by a tripwire to capture a still image of a horse in motion.

    所以邁布里奇就沿著跑道架設了 12 架攝影機,每架相機都用導線連接以捕捉馬隻在移動時的靜止畫面。

  • His set of twelve photos was something brand new: rapid motion broken down into frozen, studiable moments.

    這組前所未見的 12 張相片將快速的移動分解成一張張靜止且可讀的畫面。

  • Spoiler alertGovernor Stanford won his bet!

    有雷慎入——史丹佛州長贏了這次的賭注!

  • There were a couple images where that horse wasn't touching the ground at all.

    有幾張影像顯示出馬隻完全沒有碰觸到地面。

  • Muybridge's experiment launched a wave of "motion studies," as photographers and inventors all over the world began using these new technologies to break down continuous motion into individual images.

    邁布里奇的實驗掀起了「動作分解圖」的浪潮,全世界的攝影師和發明家都開始用這項新技術將連續性的運動分解成獨立的影像。

  • And that was one giant step closer to motion pictures.

    這是人類朝電影邁進的一大步。

  • Thanks thought bubble! You're so great!

    謝啦!回想泡泡!做得好!

  • One of those photographers was yet another Frenchman – a man named Étienne-Jules Marey,

    其中另一個攝影師是一名法國人,叫艾蒂安.朱爾.馬雷。

  • whose training in physiology led him to capture motion studies of birds in flight and human athletes in action.

    他在生理學上的訓練讓他捕捉鳥兒飛翔和運動員在運動時的動作分解圖。

  • Instead of tripwires like Muybridge, Marey invented what he called a chronophotographic gun, awesome!

    不同於邁布里奇使用導線,馬雷發明了攝影槍,讚啦!

  • And switched from sheets of photographic paper to rolls, allowing him to take bursts of photographs – 12 per second.

    他用底片代替一張張的感光紙,讓他能夠快速連拍,每一秒可以拍出 12 張相片。

  • Even with all these increasingly-fancy techniques, it's important to note that these were still just series of photographs.

    即便已經出現越來越潮的技術,也別忘了這些都還只是一連串的相片而已。

  • Motion studies were sometimes projected, using devices like Muybridge's zoopraxiscope, but nobody was trying to make movies yet.

    有時候動作分解圖會用像是邁布里奇的西洋鏡投影出來,但還沒有人試著要製作電影。

  • So, the world was boring.

    所以這個世界還是無聊透頂。

  • Each of these innovations set up a fellow you may have heard of Thomas Edison and a scientist who worked for him named W.K.L. Dickson to invent the kinetographthe world's first motion picture film camera.

    這些發明讓湯瑪斯.愛迪生和一名為他工作的科學家 W.K.L. Dickson 一起發明了活動電影放映機,這是世界上第一台電影攝影機。

  • And they, in turn, paved the way for the first filmmakers to experiment with motion picture technologies and storytelling.

    因此他們也為第一位電影製作人鋪好路,讓他能夠試驗電影的技術和如何用電影說故事。

  • We mentioned earlier that film is an illusion, but it's an illusion that's carefully crafted by people who want to show a specific point of view.

    我們稍早前有提到電影是一種錯覺,但這是人們為了傳達特定的觀點而仔細地形塑出的錯覺。

  • With aesthetic choices from shot angle and shot size to lens type and lighting style and how much hair you put on a wookie.

    其中包含許多美學的選擇,從拍攝角度、尺寸到鏡頭種類、打光和伍基人 (星際大戰角色) 要有多少毛髮。

  • Filmmakers can further affect how we, as an audience, interpret reality.

    電影製作人可以更進一步影響身為觀眾的我們對現實的詮釋方式。

  • In a real sense, film wasn't invented, it was stumbled upon.

    意義上來說,電影不是被發明的,而是偶然發現的。

  • A series of happy accidents eventually led us to Citizen Kane, Grand Illusion, Black Girl, and the experimental works of Stan Brakhage.

    一連串美妙的意外才造就了《大國民》、《大幻影》、《黑女孩》、和斯坦.布拉哈格的實驗性電影。

  • Not to mention, things like The Wizard of Oz, Raiders of the Lost Ark, Captain America: Civil War, and Sharknado!

    更不用說像是《綠野仙蹤》、《法櫃奇兵》、《美國隊長 3:英雄內戰》、和《風飛鯊》這些電影!

  • There's a whole world of film out there to discover, and there's a lot that film can help you discover about yourself too.

    電影的世界還有很多我們可以探索的事物,電影也能夠讓你了解自己。

  • And that's the story we'll continue, next time we meet.

    下次我們見面的時候,就會從這裡開始講下去。

  • Today we talked about how film is a sort of magic trick, thanks to the ways our eyes and brains work.

    今天我們聊了為什麼電影是一種魔術的手法,這都要歸功於我們的眼睛和大腦的運作模式。

  • Thank you eyes and brains!

    謝啦!眼睛和大腦!

  • We introduced the very, very beginnings of film, when people started using sequential images to tell stories.

    我們介紹了電影最最起源的部分,當時人們還在用連續的圖像說故事。

  • We discussed photography as a huge technological leap forward since chemicals and light could capture images and break down fast-moving reality like never before.

    我們還討論了攝影,這是技術上的一大躍進,因為化學物質和光線可以捕捉畫面,並將現實生活中轉瞬即逝的一瞬間分解、留存下來。

  • And next time, we'll learn about the very first motion picture cameras, and the start of movies as we know them now.

    下一集,我們會認識第一台電影攝影機和我們現在所熟知的電影之始。

  • Crash Course Film History is produced in association with PBS Digital Studios.

    Crash Course 電影史小學堂是跟 PBS 數位工作室一起製作的。

  • You can head over to their channel to check out a playlist of their latest amazing shows, like BBQ With Franklin, PBS Off Book, and Indy Alaska.

    你可以前往他們的頻道去看看他們最新、最酷的影片,像是 BBQ With Franklin、PBS Off Book 和 Indy Alaska。

  • This episode of Crash Course was filmed in the Doctor Cheryl C. Kinney Crash Course Studio with the help of these nice phenakistoscopes.

    本集的 Crash Course 是在 Doctor Cheryl C. Kinney Crash Course 工作室拍攝,感謝他們提供費納奇鏡。

  • And our amazing graphics team is Thought Cafe.

    我們最優質的動畫團隊是 Thought Cafe。

Hello there!

哈囉大家!

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B1 中級 中文 美國腔 CrashCourse 電影 影像 畫面 攝影 發明

看魔法般的電影這樣影響全世界 (Movies are Magic: Crash Course Film History #1)

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    Liang Chen 發佈於 2019 年 06 月 18 日
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