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  • What exactly are we talking about when we talk about mass media?

    大眾媒體到底是什麼?

  • Well, we're talking about the dissemination of information, or how information is transmitted within a culture.

    即資訊的散播,或是在該文化裡資訊的傳遞方式。

  • And this can include print media, like books, newspapers, and magazines, as well as digital media, like TV, movies, radio, and the internet.

    這些傳播途徑包含出版物,像是書、報紙與雜誌;以及數位媒介,像是電視、電影、廣播與網路。

  • Exactly how this media is consumed changes across cultures and age groups.

    這正是媒體隨文化與族群而產生的改變。

  • For example, my grandmother gets a lot of her information about current events through TV and newspapers, but I primarily get this information online.

    舉例來說,我祖母從電視和報紙得到很多時事的資訊,但我大部分從網路上取得。

  • And when we look at mass media, we can look at the role it plays in our society through different sociological perspectives.

    我們可以從不同的社會學角度來看媒體的社會定位。

  • So according to the functionalist view, one of the most important functions of mass media is to provide entertainment.

    功能主義者認為,大眾媒體最重要的一個功能是提供娛樂。

  • So it's meant to occupy our leisure time.

    也就是要填滿我們的空閒時間。

  • But the functionalist view also says that mass media can also act as an agent of socialization and an enforcer of social norms.

    但功能主義者也表示,大眾媒體可做為社會化的媒介,以及社會規範的執行者。

  • It presents a standardized view of society and provides a collective experience for members of that society.

    其代表社會標準的見解,也提供社會成員集體的經驗。

  • Think about the shared experience of watching the Olympics on television, or being with a group of people to see a movie on opening night.

    想想看大家看奧運轉播的經驗,或是和其他人一起看首場電影。

  • Mass media also functions to bring people together.

    大眾媒體的功能之一是將大家聚集在一起。

  • And there are entire internet-based communities that are focused on things like LGBT rights or childcare.

    有關注 LGBT 權益或兒童照管的網路社群。

  • Or fans of music groups that sing songs about Harry Potter.

    或是樂迷唱《哈利波特》相關的歌。

  • But mass media can also tell us about what society expects of us through what it rewards and punishes.

    但大眾媒體也可告知我們加諸在身上的社會期待,即賞罰的機制。

  • So when we hear something about criminal behavior from mass media, it is often talked about in terms of bringing criminals to justice.

    所以透過大眾媒體聽到的犯罪行為,常常都是從將罪犯繩之以法的角度來報導。

  • Which reinforces the idea that criminal behaviors are bad and should be avoided.

    強調犯罪是不好且應該避免的行為。

  • However, the media can sometimes also glorify behaviors that society as a whole would deem to be wrong.

    然而,媒體有時也會美化社會上的錯誤觀念。

  • Things like intense physical violence.

    像是強烈的肢體暴力。

  • Mass media also functions as a promoter of consumer culture.

    大眾媒體也是消費者文化的提倡者。

  • At the turn of the century, the average U.S. child saw 20,000 commercials a year on TV.

    在世紀交替時,美國孩童平均一年看了兩萬個電視廣告。

  • And that doesn't include ads on the radio or billboards or signs in front of stores announcing 50% off sales.

    這還不包含電台廣告、看板廣告,或是店家門前打著五折的立牌廣告。

  • And it's only increased from there.

    數量只增不減。

  • And it's not necessarily clear what kind of an impact this might have on the next generation.

    這對下個世代的影響還不是很清楚。

  • The conflict view focuses on how the media reflects and portrays, and may even exacerbate, divisions that exist within our society.

    衝突點在於媒體反映與描繪的方式,甚至可能使現存的社會區分惡化。

  • Like divisions based on race, ethnicity, gender, or social class.

    像是人種、種族、性別,或是社會階級的區分。

  • Conflict theory uses the term gatekeeping to describe the process by which a small number of people and corporations control what material is being presented on the media.

    衝突理論用「守門」這個術語來形容一過程,即少部分的人或團體控制媒體呈現的資訊。

  • It describes how information, so things that appear in our newspapers, the stories that are made into movies, what TV shows are turned into pilots.

    其描述新聞報導、電影情節,還有該試播的電視節目內容之形成過程。

  • It describes how these things move through a series of gates before they can reach the public.

    形容該過程讓資訊接觸到大眾之前,須先經過好幾道門把關。

  • In some countries, this might be controlled primarily by the government.

    在某些國家,可能主要由政府控制。

  • But for others, it's decided primarily by large media corporations.

    但其他的基本上是由媒體公司決定。

  • Gatekeeping can also have more of an effect on some media than others.

    「守門」對某些特定的媒體特別有影響力。

  • For example, a lot of control is put on what big-budget movies are made, but there is very little overhead control of what gets posted online.

    例如,經費高的電影需要嚴格控管,但網路上的內容很少受到控制。

  • The conflict theory also describes how mass media often reflects the dominant ideology.

    衝突理論也形容媒體經常反映佔優勢的意識形態。

  • Giving time and space, or privileging, certain social, economical, and political interests, while sometimes actively limiting other views.

    給予時間、空間,或是賦予特定的社會、經濟和政治利益之特權,但同時也限制其他觀點。

  • The people who make the choices about what media is produced, the gatekeepers, are predominantly white, male, and wealthy.

    這些決定媒體內容的「守門員」,大多是富有的白人男性。

  • And as a result, stories representing the views of racial minority groups, women, LGBT individuals, and working class people are typically underrepresented.

    因此,以少數民族、女人、LGBT 者,與勞動階級觀點出發的報導,比例上相當不足。

  • And because of this divide, portrayals of minority groups can often be stereotyped, or guided by unrealistic generalizations about a certain group of people.

    也因為如此,少數族群常常被附加刻板印象,或是被以偏概全。

  • And while some corporations have taken the steps to try to improve this, they sometimes take it in the wrong direction, which results in tokenism instead of actual diversity.

    有些團體試著要改善這個問題,但有時卻搞錯方法,結果造成樣板主義,而不是多樣性。

  • Or cases where a single minority member is added to a TV show or movie as a stand-in for that entire group.

    或是將某一少數族群人民置入電視節目中,當作整個族群的代表人物。

  • Feminist theory's understanding of mass media is similar to what we would see in conflict theory in that it also holds that mass media stereotypes and misrepresents society towards the dominant ideology.

    女性主義理論對大眾媒體的解讀與衝突理論所見略同,兩者皆認為媒體造成刻板印象,也將社會扭曲往佔優勢的意識型態靠攏。

  • Specifically, it focuses on the way that messages about men and women are represented in the media.

    其特別聚焦男性與女性在媒體中的形象。

  • It notes that women are often underrepresented in media content, that men are often considered normal while women are considered to be other.

    指出女性在媒體內容裡的代表比例不足,男性被視為理所當然,而女性則屬於另一族群。

  • Think about ads for products.

    想想產品廣告。

  • We have razors and razors for women.

    我們有刮鬍刀,還有女性除毛刀。

  • Pens and pens for her.

    筆,還有女性用的筆。

  • Depictions of men and women are often highly stereotyped, enforcing strict gender roles and emphasizing traditional sex roles.

    對男性與女性的描述也常常被刻板印象化,堅持絕對的性別角色、強調傳統的性別角色。

  • So women are more often portrayed as victims and men as aggressors.

    所以女性常常被塑造成受害者,男性則是侵略者。

  • And women are much more likely to be depicted as shallow or being obsessed with looks, which also makes it more likely that they'll be sexualized and objectified.

    且女性比較膚淺、較注重外表,以致於比較容易被賦予性別特徵、被物化。

  • The interactionist perspective looks at mass media on the micro level to see how it shapes day to day behavior.

    互動論者從極細微的角度看大眾媒體,觀察它如何塑造日常行為。

  • It looks at how mass media blurs the line between solitary and group activities.

    其觀察大眾媒體如何模糊個人和團體活動的界線。

  • So think of the act of seeing a movie.

    想想看電影這個行為。

  • You may be watching it with other people, but because of societal norms or even theater rules, you are actually forbidden from talking about the movie with the people you're with.

    你可能和其他人一起看電影,但由於社會規範或戲院規定,你不能在放映中與他人討論劇情。

  • It also looks at the fact that how we connect with other people using media tends to change over time.

    也探究我們如何隨著時間,改變用媒體與他人連結的方式。

  • So whereas before I might have called my grandparents to keep in touch with them, now I can talk with them via email, or even text message.

    以前我可能和祖父母用電話連繫感情,現在我可以用電子郵件,或是簡訊連絡他們。

  • The rate at which people meet romantic partners online has also increased, which is something that probably would have seemed very confusing to just a few generations before ours.

    網路交友的比例也增加了,這個現象對幾世代前的人來說,可能挺令人費解的。

What exactly are we talking about when we talk about mass media?

大眾媒體到底是什麼?

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【資訊】我們都被媒體控制了!淺談大眾媒體組織與文化 (Mass media | Society and Culture | MCAT | Khan Academy)

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    Liang Chen 發佈於 2019 年 06 月 21 日
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