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  • Piaget's theory argues that we have to conquer four stages of cognitive development.

    皮亞傑的理論表示:我們必須克服認知發展的四階段。

  • First, the sensori-motor stage.

    第一,感知運動階段。

  • Second, the pre-operational stage.

    第二,前運算階段。

  • Third the concrete operational stage and fourth the formal operational stage.

    第三,具體運算階段,以及第四,形式運算階段。

  • Only once we have gone through all the stages, at what age can vary, we are able to reach full human intelligence.

    年齡不盡一樣,但唯有當我們走過所有的階段,我們的智力才能完全發展。

  • One, the sensori-motor stage, ages birth to two.

    第一,感知運動階段,出生至 2 歲期間。

  • In the sensori-motor stage, we develop through experiences and movement our five senses.

    在感知運動階段,我們透過體驗以及五官的運用來發展。

  • Our brain wants to see, hear, smell, taste and touch as much as possible.

    我們的大腦想要盡情看、聽、聞、嚐及觸摸。

  • First we start with simple reflexes and soon after we develop our first habits.

    我們首先從簡單的反射開始,之後很快養成第一個習慣。

  • From four months old, we become aware of things beyond our own body and then as we get older we learn to do things intentionally.

    從四個月大開始,我們意識到身體除外的事物,然後當我們長大,我們學習有意識地做事。

  • A key milestone is the development of working memory or in Piaget terms "our realization of object permanence".

    一個關鍵里程碑是工作記憶的發展,也就是皮亞傑所謂的「我們對物體恆存性的領悟」。

  • Before that, our mom can show and then hide a teddy and we would think is gone.

    在這之前,我們的媽媽給我們看泰迪熊,然後將它藏起來,我們就會以為它消失了。

  • After we understand that objects continue to exist even when we can't see them.

    在這之後,我們認識到物體是持續存在的,即便我們看不到。

  • We start becoming curious about everything.

    我們開始對一切感到好奇。

  • We want to smell flowers, taste food, listen to sounds and talk to strangers.

    我們想要聞花香、品嚐食物、聆聽聲音還有跟陌生人說話。

  • To explore more, we move, we learn to sit, crawl, stand, walk and even to run.

    為了探索更多,我們移動、學習坐起、爬行、站立、走路,甚至奔跑。

  • This increased physical mobility consequently leads to increased cognitive development, but we remain egocentric - meaning we can perceive the world only from our own point of view.

    增加的肢體移動帶來認知發展的提升,但我們仍然以自我為中心 —— 意味著我們只能從自己的觀點看世界。

  • Two: The pre-operational stage, ages 2 to 7.

    第二:前運算階段,2 至 7 歲期間。

  • Our thinking is mainly categorized for symbolic functions and intuitive thoughts.

    我們的思考主要分為符號功能和直覺思維。

  • We have lots of fantasies and believe objects are alive.

    我們有很多幻想,而且相信物體是有生命的。

  • As we are not able to apply specific cognitive operations, Piaget calls this stage "pre-operational".

    由於我們還無法運用特定的認知操作,皮亞傑稱這階段為「前運算階段」。

  • We learn to speak and understand that words, images, and gestures are symbols for something else.

    我們學著說出並了解字詞,學習圖像以及代表不同意思的肢體動作。

  • When we draw our family, we are not concerned about drawing each person to scale but rather with their symbolic meanings.

    當我們畫出我們的家人,我們不在意人物尺寸或比例,而是在乎他們的象徵含義。

  • We love to play pretend, which allows us to experience something new and learn a lot.

    我們喜歡玩角色扮演,那讓我們有新的體驗,而且能學到很多。

  • At around age 4, most of us become very curious and ask many questions.

    在大約 4 歲時,我們大多數會變得很好奇、愛問問題。

  • We want to know everything.

    我們想知道一切。

  • We can call it "the birth of primitive reasoning".

    可以稱之為「原始推論的誕生」。

  • Piaget calls it "the intuitive age" because while we realize that we have a vast amount of knowledge, we have no idea how we acquired it.

    皮亞傑稱之為「直覺年齡」,因為我們雖然意識到自己有很多知識,卻無從知曉我們從哪學來的。

  • Our thinking in this stage is still pretty egocentric.

    我們在這階段的思考方式還是很自我中心。

  • We think others see the world like we do and still don't understand that they see it differently.

    我們認為別人看世界的方式和我們一樣,仍舊不能理解別人不同的觀看方式。

  • Three: The concrete operational stage -age is 7 to 11.

    第三:具體運算階段,7 至 11 歲。

  • We finally discover logic and we develop concrete cognitive operations, such as sorting objects in a certain order.

    我們終於發現了邏輯,發展出具體的認知操作,例如按照一定順序歸類物品。

  • One example of this is inductive reasoning, which means that if we see someone eating a cookie we can draw a conclusion and then make a generalization.

    其中一個例子是「歸納推論」,意思是假使我們看到某人在吃餅乾,我們可以做出結論,然後得出歸納。

  • And we now get the concept of conservation.

    我們現在也有了「守恆」的概念。

  • We understand that if we pour orange juice from a normal glass to a taller one the amount stays the same.

    我們理解:即使將一杯柳橙汁從一般大小的杯子倒進一個比較高的杯子,總數還是一樣。

  • Our younger sister will pick the taller glass thinking she gets more.

    我們的小妹妹會挑比較高的杯子,因為她認為那裝得比較多。

  • By the same logic, we only now can understand that if 3 plus 5 equals 8, then 8 minus 3 must equal 5.

    按照同樣的邏輯,我們現在才終於了解 3 加 5 等於 8,8 減 3 必然等於 5。

  • Our brain learns to rearrange our thoughts to classify and build concrete operational mental structures.

    我們的大腦學會重置我們的思維,分類並建構具體的操作型心智架構。

  • For example, we now know that we can reverse an action by doing the opposite.

    舉例來說,我們現在知道能夠藉由倒著做來反轉一個動作。

  • Excited by our new mental abilities, we apply them in conversations, activities, when we learn to write, and in school.

    我們對新的心智能力感到興奮,我們將它運用到說話、參與活動或是在學校學習寫字時。

  • As a result, we get to know ourselves better.

    結果是,我們也更加了解自己了。

  • We begin to understand that our thoughts and feelings are unique and not necessarily those of others.

    我們開始了解我們的思想和感受都是獨特的,別人的感受則不見得知道。

  • That means that we learn to put ourselves in someone else's shoes.

    這就意味著,我們學會換位思考。

  • Four: The formal operational stage - Age 12 plus.

    第四:形式運算階段, 12 歲以上。

  • Once we become teenagers, we become formally operational.

    一旦成為青少年,我們進入形式運算。

  • We now have the ability to think more rationally about abstract concepts and hypothetical events.

    我們現在能夠更理性地思考抽象概念及假設事件。

  • Our advanced cognitive abilities allow us to understand abstract concepts such as success and failure, love and hate.

    我們進步的認知能力讓我們能夠理解抽象概念,例如成功和失敗、愛和恨。

  • We form a deeper understanding of our own identity and our morality.

    我們對自我和品行有更深的認識。

  • We now also think that we understand why people behave the way they behave and as a result can become more compassionate.

    我們現在也認為,我們能夠理解為什麼有些人會那麼做,也就是說更有同理心了。

  • Our brain can now do deductive reasoning, which means we can compare two statements and reach a logical generalization.

    我們的大腦係現在能夠進行歸納推論,意味著我們能夠比較兩件事物然後得出一個邏輯結論。

  • Our new mental skills allow us to plan our life systematically and prioritize and we can make assumptions about events that have no necessary relation to reality.

    我們新的心智能力讓我們得以系統性、按優先順序地計劃生活,還可以對不見得真實的事情做假設。

  • We can now also philosophize and just think about thinking itself.

    我們也能哲學性思考了,單純思考「思想」的本質。

  • Our new sense for our identity now also creates egocentric thoughts and some start to see an imaginary audience watching them all the time.

    我們對自我新的認知也創造了自我中心思維,有些人會開始覺得總有想像的觀眾在注視著自己。

  • Piaget believed in lifelong learning, but insisted that the formal operational stage is the final stage of our cognitive development.

    皮亞傑相信終身學習,但也主張具體運思階段就是我們認知發展的最終階段。

  • Jean Piaget's first interests were animals and he published his first scientific paper on albino sparrows in 1907, when he was just 11 years old.

    尚.皮亞傑最初對動物感興趣,在 1907 年他才 11 歲的時候就針對白化麻雀寫了他的第一篇科學研究。

  • In 1920, he began working with standardized intelligence tests.

    在 1920 年,他開始研究標準化智力測試。

  • He realized that younger children consistently make types of mistakes that older children do not.

    他發現,小小孩總是會犯年級比較大的小孩不會犯的錯誤。

  • He concluded that they must think differently and spent the rest of his life studying the intellectual development of children.

    他結論道:他們的思考方式一定不一樣,然後餘生都在研究孩童的智力發展。

Piaget's theory argues that we have to conquer four stages of cognitive development.

皮亞傑的理論表示:我們必須克服認知發展的四階段。

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B1 中級 中文 美國腔 階段 運算 認知 心智 思考 發展

心智的進擊:帶你剖析不同年齡的心智成長!(Piaget's Theory of Cognitive Development)

  • 20133 995
    Liang Chen 發佈於 2019 年 06 月 02 日
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