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  • The dispute between India and Pakistan over Kashmir is one of the longest-running conflicts in the world, and all started with the creation of the South Asian countries.

    印度和巴基斯坦在喀什米爾的衝突是世界上其中一個歷時最久的,而這一切都開始於南亞國家建國之時。

  • In 1947 Britain gave its Indian colonies independence, forming two nations Pakistan for the Muslims and India for everyone else.

    在 1947 年,英國給予印度殖民地獨立權,形成了兩個國家:穆斯林歸屬於巴基斯坦,其他人則是到印度。

  • August 15, 1947 found the partitioning going into effect.

    1947 年 8 月 15 日,國土正式分割。

  • (The) partition forced 14 million people on both sides of the new divide to migrate across the border.

    這場分割行動迫使 1400 萬人跨越新國界遷徙。

  • This process was marked by ethnic and religious violence, causing between 1 and 2 million deaths.

    過程中發生種族及宗教暴力衝突,造成 100 至 200 萬人的死亡。

  • Caught in the middle of it all was the hotly contested Kashmir, a scenic mountain region located on the border between the two countries and slightly bigger than the state of Kansas.

    夾在兩國中間的,是人人爭奪的喀什米爾:一個位於兩國交界的多山地區,風景優美,大小比堪薩斯州大一些。

  • Under the partition plan provided by the Indian independence act, Kashmir was free to decide which country it would join.

    根據《印度獨立法案》之下的分割計劃,喀什米爾能自己決定要加入哪一國。

  • Because it was a Muslim majority state, most wanted to join Pakistan.

    由於該省居民多為穆斯林,大多數人希望加入巴基斯坦。

  • But Kashmir's Hindu ruler Maharaja Hari Singh preferred to keep the region independent.

    但是喀什米爾的印度教統治者哈里.辛格希望維持該地獨立。

  • But Kashmirian Muslims weren't happy with this decision and began a revolution, which was later joined by armed tribesmen from Pakistan's Northwest Frontier Province.

    喀什米爾的穆斯林對此很不滿,於是發起革命,還牽連進巴基斯坦西北部邊境省的武裝居民。

  • In October 1947, Hari Singh turned to India for military assistance.

    在 1947 年的 10 月,哈里.辛格向印度尋求軍力支援。

  • In exchange, he signed Kashmir over to India, pending a referendum which would allow the citizens to vote on the future status of the region.

    作為交換條件,他簽署文件將喀什米爾讓給印度,預計之後執行公投,由人民來決定該省的未來。

  • Pakistan did not recognize the Instrument of Accession as a legal document, triggering the first war between India and Pakistan.

    巴基斯坦不承認哈里.辛格與印度的簽約,第一次印巴戰爭因此開打。

  • The fighting lasted until the United Nations helped broker a peace deal known as the Karachi agreement.

    這場戰爭持續到聯合國介入,幫助促成和平協議《喀拉蚩協議》。(喀拉蚩:巴基斯坦的一個城市。)

  • That agreement created what's now known as the line of control, a de facto border splitting Kashmir in two.

    這項協議確立了「印巴實際控制線」,也就是將喀什米爾分割成兩半的邊境線。

  • But the violence continued.

    但是暴力未平。

  • In 1965 and 1971, two more Wars broke out and thousands have been killed in smaller military conflicts over the years.

    在 1965 及 1971 年又爆發了兩場戰爭,數年來也有多起小型軍事衝突,造成上千人死亡。

  • Both countries had developed nuclear weapons by 1999, when Pakistani troops invaded indian-controlled Kashmir.

    兩國到了 1999 年都發展了核武,該年巴基斯坦軍隊入侵印度於喀什米爾的控制區。

  • The conflict sparked concerns about a nuclear war.

    這起衝突引發關於核武戰爭的擔憂。

  • But India won in a ground battle that killed hundreds on both sides.

    但最後由印度贏了這場地面戰爭,戰爭期間雙方死傷百人。

  • For the past two decades, intermittent violence and reports of human rights violations by security forces have continued.

    在過去二十年,間歇的暴力衝突和侵犯人權的行為在邊境防衛警力中時有所聞。

  • Today both India and Pakistan claimed own Kashmir entirely, but India currently governs about 45%, the central and southern part, while Pakistan controls 35%, the Western Area.

    在今日,印度和巴基斯坦雙方都聲稱擁有喀什米爾全境,但印度目前掌有中部和南部約 45 %,巴基斯坦則掌控西部約 35%。

  • In the meantime, 20% the north eastern part of the region is heavily influenced by China.

    同時,北部的 20% 地區還受到中國極大的掌控。

  • In 2003 the rivals agreed in principle to a ceasefire along the line of control.

    在 2003 年,雙方同意原則上沿著「印巴實際控制線」停火。

  • Flights which were previously severed resumed and a new bus service was started between the two border towns.

    原先被切斷的航班恢復了,還新開了來往兩國邊境城的巴士。

  • But over the years both sides have continued to square off again and again, accusing one another of violating the terms of the ceasefire and blaming each other for a number of attacks on each other's soil.

    但在數年來,兩國還是一再爆發衝突,控訴對方違反停火條款,指控對方入侵自己的領地。

  • Hostilities reached a boiling point on February 14, 2019, a Pakistani-based terror group claimed responsibility for an attack involving a suicide bomber in Kashmir, which killed 40 Indian paramilitary police.

    在 2019 年 2 月 14 日,雙方怒火升到最高點,一個來自巴基斯坦的恐怖組織表示,喀什米爾的一場自殺炸彈攻擊為他們所為,該起襲擊殺害了 40 名印度準軍事部隊成員。

  • This was followed by a series of tit-for-tat airstrikes.

    之後發生了一系列空襲報復。

  • Pakistan then captured an Indian pilot but released him days later, calling it a gesture of peace.

    巴基斯坦抓捕了一名印度機長,但在幾天後釋放,聲明這是和平之舉。

  • However this has not yet diffused concerns from the international community as tensions between the two nuclear powers reached the highest level in decades.

    然而,隨著持有核武的雙方衝突升到數十年來最高點,此舉並未讓國際間的緊張情緒煙消雲散。

The dispute between India and Pakistan over Kashmir is one of the longest-running conflicts in the world, and all started with the creation of the South Asian countries.

印度和巴基斯坦在喀什米爾的衝突是世界上其中一個歷時最久的,而這一切都開始於南亞國家建國之時。

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B1 中級 中文 美國腔 喀什米爾 巴基斯坦 印度 衝突 戰爭 核武

印巴衝突是怎麼回事?和喀什米爾有關! (Pakistan-India conflict: Why Kashmir is the centre of the dispute)

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    April Lu 發佈於 2019 年 04 月 21 日
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