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  • Imagine if you could connect your brain to the internet.

    想像一下,如果可以將你的大腦連接到網路。

  • You wouldn't need to type into a search engine,

    你不需要在搜尋引擎上打字,

  • you could just think your query and download the relevant knowledge directly into your mind.

    你只要想好你的問題,並將相關知識直接下載到你的腦海中。

  • Such a world would involve the biggest single upgrade in human intelligence since our species evolved.

    自從我們的物種開始進化,這樣的世界參與人類智慧中最重要的單一提升。

  • Seamless brain computer interfaces are a long way off

    完美的腦機介面還有一大段路要走,

  • but the melding of minds with machines is already under way.

    但是大腦與機器的結合已經在進行中。

  • The implant goes directly into the motor control area of the brain.

    植入物可以直接進入大腦的運動控制區域。

  • It's the neuro technology that we've been developing for years

    這是我們多年來一直在開發的神經技術,

  • and it's designed to help restore or replace function or enhance independence for people who are paralyzed.

    目的是在幫助恢復或取代功能,或是提高癱瘓患者的獨立性。

  • In a pioneering clinical trial at Brown University,

    在布朗大學一項開創性的臨床實驗中,

  • volunteers have been given brain implants that allow them to control devices using thought alone.

    志願者已經接受腦部植入,讓他們能夠只用想法來控制設備。

  • To date, this academic venture,

    到目前為止,這個學術風險,

  • this pilot clinical trial that we call Braingate

    我們稱這臨床試驗為「腦門感測器」,

  • has enrolled 13 participants

    目前有 13 名受試者,

  • and each of those has had the sensor placed into the motor cortex and each of them has been able to control cursor movement on a screen.

    在每人的運動皮層放上感測器,而且每個感測器都能夠控制螢幕上的遊標移動。

  • Some of them have even been able to control a prosthetic limb or a robotic limb moving through space to reach and grab objects.

    他們有些人甚至能夠控制義肢或機器人的四肢,來穿過空間並伸手抓住物體。

  • The sensors detect the neural signals associated with the intent to move

    感測器偵測與移動目的相關的神經信號,

  • and they're decoded by a computer in real time.

    並由電腦即時解碼。

  • We're tapping into the native part of the brain that controls movement naturally.

    我們正利用大腦本來的部分來自然控制活動。

  • So, simply by imagining intuitive movements,

    所以,就只是靠想像的直覺動作,

  • participants can immediately control a robotic device.

    受試者可以馬上控制機器人設備。

  • The technology could transform the lives of people with disabilities but it could go further,

    這項技術可以改變殘疾人士的生活,但還能更進一步,

  • enhancing the abilities of the entire human race.

    提升整體人類的能力。

  • One problem is that current technology can only record the activity of a couple of hundred neurons.

    目前技術有一個問題,現在只能記錄幾百個神經元活動。

  • Our minds are generated by a bewildering network of 85 billion neurons.

    我們的大腦是由令人眼花繚亂的網狀物所組成,其中有 850 億個神經元。

  • Listening to them all in real time has proved an impossible challenge for neuroscientists.

    對神經學家來說,要同時聽取這些神經元是不可能達成的挑戰。

  • But in 2013, their research gained powerful backing.

    但在 2013 年,他們的研究得到了強而有力的支持。

  • There's this enormous mystery waiting to be unlocked

    這個巨大的謎團還在等待解開,

  • and the Brain Initiative will change that by giving scientists the tools they need to get a dynamic picture of the brain in action

    腦啟動計畫將為科學家提供他們所需的工具來改變這點,從而得到大腦運作時的動態圖片,

  • and better understand how we think and how we learn and how we remember.

    這樣才能更了解我們如何思考、如何學習,以及如何記憶。

  • The Brain Initiative is a six-billion dollar fund to find new ways to map the activity of an entire brain.

    腦啟動計畫耗資 60 億美金,目的是找出新方法來繪製整個大腦活動。

  • Leading neuroscientist Professor Rafael Yuste was at the front of the queue of funding.

    頂尖神經學家 ── 拉斐爾.尤斯特教授位於資助行列的前端。

  • The goal of the Brain Initiative is precisely to be a methods to read and manipulate the activity of neuron circuits

    腦啟動計畫的目標是,找出準確理解和控制神經迴路活動的方法,

  • so that we can eventually help patients that have mental or neurological diseases.

    這樣我們最後可以幫助罹患精神或神經疾病的患者。

  • In 2017, Professor Yuste's team

    尤斯特教授的團隊在 2017 年,

  • announced that they had successfully recorded the activity from every neuron of an animal, albeit a very simple one,

    宣布他們成功記錄動物每個神經元的活動,雖然是結構非常簡單的動物,

  • a tiny freshwater relative of the jellyfish called a hydra.

    一種微小、與水母同門的淡水生物,稱為水螅。

  • In a way, you could argue that we're trying to read the hydra's mind

    從某種程度上,你可能認為我們在嘗試理解水螅的想法,

  • because we can measure the activity of every neuron in hydra while the hydra is behaving.

    因為當水螅活動時,我們會測量每個神經元的活動。

  • And once you've learned to read neural code, you can learn to write it too.

    一旦你學會神經編碼,你也能學會編寫。

  • Can we input thoughts into a hydra,

    我們能將想法輸入到水螅中,

  • can we write the patterns of activity

    我們能編寫活動模式,

  • and change the behavior of the animal?

    並改變動物的行為嗎?

  • We're trying to do this in hydra and we're trying to do this in mice.

    我們正試著在水螅,還有老鼠身上做到這些。

  • We can imagine that you could do this with humans in the future.

    我們可以想像,未來在人類身上也能做到這些。

  • The human brain is vastly more complex than the hydra

    人腦比起水螅還要複雜許多,

  • and converting the electrochemical signals of the mind into the digital language of machines remains a huge technological challenge.

    而且要將大腦的電化學訊號,轉變成機器的數位語言,仍是相當艱困的技術挑戰。

  • But history has shown that where there's a will and plenty of money,

    但歷史證明,只要有意願和充足的資金,

  • there's a way.

    總會有辦法。

  • That's one small step for man, one giant leap for mankind.

    這是我個人的一小步,卻是人類的一大步。

  • I hope to achieve making neuroscience the new rocket science.

    我希望將神經科學變成新的火箭科學。

  • We're not speaking publicly currently about what we're building.

    我們現階段不會公開討論建造中的內容。

  • We will in time.

    但我們遲早會。

  • Tech entrepreneurs are turning their minds and their money to developing brain machine interfaces.

    科技企業家正將他們的心思和資金轉向開發腦機介面。

  • Bryan Johnson founded Kernel, a neural interface startup with $100 million of his own money.

    布萊恩.約翰遜,耗資自身 1 億美金,創立腦機介面的新創公司 Kernel ,

  • Everyone's trying to find how to go from where we're at now

    每個人都試圖找出我們現在的下一步在哪,

  • and the next big jump to where we're going to be

    以及下次有大進展時,我們可以做到什麼地步.

  • and in building Kernel,

    而創立 Kernel 的部分,

  • my objective is to radically improve humans in every imaginable and unimaginable way.

    我的目標是,用想像得到和想像不到的方式,從根本上來改善人類。

  • Bryan Johnson is not alone in this dream.

    布萊恩.約翰遜在這夢想上並不是孤軍奮戰。

  • Elon Musk's latest company, Neuralink

    伊隆.馬斯克最新的公司,Neuralink

  • aims to enhance humans by connecting them to computers.

    目標是將人類連接至電腦,來增進人類的能力。

  • DARPA, the research and development arm of the American military is also at the forefront of this technology.

    DARPA 是美國軍方研究發展部門,也是這項科技的龍頭。

  • Brain computer interfaces are coming.

    腦機介面即將問世。

  • But are we ready?

    但我們準備好了嗎?

  • I think every day of the potential dangers of building technology without thinking carefully about the consequence of this technology for society.

    我認為建造科技要是沒有仔細考慮對社會的影響,每天都會有潛在的危險。

  • If we allow the internet into our minds,

    如果我們讓網路進入我們的腦海中,

  • what's to stop it reading the thoughts we'd rather keep private?

    要用什麼方法來阻止它讀取我們想保密的想法?

  • We're not talking about data privacy.

    我們不是在討論資料隱私。

  • This is much worse.

    這是更嚴重的問題。

  • We're talking about the contents of your mind.

    我們在討論大腦裡的內容。

  • And if we discover how to enhance our intelligence,

    如果我們發現如何增強我們的智力,

  • who gets to go first?

    那誰要來當第一人?

  • You need to ensure as a society that there is equitable access to this technology

    你需要保證社會能公平使用這項科技,

  • so that it doesn't end up in the hands of a privileged few.

    這樣才不會落在少數有特權的人手中。

  • It's vital that ethical considerations keep pace with advancing technology.

    至關重要的是,道德考量必須跟上先進科技的腳步。

  • Melding our minds with machines could radically transform society.

    將我們的思想和機器結合可以完全改變社會。

  • But some argue that the transformation is already under way

    但有些人表示,這樣的轉型已經在進行,

  • and if we don't use machines to improve ourselves, we risk being left behind.

    如果我們不使用機器來提升自身能力,我們就有被拋在後頭的風險。

  • Humans are the most intelligent species on this Earth.

    人類是地球上最具智慧的物種。

  • We are now giving birth to a new form of intelligence in the form of AI.

    我們正以人工智慧的形式,製造出一種新形式的智慧。

  • At what point do we feel uncomfortable within the delta between our own improvement and that of our machines?

    在我們增進自身能力和機器間的三角洲內,我們什麼時候會感到不安?

  • AI, the thing we need to contemplate very seriously,

    人工智慧,這件事我們需要深思熟慮,

  • for me, it's best that could ever have happened to us

    對我來說,這能發生在我們身上是很棒的,

  • and it's critical that we try to co-evolve with this unbelievable powerful form of intelligence that we're now building.

    而且重要的是,我們試著用現在建造的這種難以置信,且強而有力的智能形式共同進化。

  • The matrix is not imminent but enough research is now being done on brain computer interfaces

    環境並不是迫在眉睫,但現在腦機介面已經進行了充分的研究,

  • that it's time to think hard about their potential implications.

    正是時候仔細思考其潛在的影響。

  • If superhuman intelligence is created in the future,

    如果將來可以創造出超乎常人的的智慧,

  • humanity could reap huge benefits as long as it's handled with care.

    只要謹慎處理,人類就能獲得極大的利益。

Imagine if you could connect your brain to the internet.

想像一下,如果可以將你的大腦連接到網路。

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當思想控制機器|《經濟學人》雜誌 (When thoughts control machines | The Economist)

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    Jerry Liu 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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