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  • So, indeed, I have spent my life

    譯者: Inder Peng(彭) 審譯者: Jeannie Cheng

  • looking into the lives of presidents who are no longer alive.

    的確,我用我的一生精力

  • Waking up with Abraham Lincoln in the morning,

    來研究歷任總統們當他們還活在世上時的生涯軼事.

  • thinking of Franklin Roosevelt when I went to bed at night.

    早晨是亞伯罕‧林肯總統陪我起床,

  • But when I try and think about what I've learned

    晚上當我要睡時,滿腦子還是富蘭克林 羅斯福總統 .

  • about the meaning in life, my mind keeps wandering back

    但當我試著去探討我所懂的

  • to a seminar that I took when I was a graduate student at Harvard

    生命的意義時我的思緒一直回到

  • with the great psychologist Erik Erikson.

    我在哈佛大學研究所時所參加的一個由

  • He taught us that the richest and fullest lives

    著名心理學家艾李克,艾里克森主持的研討會.

  • attempt to achieve an inner balance between three realms:

    他教導我們,最富足最充足的生命

  • work, love and play.

    是盡可能的使三個領域 -

  • And that to pursue one realm to the disregard of the other,

    工作,感情和娛樂,達至內在平衡.

  • is to open oneself to ultimate sadness in older age.

    所以只有專注在其中的一項而忽略其它兩項,

  • Whereas to pursue all three with equal dedication,

    這樣的行為會為老年時的自己帶來無法彌補的傷痛.

  • is to make possible a life filled not only with achievement,

    但是如果致力使這三個領域都能達到平衡,

  • but with serenity.

    那麼生命就會充滿成就

  • So since I tell stories, let me look back

    和安寧.

  • on the lives of two of the presidents I've studied to illustrate this point --

    既然現在我在說故事,所以讓我用我研究過的

  • Abraham Lincoln and Lyndon Johnson.

    兩個以前總統的故事來證明這個論點.

  • As for that first sphere of work,

    亞伯罕林肯和林頓詹森

  • I think what Abraham Lincoln's life suggests

    關於第一個領域--工作,

  • is that fierce ambition is a good thing.

    我認為林肯的生命告訴我們

  • He had a huge ambition.

    抱著強烈野心是一件好事.

  • But it wasn't simply for office or power or celebrity or fame --

    林肯他有強烈巨大的野心.

  • what it was for was to accomplish something worthy enough in life

    但這不單單是為了權力地位和名聲,

  • so that he could make the world a little better place for his having lived in it.

    而是他要在他生命中完成一些有意義的事情,

  • Even as a child, it seemed, Lincoln dreamed heroic dreams.

    為這世界因為有他而更美好.

  • He somehow had to escape that hard-scrabble farm

    即使還是個孩子時,林肯就抱著成為英雄的夢想

  • from which he was born.

    他用盡方法從

  • No schooling was possible for him,

    貧困的農場中逃脫.

  • except a few weeks here, a few weeks there.

    他沒有機會去上正式的學校,

  • But he read books in every spare moment he could find.

    只有斷斷續續的在這裡學一點; 在那裡學一點.

  • It was said when he got a copy of the King James Bible

    但是只要他有時間,他就閱讀.

  • or "Aesop's Fables," he was so excited he couldn't sleep.

    據說,當林肯有機會得到欽定英譯本聖經這本書

  • He couldn't eat.

    或伊索預言這本書時,他常興奮的睡不著,

  • The great poet Emily Dickinson once said,

    也吃不下.

  • "There is no frigate like a book to take us lands away."

    偉大的詩人艾蜜莉.狄金生曾說過:

  • How true for Lincoln.

    "沒有任何交通工具像書一樣, 可以帶我們穿越時空到任何國土去旅遊."

  • Though he never would travel to Europe,

    對林肯而言這個形容是何等貼切!

  • he went with Shakespeare's kings to merry England,

    即使他從未親身去過歐洲,

  • he went with Lord Byron's poetry to Spain and Portugal.

    但他的靈魂隨著莎士比亞書中的國王遊覽英國,

  • Literature allowed him to transcend his surroundings.

    他的心也跟隨著拜倫爵士的詩歌去過西班牙和葡萄牙.

  • But there were so many losses in his early life

    文學豐富了他的內在生命,使他掙脫超越了環境束縛.

  • that he was haunted by death.

    但是由於當他年幼時曾失去許多至親,

  • His mother died when he was only nine years old;

    所以死亡的陰影一直困擾著林肯.

  • his only sister, Sarah, in childbirth a few years later;

    他的媽媽在他只有9歲時就去世,

  • and his first love, Ann Rutledge, at the age of 22.

    而他唯一的姐姐也在幾年後因難產而死亡.

  • Moreover, when his mother lay dying,

    他的初戀情人-安若特里琦也在22歲死亡.

  • she did not hold out for him the hope

    更糟的是,當他的媽媽去世前

  • that they would meet in an afterworld.

    並沒給小林肯任何的希望.

  • She simply said to him,

    說他們來世將會再見面

  • "Abraham, I'm going away from you now, and I shall never return."

    她只是簡單的跟小林肯講

  • As a result he became obsessed with the thought

    "林肯, 我就要走了,從此不再回來."

  • that when we die our life is swept away -- dust to dust.

    因為這樣,林肯對死亡有一種無法釋懷的強烈迷惘.

  • But only as he grew older did he develop

    他深信人死如燈滅,像煙塵一樣散去, 全部都沒有了.

  • a certain consolation from an ancient Greek notion --

    直到當他長大後,由於受到

  • but followed by other cultures as well --

    古希臘哲學思想影響,心靈上得到適當慰藉--

  • that if you could accomplish something worthy in your life,

    當然也受到其他文化衝擊--

  • you could live on in the memory of others.

    這時他相信如果在世時能完成一些有意義的事情,

  • Your honor and your reputation would outlive your earthly existence.

    那麼就可永遠活在人們的記憶中.

  • And that worthy ambition became his lodestar.

    那麼你的事蹟及好名聲就會萬古流傳

  • It carried him through the one significant depression that he suffered

    這個信念變成林肯引路的北極星.

  • when he was in his early 30s.

    這個信念讓他能在30歲時

  • Three things had combined to lay him low.

    的嚴重的憂鬱症中走出來

  • He had broken his engagement with Mary Todd,

    這有三件事件使他情緒失控:

  • not certain he was ready to marry her,

    他要求跟他的未婚妻瑪麗塔德解除婚約,

  • but knowing how devastating it was to her that he did that.

    並不確定他想跟瑪麗塔德結婚,

  • His one intimate friend, Joshua Speed, was leaving Illinois

    雖然他知道這樣做對瑪麗是很殘酷的.

  • to go back to Kentucky because Speed's father had died.

    他的摯友約書亞.斯皮德

  • And his political career in the state legislature

    因為父殤而必須離開伊利諾州回到肯塔基去.

  • was on a downward slide.

    還有他在州議會的政治生涯

  • He was so depressed that friends worried he was suicidal.

    越來越黯淡.

  • They took all knives and razors and scissors from his room.

    林肯是如此萎靡不振,所有的朋友都擔心他會自殺,

  • And his great friend Speed went to his side and said,

    他們拿走林肯房間裡所有的刀子刮鬍刀和剪刀.

  • "Lincoln, you must rally or you will die."

    而且他的好朋友約書亞.斯皮德回來他的身邊對他説:

  • He said that, "I would just as soon die right now,

    "林肯你必須振作,否則你會死."

  • but I've not yet done anything to make any human being

    林肯回答:"我其實現在就可以去死,

  • remember that I have lived."

    但我還沒有完成任何的事情,讓人們

  • So fueled by that ambition, he returned to the state legislature.

    記得這世界曾經有我過."

  • He eventually won a seat in Congress.

    所以他從新燃起他的雄心壯志,回到州議員的政壇上.

  • He then ran twice for the Senate, lost twice.

    他後來終於贏得國會議員的位子,

  • "Everyone is broken by life," Ernest Hemingway once said,

    也參加兩屆的美國參議員競選但兩次都落選.

  • "but some people are stronger in the broken places."

    大文毫海明威曾說:"每個人都會被生命折磨得千瘡百孔,

  • So then he surprised the nation with an upset victory

    但有人越挫越勇."

  • for the presidency over three far more experienced,

    林肯最後以出乎意外的成功成為美國總統.

  • far more educated, far more celebrated rivals.

    當時他的三個對手都是比他更有從政經驗,

  • And then when he won the general election,

    更有學術地位,更有知名度.

  • he stunned the nation even more

    然後當選美國總統後,

  • by appointing each of these three rivals into his Cabinet.

    更令全國震驚的是

  • It was an unprecedented act at the time because everybody thought,

    他邀請這三個政敵加入他的內閣

  • "He'll look like a figurehead compared to these people."

    這是前所未有的做法, 而且大家都認為

  • They said, "Why are you doing this, Lincoln?"

    "跟那些內閣委員比起來,林肯像是有名無實的傀儡."

  • He said, "Look, these are the strongest

    所以有人問林肯:"林肯為什麼你要這麼做?"

  • and most able men in the country.

    他回答:"這三個人是我們國家目前最優秀,

  • The country is in peril. I need them by my side."

    也是最有能力的人.

  • But perhaps my old friend Lyndon Johnson

    我們的國家正瀕臨巨大考驗,我需要他們幫助我."

  • might have put it in less noble fashion:

    但如果用我的老朋友林登囧森

  • "Better to have your enemies inside the tent pissing out,

    比較通俗的話來形容這行情,那就是

  • than outside the tent pissing in."

    :寧可讓你的敵人進入你的帳篷,向外小便;

  • (Laughter)

    也不要他們站在帳篷外向帳篷內射尿.

  • But it soon became clear that Abraham Lincoln

    笑聲

  • would emerge as the undisputed captain of this unruly team.

    但很快的且清楚的顯示林肯

  • For each of them soon came to understand

    毫無疑問的是這個難以駕馭團隊的領袖.

  • that he possessed an unparalleled array of

    因為每個人很快的意識到,

  • emotional strengths and political skills

    林肯擁有無與倫比的

  • that proved far more important than the thinness of his externalsumé.

    熱忱及高超政治手段,

  • For one thing, he possessed an uncanny ability

    比他非常薄弱的從政履歷來得重要

  • to empathize with and to think about other peoples' point of view.

    舉例來說:他擁有冷靜且不可思議的能力,

  • He repaired injured feelings that might have escalated

    能很快的掌握及設身處在的瞭解別人不同的觀點.

  • into permanent hostility.

    他修復了人們受傷的心靈,阻止可能繼續惡化

  • He shared credit with ease,

    成為無法逆轉的仇恨.

  • assumed responsibility for the failure of his subordinates,

    他樂意跟大家分享功勳,

  • constantly acknowledged his errors and learned from his mistakes.

    也勇於承擔屬下失敗的責任.

  • These are the qualities we should be looking for in our candidates in 2008.

    他總是承認錯誤並從自己的失誤中不斷學習及改進.

  • (Applause)

    這也是我們應該拿來檢視2008總統候選人必要的條件.

  • He refused to be provoked by petty grievances.

    掌聲

  • He never submitted to jealousy or brooded over perceived slights.

    他不被囉嗦無用的小感傷所干擾,

  • And he expressed his unshakeable convictions

    他也從來沒有屈服於自己的嫉妒心或是被瑣碎的壞情緒所控制.

  • in everyday language, in metaphors, in stories.

    他用淺顯易懂的語言,比喻或

  • And with a beauty of language -- almost as if

    故事傳遞他那不可動搖的信念.

  • the Shakespeare and the poetry he had so loved as a child

    就像他小時被莎士比亞和那些動人

  • had worked their way into his very soul.

    美麗的詩篇所影響一樣,

  • In 1863, when the Emancipation Proclamation was signed,

    他所說的話也深刻的影響打動每個人的心.

  • he brought his old friend, Joshua Speed, back to the White House,

    1863年林肯簽署解放奴隸宣言,

  • and remembered that conversation of decades before, when he was so sad.

    那天他邀請他的老朋友約書亞.斯皮德來白宮觀禮.

  • And he, pointing to the Proclamation, said,

    想起幾十年前當他極度憂鬱時跟斯皮德曾經談論過的往事,

  • "I believe, in this measure, my fondest hopes will be realized."

    他於是指著解放奴隸宣言告訴他的老友:

  • But as he was about to put his signature on the Proclamation

    " 我相信透過這宣言我最深切的希望終於可以實現"

  • his own hand was numb and shaking

    但是, 當他提起筆來簽署時,

  • because he had shaken a thousand hands that morning at a New Year's reception.

    他的手又麻又酸而且一直顫抖.

  • So he put the pen down.

    這當然是因為那天早晨的新年慶典時,他已和上千個人握手過.

  • He said, "If ever my soul were in an act, it is in this act.

    所以他把筆放下.

  • But if I sign with a shaking hand,

    他說, "如果我曾經用我畢生的心力去完成一件事, 那這宣言就是那件事

  • posterity will say, 'He hesitated.'"

    但是我如果簽字歪歪斜斜,

  • So he waited until he could take up the pen

    那後代子孫就會說" 林肯有所懷疑."

  • and sign with a bold and clear hand.

    所以他等到手不再顫動時才清清楚楚

  • But even in his wildest dreams,

    堅定的簽下他的名字在宣言上.

  • Lincoln could never have imagined

    但是即使是林肯自己作夢

  • how far his reputation would reach.

    也決不會想到

  • I was so thrilled to find an interview with the great Russian writer,

    他的名聲遠播的程度.

  • Leo Tolstoy, in a New York newspaper in the early 1900s.

    當我發現1900年代,俄羅斯大文學家托爾斯泰

  • And in it, Tolstoy told of a trip that he'd recently made

    接受紐約時報的採訪新聞時,我十分震驚.

  • to a very remote area of the Caucasus,

    根據採訪報導,托爾斯泰告訴記者,他剛去

  • where there were only wild barbarians,

    偏僻的高加索山區旅遊,

  • who had never left this part of Russia.

    在那地區只是低下及十分粗俗的鄉下人,

  • Knowing that Tolstoy was in their midst,

    他們從來沒人離開過那山區.

  • they asked him to tell stories of the great men of history.

    知道大文學家托爾斯泰來到他們的鄉里,

  • So he said, "I told them about Napoleon

    村落的人們就要求托爾斯泰講偉人的故事給他們聽.

  • and Alexander the Great and Frederick the Great

    托爾斯泰說"我告訴那些鄉下人拿破侖,

  • and Julius Caesar, and they loved it.

    亞歷山大大帝, 腓特烈大帝

  • But before I finished, the chief of the barbarians stood up and said,

    和凱撒大帝的豐功偉業" 村民都非常歡喜.

  • 'But wait, you haven't told us about the greatest ruler of them all.

    可是當我正打算停止演說時,村落的酋長站起來並且說,

  • We want to hear about that man who spoke with a voice of thunder,

    "等一下, 你還沒告訴我們那最偉大領袖的故事.

  • who laughed like the sunrise,

    我們想聽那人的故事,就是他的聲音大如雷,

  • who came from that place called America, which is so far from here,

    他笑起來像旭日東升一樣,

  • that if a young man should travel there,

    他是來自於一個遙遠的國家--美國的那人.而美國那地方非常遙遠.

  • he would be an old man when he arrived.

    如果一個年輕人想去,

  • Tell us of that man. Tell us of Abraham Lincoln.'"

    當他到達時已經是老人了.

  • He was stunned.

    告訴我們那個人的事跡! 告訴我們亞伯罕林肯的故事."

  • He told them everything he could about Lincoln.

    托爾斯泰非常驚訝,

  • And then in the interview he said, "What made Lincoln so great?

    於是他盡其所能的講他所知道有關林肯的故事

  • Not as great a general as Napoleon,

    後來在訪談中他說:" 是什麼使林肯那麼受歡迎?

  • not as great a statesman as Frederick the Great."

    他並沒有拿破侖的軍事天賦,

  • But his greatness consisted, and historians would roundly agree,

    也不具有像腓特烈大帝一樣的政權手段"

  • in the integrity of his character

    歷史學家都會一至公認,林肯的偉大著力點在於

  • and the moral fiber of his being.

    他千錘百鍊,超然寬闊胸懷的個人特質

  • So in the end that powerful ambition

    和堅定的道德信仰.

  • that had carried Lincoln through his bleak childhood had been realized.

    所以最後那些慘澹少年時的夢想

  • That ambition that had allowed him to laboriously educate himself by himself,

    想要活在人們記憶中的強烈企圖心終於實現.

  • to go through that string of political failures

    這樣的企圖心策勵他辛辛苦苦不懈的自我教育,

  • and the darkest days of the war.

    鼓舞著他面對一連串的政壇失意

  • His story would be told.

    及堅強走過戰爭時最黑暗的歲月.

  • So as for that second sphere, not of work, but of love --

    他的故事一定會千秋萬世永遠流傳.

  • encompassing family, friends and colleagues --

    接著讓我們討論第二個領域,不是工作而是感情-

  • it, too, takes work and commitment.

    -包含家庭,朋友和同事--

  • The Lyndon Johnson that I saw in the last years of his life,

    感情一樣須要經營和承諾.

  • when I helped him on his memoirs,

    我在林頓.詹森總統死亡的前幾年

  • was a man who had spent so many years in the pursuit of

    幫他寫回憶錄,

  • work, power and individual success,

    他就是一個花許多年歲精力一直追逐

  • that he had absolutely no psychic or emotional resources left

    事業,權力和個人成就的例子.

  • to get him through the days

    所以當他退休後, 他的精神上和感情上

  • once the presidency was gone.

    已沒有所剩來幫助他

  • My relationship with him began on a rather curious level.

    度過漫漫退休生涯.

  • I was selected as a White House Fellow when I was 24 years old.

    我跟詹森總統的交情是始於一個很特別的情況,

  • We had a big dance at the White House.

    我24歲被選為白宮實習生.

  • President Johnson did dance with me that night.

    所以參加了正式大型歡迎舞會,

  • Not that peculiar --

    那晚詹森總統跟我跳舞了.

  • there were only three women out of the 16 White House Fellows.

    但那一點也不希奇!

  • But he did whisper in my ear that he wanted me

    因為16個白宮實習生中只有3個女生.

  • to work directly for him in the White House.

    但是他確實對我小聲耳語,希望我

  • But it was not to be that simple.

    未來在白宮直接聽命於他,為他工作.

  • For in the months leading up to my selection,

    可是事情不是你想像的那麼單純.

  • like many young people, I'd been active

    在我被選為白宮實習生的前幾個月,

  • in the anti-Vietnam War movement,

    就像我們那代很多的年輕人一樣, 我是個活躍

  • and had written an article against Lyndon Johnson,

    的反越戰者.

  • which unfortunately came out in The New Republic

    甚至寫了一篇反詹森總統的文章

  • two days after the dance in the White House.

    而此篇文章不幸竟在白宮那場舞會後

  • (Laugher)

    的兩天被刊登在新共和主義報上.

  • And the theme of the article was how to remove Lyndon Johnson from power.

    笑聲!

  • (Laughter)

    而且文章的主題是:如何要詹森總統辭職下台.

  • So I was certain he would kick me out of the program.

    笑聲

  • But instead, surprisingly, he said,

    我几乎可以確認我會被踢出白宮實習生的行列,

  • "Oh, bring her down here for a year,

    但是非常令人訝異的是詹森總統說:

  • and if I can't win her over, no one can."

    "讓她為我工作一年,

  • So I did end up working for him in the White House.

    如果我無法改變她的想法, 沒有人能."

  • Eventually accompanied him to his ranch to help him on those memoirs,

    所以我最後留在白宮為他工作,

  • never fully understanding why he'd chosen me to spend so many hours with.

    然後等他退休後又跟他到他的農場幫他完成回憶錄.

  • I like to believe it was because I was a good listener.

    我從來都無法完全瞭解為什麼他選擇我為他長期工作?

  • He was a great storyteller.

    我寧可相信我是個優良的傾聽者

  • Fabulous, colorful, anecdotal stories.

    而他說故事的本領很高明.

  • There was a problem with these stories, however,

    他的故事高潮跌起, 生動有趣,許多奇聞軼事.

  • which I later discovered, which is that half of them weren't true.

    然而關於他的故事有一個困擾,

  • But they were great, nonetheless.

    那就是我後來發現有一半的情節是他自己虛構的.

  • (Laughter)

    雖然如此, 他的故事真的很精采.

  • So I think that part of his attraction for me was that I loved listening to his tall tales.

    笑聲

  • But I also worried that part of it was that I was then a young woman.

    所以我想我喜歡跟他在一起有一部份的原因是由於我喜歡聽他講古說今.

  • And he had somewhat of a minor league womanizing reputation.

    那時我是個年輕的女孩,我也煩惱

  • So I constantly chatted to him about boyfriends,

    他不算少的沾花惹草壞名聲記錄.

  • even when I didn't have any at all.

    所以我不斷的跟他提我跟男朋友的交往情況,

  • Everything was working perfectly,

    即使我根本沒有男朋友.

  • until one day he said he wanted to discuss our relationship.

    每件事情都進行的很順利,

  • Sounded very ominous when he took me nearby to the lake,

    直到有一天他告訴我他想要討論我們之間的關係.

  • conveniently called Lake Lyndon Baines Johnson.

    感覺起來好像不太妙的樣子, 他帶我去附近的湖,

  • And there was wine and cheese and a red-checked tablecloth --

    就是以他命名的林頓.詹森湖.

  • all the romantic trappings.

    在湖邊鋪著紅格子的野餐巾上面有酒和起司--

  • And he started out,

    完全是羅曼蒂克的陷阱擺設.

  • "Doris, more than any other woman I have ever known ... "

    然後他開始說:

  • And my heart sank.

    "多麗絲,妳比我所有認識的女人都..."

  • And then he said,

    我的心開始往下沉.

  • "You remind me of my mother."

    然後他說:

  • (Laughter)

    " 妳讓我想起我媽媽."

  • It was pretty embarrassing, given what was going on in my mind.

    笑聲

  • But I must say, the older I've gotten,

    實在是非常難為情,我腦袋裡竟在想他要向我求愛.

  • the more I realize what an incredible privilege it was

    但是我必須承認, 隨著年齡的增長,