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  • Hi Students, today we will be studying about the Anatomy of the Neck. This is Dr Yusuf

  • and these are the specific objects which are followed in the College of

  • Medicine, Al Jouf University. The first object is - Describe fasciae of the neck

  • and give their importance.

  • The second one is enumerate the structures in the anterior median plane of

  • the neck from above downwards. Third is, mention the actions and nerve

  • supply of sternocleidomastoid muscle, mention its relations and clinical

  • importance. Fourth is outline the triangles of the neck and list the contents of

  • each. Fifth is identify the super hyoid as well as the infrahyoid muscles and give

  • their actions and nerve supply. So these are some of the objectives which we'll

  • discuss one by one. To begin with - if you see the neck, neck is a very important

  • structure through which the lower part of the body will be in connection with

  • the head and neck. So a lot of structures will be entering from the, the

  • lower part from the thoracic region to the head and neck and many structures will

  • be descending downwards from the head and neck into the thoracic region and

  • this connection is very important here and this is confined to a very small

  • area called as the neck. Before we discuss about the neck itself will be discussing

  • em when we reflect the skin and superficial fascia, there is a very

  • important fascia, deep fascia called as the deep cervical fascia of the neck which is also

  • called as Fascia Colli. This the fascia which covers all the structures of the neck

  • and give us an additional support as well as covering so to defy it is a

  • facial which invests the muscles of the neck and fills up the

  • interval between muscles, vessels and cervical

  • viscera. So it's a fascia which invests the muscles of the neck so it covers totally

  • the muscles of the neck, gives protection to that, gives an additional support and

  • fills the interval between muscles, vessels & cervical viscera. So it covers

  • the structure separately the vessels and cervical viscera which are there like the

  • trachea itself, the esophagus, the thyroid gland. All these are covered by a special

  • facial which is called as the deep cervical facial of the neck. It has three layers or three

  • parts, one is called at the investing layer of the deep cervical fascia which is

  • the outermost covering. So if you see here in this picture this is how it

  • looks like to be more precise will go to the next picture here if you can see

  • here this is the cross section of the neck seen from above and you can see

  • here the the blue colored line, just below the skin and the platysma muscle here

  • there is a deep fascia, this is .. this blue line is called as investing layer

  • of deep cervical fascia. It is covering the whole of the neck as well as it is

  • giving extra support as well as covering the muscles here, both in the

  • anterior part as well as the posterior part. Here if you see the sternocleidomastoid

  • muscle, behind it is the trapezius muscle. So it covers on either side of these

  • muscles

  • Ok, so this fascia which is outer most of the three fascias, which covers the

  • whole of the neck. This is the investing layer of of deep cervical fascia. The

  • second fascia is called as the pre-tracheal fascia which is in front of the

  • trachea, so that's why it is called as pre-tracheal, it can be much more clearly

  • seen in this picture the cross-section where it is around the trachea, this is the

  • trachea here and here is the esophagus and these are the two lobess of the

  • thyroid gland and around that there is a fascia which is covering, this is called

  • as the pre-tracheal fascia, because it is in front

  • of the trachea so it is called as pre, pre means front. So pre-tracheal

  • fascia which covers the, not only in the front of the trachea but also on sides as well

  • behind, not only the trachea itself but also the thryoid glands, esophagus and other

  • structures. Then the third fascia which is there which is around the vertebras is called

  • as the pre-vertebral because it is in front of the vertebras. In this picture, if you

  • see here these are the vertebras, this is the spinal cord and in front of that you

  • can see that is a fascia which is called as the prevertebral fascia. To be more precise

  • in this picture is much more clear. Here you can see the the vertebral column and

  • this is the spinal cord inside and around that there are important muscles

  • surrounding this vertebral column itself and all the whole of this

  • structures, the muscles, the vertebra itself, the spine cord, everything is covered by a

  • additional fascia around all these structures and this is called as the pre

  • vertebral fascia. So its mentioned here the pre-vertebral, this pink line this is

  • the pre-vertebral fascia. This orange line this is the pre-tracheal fascia and

  • outermost is the, of the three fascias

  • this is the investing layer of the deep cervical fascia. These are the fascias which

  • are around the neck and covering very important structures in the neck. Along with

  • that there is an additional fascia which covers some very important structures

  • especially if you can see here, this is the fascia and it covers very important

  • such as like the common carotid artery. So that's why it is called carotid sheath

  • because it covers the common carotid artery as well as its

  • terminal branches - the external and internal carotid arteries, especially the internal carotid.

  • Then this is the internal jugular vein and here is the vagus nerve. There are

  • three important structures within the carotid sheath, there is a common character

  • and its branches, terminal branches. This is the internal jugular vein and the

  • vagus nerve. All these three structures

  • are covered by a special covering, this is called as the carotid sheath. This is also

  • part of the deep cervical fascia. So all these fascia are the part of the deep cervical

  • fascia of the neck which is also called the Fascia Colli. So these fasciae will

  • divide the whole of neck into compartments, one is called the visceral

  • compartment, Viscera means the organs like the pretracheal as well as the

  • prevertebral fascia where there are important structures like the trachea, esophagus,

  • thyroid gland and other structures so because these fasciae... this part of the

  • fascia will be covering important structures there, the organs (visceras) so

  • that's why it is called as the pre..... this is called the visceral compartment.

  • So this is a visceral compartment where the importance visceras like esophagus, trachea

  • thyroid gland and here the vertebral column itself, the spinal cord, the

  • muscles. So all these, the pre-vertebral and pre-tracheal fascia will be

  • called as visceral compartment. There is also a very important component is called

  • as the Neuro-vasacular compartment. Neuro means nerves and the vascular means vessels the

  • arteries and the veins. So this is in case in case of the carotid sheath where it is covering

  • very important neurovascular components neuro is the nerve i.e., is the Vagus nerve

  • here and the vascular that is the artery and vein, the common carotid artery as well

  • as the internal jugular vein. All these structures are covered by a separate

  • part of the deep cervical fascia. So this will divide this into a separate

  • neuro-vascular compartment.

  • Ok, so this is called as the neuro-vascular compartment inside which the carotid

  • sheath where the internet carotid artery, the internal jugular vein and the vagus nerve are

  • present. Why there should be fascia?

  • So some of the important functions of the fascia of the neck have been mentioned here

  • first of all it acts as a covering and also as a protective barrier, after the

  • skin

  • this will act as the second layer of defensive mechanism for any

  • kind of external attack by the bacteria, viruses or anything like that. So it acts

  • as a

  • protective barrier, as well as, it acts as a the covering to all the structures in

  • the neck. There are important structures in the neck, so it has to be covered by

  • extra structure. So this is called as the .... this is covering of the neck as well as also

  • it acts as a protective barrier. It gives passage to very important structures as

  • I said like the nerves and arteries. If you can see here, it is getting passage from

  • the artery like the common carotid artery it is passing from the thorax

  • and it is going into the, the head and neck part and it supplies, it gives the

  • arteries, the branches. the two terminal branches, the external carotid artery

  • as well as the internet carotid artery. The internal carotid artery will be one of the

  • two important arteries which will supply the brain and the external carotid

  • artery will be supplying all the structures in the neck as well as the

  • face. So these are very important structures which are passing from, from

  • the thorax into the head & neck part. Also the vein, the internal jugular vein is

  • draining the head and neck and face and brain into back into the the thoracic

  • region, as well as the vagus nerve which is one of the cranial nerve which is

  • coming from the brain and it supplies very important structures. It act as a

  • component of the autonomic nervous system and it will be supplying not only

  • the heart, the lungs. the GIT, many structures. So this fascia will be a

  • very important.

  • It gives passage for many, very important structures to move upwards and

  • downwards smoothly without any hindrance.

  • The third thing, important feature, feature of this importance of this

  • fascia is, if there is in case of any infection, then the pus will be confined

  • to that area. If there is some infection here in this component or here somewhere

  • so it will be confined to that party, doesn't spread to the all of the neck. So

  • again as I said there are very important structures in the neck. So if there is

  • any infection so it should not spread to other parts, so

  • because of this fascia, the infections and the pus collection will be confined

  • to that particular area and it prevents the spreading of infection from one part

  • to the other side. If there is any infection here, it will not go to the

  • other side or to here or somewhere else. So this will, this fascia will acts

  • as a barrier for the spread of any infection to any other parts. Fourth is, it gives

  • additional support to the muscles and other structures. If you see here the

  • sternocleidomastoid or trapezius, they have their own origin and insertion, ie., the

  • actually support the support of that muscle but additionally this fascia

  • will, if you can see here it is totally covered by this fascia. This fascia

  • splits into two, the anterior layer and posterior layer and it totally covers this

  • muscle. This is giving an additional support to these muscles and other

  • structures. So here also can see the carotid sheath is covering the

  • structures, the arteries and the vein and nerve and giving an additional

  • support. So this fascia will also acts as a very important structure

  • which will give additional support to muscles and other structures. So these are some of

  • the, the importance of having a fascia in the neck. One is it acts as a covering

  • second it protects from... acts as a protective barrier and protects from the

  • infection like any bacteria, virus or something like that. It gives important

  • passage for the structures, important structures like the nerves, arteries and veins and if

  • there is any infection it will be confined to that area and prevent the

  • spread of infection and the puss to other parts and fourthly it gives

  • additional support to muscles and other structures. So these are some of the

  • importance of the fascia in the neck

  • ok

Hi Students, today we will be studying about the Anatomy of the Neck. This is Dr Yusuf

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頸筋膜 (Deep Fascia of the Neck)

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    cwchow2015   發佈於 2019 年 03 月 02 日
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