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  • Human history is told by the energy we use. At first we had to use our muscles, then we learned to control fire.

    人類的歷史和能源的運用息息相關 我們最初是靠自己的肌肉,然後學會了怎麼使用火

  • We industrialized the world using coal and oil and entered the Atomic Age when we learned how to split a nucleus.

    我們利用了煤炭和石油將世界工業化 然後了解如何分裂原子並開啟了核子時代

  • At each step, we increased our energy harvest to a scale never seen before and advanced as a species.

    每個階段之中,我們收集能源的規模 都會提升到前所未見的地步 然後我們這個物種就發展到下一階段

  • Currently, we're slowly transitioning to renewables and if we're lucky, fusion energy will become viable in the future.

    目前我們正在緩慢的過渡到再生能源 而如果幸運的話,核融合能源在未來會是可行的

  • As humanity progresses further, if we don't destroy ourselves or our habitat,

    如果我們沒有自我毀滅的話 在人類不斷的演進之後

  • we will likely gain complete control of our planet's resources.

    我們將會100%控制地球上所有的資源

  • At that stage we'll probably begin to look outwards for new places to expand into.

    在這個情況下 我們大概會開始向外尋找新的地方來擴張

  • But space is hard and establishing a serious human presence in the solar system will require

    但是要去太空很難

  • ungodly amounts of energy.

    而且在太陽系中 要建立人類的新地盤會消耗極多的能源

  • Luckily, we know where to find it. The Sun - the ultimate source of energy.

    不過幸運的是,我們知道哪裡可以找到這些能源: 太陽,能源的終極來源

  • A furnace 100 quintillion times more powerful than our most efficient nuclear reactor.

    太陽是一個比目前最有效率的核能發電廠 還要強一垓(10^20)倍的火爐

  • It shines with the energy of a trillion nuclear bombs per second.

    它每秒發光的能量等同一兆顆核彈

  • So, how do we get this energy? Not some of it, all of it.

    所以我們該怎麼取得這個能源呢? 不是只拿一點,而是完全掌握?

  • If we want to collect the most energy physically possible, we'll have to build the largest most

    *開場音樂*

  • ambitious structure in the universe.

    如果我們要在物理限制內取得太陽能源的最大值 我們得建造一個宇宙中最大最有野心的工程

  • The Dyson Sphere, a megastructure that encompasses a whole star to capture its power output.

    也就是戴森球 一個將整顆恆星包住來汲取能源的巨型結構

  • For an intelligent species, building a Dyson Sphere is a technological leap on a par with the discovery of fire for our ancestors.

    對於智慧生物而言,學會建造一個戴森球,就是 如同我們的祖先學會了用火一樣的技術大躍進

  • The transition from a planetary species to an interstellar species. It would usher in an age of exploration and

    我們會從行星物種轉變到星際物種 並且開始一個規模前所未見的大探索、大擴張時代

  • expansion on a scale we can barely imagine.

    所以,戴森球到底會長怎樣呢?

  • So, what would it look like?

    我們不太可能建造一個包住太陽的堅硬大型球殼

  • Solid shell enveloping the Sun is probably not the way to go a large rigid body like that would be vulnerable to impacts

    那種結構被撞擊時很容易被打成碎片 並有可能飄移,直接墜入太陽

  • possibly shattering it would be liable to drift and could crash straight into the Sun a

    更有可能的設計是戴森雲(戴森群) 戴森雲就是一大群圍繞太陽的太陽能板

  • More, viable design for a Dyson Sphere might be a Dyson swarm an enormous set of orbiting panels that collect the sun's power and

    並把收集到的能源發射到其他地方

  • beam it elsewhere

    這種戴森雲基本上會給人類帶來 無限的能源,但建造它並不容易

  • such as sward would give humanity basically unlimited energy but building it won't be easy

    太陽超級大,所以我們需要很多衛星

  • the Sun is very big so we need a lot of satellites if

    如果每顆衛星都有一平方公里, 那麼我們需要大約三萬兆顆(3x10^16)才夠包住太陽

  • Each satellite is a square kilometer we'd need around 30 quadrillion to surround the Sun

    即使利用最輕巧的材料建造這些衛星, 我們也需要大約一垓(10^20)噸的材料

  • even if they're built as lightly as possible we need about 100 quintillion tons of material and

    然後我們需要能源才能把這些零件 組裝起來,並運送到太陽附近

  • Then we need the energy to actually put the parts together and deliver them to their positions around the Sun on

    大前提就是我們需要在太空中建立 永久性基礎設施才能開始建設

  • top of all that we need to have a permanent infrastructure set up in space to start building

    讓我們為了這個影片假設我們的後代會 搞定這一點,並打算建造這個巨型結構

  • let's assume for the purposes of this video that our descendants will take care of that and want to create the mega structure

    我們可以將門檻分為三大類

  • We can sort the challenges into three main categories

    材料、設計和能源

  • materials design and energy

    為了獲得建造戴森雲所需的大量材料, 必須把一顆行星的一大部份拆解成原料

  • To get the vast amounts of raw materials required for our Dyson swarm will have to largely disassemble a whole planet

    在可用的行星中,水星是最佳候選者 因為水星最接近太陽並且富含金屬

  • Of the planets available mercury is the best candidate it's the closest to the Sun and very metal-rich

    靠近太陽也意味著材料不用搬太遠

  • close to the Sun

    水星沒有大氣層,重力只有大約地球表面的三分之一

  • also

    因此比較容易將材料送入太空

  • Means less moving stuff around and mercury has no atmosphere and only about a third of the surface gravity of Earth making it

    接下來我們應該思考我們戴森雲的設計 簡單就是美

  • comparatively easy to launch material into space

    傳統的太陽能板太複雜而且壽命短, 我們的衛星必須耐用且不需人為干涉

  • Next we should consider the design of our swarm simpler is better

    即可運行很長一段時間 而且這些衛星必須很廉價

  • Conventional solar panels are far too intricate and short lives our satellites need to operate without repairs or intervention for

    它們很可能會是巨大的鏡子

  • astronomically long times and they need to be cheap to produce

    將太陽光重新聚焦到中央採集站, 就像地球上的聚光太陽能一樣

  • But they're most likely going to be enormous mirrors

    為了有效地製造和發射它們,它們必須非常輕巧, 每個衛星就只是拋光金屬板和固定用的一些支撐物

  • which refocus sunlight to central collecting stations like in concentrated solar power on earth

    最後,我們需要能源來建造和發射戴森雲

  • to build and launch them efficiently they must be incredibly light made of little more than polished metal full bound to some supports and

    拆解行星並把東西發射到太空需要 大量的能源,例如,如果我們

  • Last we need the energy to build and launch the swarm itself taking a part of planets and launching things into space

    非常有效率地使用地球上所有的化石燃料和的鈾

  • requires an enormous amount of energy for example if we used all the fossil fuels and

    那我們最多只能發射跟珠穆朗瑪峰相當的質量到太空

  • Uranium on earth and we?

    與拆解整顆行星相比,實在是微不足道

  • Were perfectly efficient we could only launch as much

    建構戴森球所需的能源, 幾乎就跟戴森球產出的能源差不多

  • Mass as Mount Everest into space a rather meager accomplishment compared to planetary disassembly

    但那沒什麼,水星上有充足的陽光, 讓我們開始工作吧

  • To get the energy needed to build a Dyson Sphere it's almost as if you're going to need the power output of a dyson sphere

    要讓人類維生的條件很多,並且人類對環境非常敏感

  • But that's. Ok there's plenty of sunlight to be had on Mercury so let's get to work

    所以,我們希望盡可能自動化

  • Humans are expensive to keep alive and are very sensitive to the environment

    理想情況下,我們會有一小部分控制人員 負責監督一系列自動機器工作

  • So, we'd want to automate as much as possible

    我們需要四大技術: 太陽能收集器、礦工、精煉廠和發射設備

  • Ideally we'd have a small crew of controllers who oversee an army of autonomous machines doing the actual work

    太陽能收集器將為我們提供拆解行星所需的能源

  • There are four major pieces of technology required solar collectors miners refiners and launch equipment

    首先,我們可能會建造一平方公里的收集器 當作鏡子或傳統太陽能板進行部署

  • the solar collectors are going to give us the energy we need to disassemble the planet

    他們將提供礦工機器人運作需要的能源,礦工挖開整個 行星表面,我們的精煉廠提取有價值的元素

  • To start maybe we deploy something like one square kilometer of them either as mirrors or as traditional solar panels

    並將它們製作成我們的戴森雲衛星

  • they'll provide the energy to run our miners which strip-mine the surface of the planet and our refiners which extract valuable elements and

    要讓它們進入太空我們需要一個有創意和有效率的解決方案

  • fabricate them into our swarm satellites

    火箭很昂貴,而且很難返回地表重複使用

  • to get them into space we need a creative and efficient solution

    我們想要使用的是一種軌道炮

  • Rockets aren't too expensive and difficult to deorbit and reuse

    一條很長的電磁軌道,可以以高速發射我們的衛星

  • Instead, we'll want to use a sort of railgun a longer

    我們的衛星將被包好包滿發射出去, 然後在軌道上的像是巨大摺紙一樣展開

  • Electromagnetic track which launches our satellites at high speeds

    之後,我們可以利用已經蓋好的衛星開始產生的能源

  • Our swarm satellites will be packed tight for launch unfurling like an enormous origami once in orbit

    在水星上構建更多基礎設施,並更快 更快地發射新太陽能板,達到指數性成長

  • from this point we can take advantage of

    每個太陽能板都替下一個太陽能板供電 這兩個板再一起建造下兩個

  • exponential growth using the energy of the existing parts of the swarm to build more infrastructure on Mercury and launch new panels faster and faster

    四成八,八成為十六,生生不息

  • each panel provides the energy to build another those to work together to build the next to

    在60次倍增之後,太陽完全被太陽能板包圍

  • Four become eight eight become 16 and so on

    如果一平方公里的太陽能收集器需要一個月 的時間來建造,那我們可以在十年內完成,不算太久

  • within just about 60 doubling times the Sun would be completely surrounded by solar panels and

    前題是我們在行星表面的基礎設施 能夠跟上快速增長的能源供應

  • This can happen quickly if a square kilometer of solar collectors takes a month to build we could be done in a decade

    即使只是太陽能源的一小步 也是我們人類收集能源的一大步

  • if only our infrastructure on the planet's surface can keep up with the quickly growing budget of energy

    我們可以把基本上無限的太陽能 發射到太陽系各地,用在各種計劃上

  • Even collecting 1% of the sun's energy is an unbelievable change in our species energy budget

    比如其他星球上的殖民地

  • We could create the infrastructure to being basically unlimited amounts of energy around the solar system for all sorts of projects

    把其他行星地球化

  • colonies on other worlds terraforming planets

    建造更多的巨型建築,甚至到其他星系 旅行,這可能是一個星際文明的開端

  • constructing more mega structures or even traveling to other stars it could be the start of an interstellar

    根據我們對物理學的理解, 這不僅有可能,而且不難

  • Civilization based on physics alone this is not just possible but easy

    這步驟如此簡單,而且對於任何物種 而言,這是他們要擴張到其他星球必要的一步

  • It's such a simple process and such a necessary step for any species to expand beyond their home planet that many astronomers

    因此許多天文學家認為銀河系裡可能早就有蓋好的戴森球了

  • Think there are probably Dyson spheres already out there in the Milky Way we haven't spotted any yet but they could be there

    我們還沒找到任何戴森球,但他們很可能就在那裡

  • it's far from certain that humanity will ever get to this point our attention is too often focused on short-term political gains and

    我們還不知道人類會不會走到這一步。 我們往往專注在長期而言無關緊要的

  • Conflicts that will not matter in the long run but if we survive the challenges we've set ourselves

    政治利益和衝突。但如果我們撐過 我們加在自己身上的挑戰

  • we could potentially become the first species in the universe to create a structure with the scope of a star if

    那我們有可能成為宇宙中 第一個創造出恆星級結構體的物種

  • We? Do it the only limitation left will be our own

    如果我們成功的話,想像力就是我們的超能力

  • imagination

    我們剛剛丟給你很多非常狂妄的主張和瘋狂的概念

  • We've just hit you with a lot of pretty wild claims and crazy concepts if

    如果你就像我們一樣,喜歡用科學的力量 來找出摧毀萬物的荒謬方法

  • You're like us and enjoy using the power of science to determine absurd ways to destroy stuff

    那你可能想知道如何自己想出類似的東西

  • you might want to hear how you can come up with something like that yourself

    Brilliant是一個解決問題的網站,可以幫助您通過有趣的謎題學習東西,將複雜的問題切成一小口的大小

  • Brilliant is a problem-solving website that helps you learn stuff through fun puzzles that split up a complex problem into bite-sized chunks and

    並且建立一個有趣的結論

  • build up to an interesting conclusion

    它可以幫助您通過實作來理解 科學的原理,而不僅僅是填鴨一堆知識

  • It helps you understand how science works by actually using it instead of just memorizing a bunch of stuff

    Brilliance 有很多有趣的課程和難題, 如量子計算機學、天文學和邏輯,甚至是戴森球

  • brilliance has tons of interesting courses and puzzles on things like quantum computing astronomy and logic and even dyson sphere's if

    如果你前往 brilliance.org/nutshell

  • you visit brilliant org slash nutshell

    或者點擊描述中的連結, 您可以免費註冊並學習各種各樣的東西

  • Or click the link in the description you can sign up for free and learn all kinds of things as

    前688人可獲得年度會員八折的折扣

  • A bonus for cooks without viewers the first 688 people will, also get 20% off their annual membership

    在 Brilliance 上,你可以慢慢變得更聰明

  • with brilliance you can finish each stay a little bit smarter and

    也許有一天你可以幫助將人類物種擴展到宇宙中

  • Just maybe you can help to expand the human species into the universe one day

    我們非常喜歡戴森球,所以我們 也製作了一張關於它們的海報

  • We love dyson sphere's so much that we've also made a poster about them

    它掛在你的牆上會看起來很漂亮

  • it will look pretty on your wall but

    而且還有一些關於戴森球概念的資訊。 很適合當成聊天的話題

  • Also has some information about the concept of a Dyson Sphere a great way to start a conversation

    你也可以只是盯著這張海報,夢想未來

  • Or you can just stare at it and dream about the future

    追夢吧!

  • go get it here

Human history is told by the energy we use. At first we had to use our muscles, then we learned to control fire.

人類的歷史和能源的運用息息相關 我們最初是靠自己的肌肉,然後學會了怎麼使用火

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影片操作 你可以在這邊進行「影片」的調整,以及「字幕」的顯示

B1 中級 中文 能源 太陽 衛星 行星 建造 太陽能板

如何打造一個戴森球體--終極大基建。 (How to Build a Dyson Sphere - The Ultimate Megastructure)

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    mommy 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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