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  • Human history is told by the energy we use. At first we had to use our muscles, then we learned to control fire.

    人類的歷史和能源的運用息息相關 我們最初是靠自己的肌肉,然後學會了怎麼使用火

  • We industrialized the world using coal and oil and entered the Atomic Age when we learned how to split a nucleus.

    我們利用了煤炭和石油將世界工業化 然後了解如何分裂原子並開啟了核子時代

  • At each step, we increased our energy harvest to a scale never seen before and advanced as a species.

    每個階段之中,我們收集能源的規模 都會提升到前所未見的地步 然後我們這個物種就發展到下一階段

  • Currently, we're slowly transitioning to renewables and if we're lucky, fusion energy will become viable in the future.

    目前我們正在緩慢的過渡到再生能源 而如果幸運的話,核融合能源在未來會是可行的

  • As humanity progresses further, if we don't destroy ourselves or our habitat,

    如果我們沒有自我毀滅的話 在人類不斷的演進之後

  • we will likely gain complete control of our planet's resources.


  • At that stage we'll probably begin to look outwards for new places to expand into.

    在這個情況下 我們大概會開始向外尋找新的地方來擴張

  • But space is hard and establishing a serious human presence in the solar system will require


  • ungodly amounts of energy.

    而且在太陽系中 要建立人類的新地盤會消耗極多的能源

  • Luckily, we know where to find it. The Sun - the ultimate source of energy.

    不過幸運的是,我們知道哪裡可以找到這些能源: 太陽,能源的終極來源

  • A furnace 100 quintillion times more powerful than our most efficient nuclear reactor.

    太陽是一個比目前最有效率的核能發電廠 還要強一垓(10^20)倍的火爐

  • It shines with the energy of a trillion nuclear bombs per second.


  • So, how do we get this energy? Not some of it, all of it.

    所以我們該怎麼取得這個能源呢? 不是只拿一點,而是完全掌握?

  • If we want to collect the most energy physically possible, we'll have to build the largest most


  • ambitious structure in the universe.

    如果我們要在物理限制內取得太陽能源的最大值 我們得建造一個宇宙中最大最有野心的工程

  • The Dyson Sphere, a megastructure that encompasses a whole star to capture its power output.

    也就是戴森球 一個將整顆恆星包住來汲取能源的巨型結構

  • For an intelligent species, building a Dyson Sphere is a technological leap on a par with the discovery of fire for our ancestors.

    對於智慧生物而言,學會建造一個戴森球,就是 如同我們的祖先學會了用火一樣的技術大躍進

  • The transition from a planetary species to an interstellar species. It would usher in an age of exploration and

    我們會從行星物種轉變到星際物種 並且開始一個規模前所未見的大探索、大擴張時代

  • expansion on a scale we can barely imagine.


  • So, what would it look like?


  • Solid shell enveloping the Sun is probably not the way to go a large rigid body like that would be vulnerable to impacts

    那種結構被撞擊時很容易被打成碎片 並有可能飄移,直接墜入太陽

  • possibly shattering it would be liable to drift and could crash straight into the Sun a

    更有可能的設計是戴森雲(戴森群) 戴森雲就是一大群圍繞太陽的太陽能板

  • More, viable design for a Dyson Sphere might be a Dyson swarm an enormous set of orbiting panels that collect the sun's power and


  • beam it elsewhere

    這種戴森雲基本上會給人類帶來 無限的能源,但建造它並不容易

  • such as sward would give humanity basically unlimited energy but building it won't be easy


  • the Sun is very big so we need a lot of satellites if

    如果每顆衛星都有一平方公里, 那麼我們需要大約三萬兆顆(3x10^16)才夠包住太陽

  • Each satellite is a square kilometer we'd need around 30 quadrillion to surround the Sun

    即使利用最輕巧的材料建造這些衛星, 我們也需要大約一垓(10^20)噸的材料

  • even if they're built as lightly as possible we need about 100 quintillion tons of material and

    然後我們需要能源才能把這些零件 組裝起來,並運送到太陽附近

  • Then we need the energy to actually put the parts together and deliver them to their positions around the Sun on

    大前提就是我們需要在太空中建立 永久性基礎設施才能開始建設

  • top of all that we need to have a permanent infrastructure set up in space to start building

    讓我們為了這個影片假設我們的後代會 搞定這一點,並打算建造這個巨型結構

  • let's assume for the purposes of this video that our descendants will take care of that and want to create the mega structure


  • We can sort the challenges into three main categories


  • materials design and energy

    為了獲得建造戴森雲所需的大量材料, 必須把一顆行星的一大部份拆解成原料

  • To get the vast amounts of raw materials required for our Dyson swarm will have to largely disassemble a whole planet

    在可用的行星中,水星是最佳候選者 因為水星最接近太陽並且富含金屬

  • Of the planets available mercury is the best candidate it's the closest to the Sun and very metal-rich


  • close to the Sun


  • also


  • Means less moving stuff around and mercury has no atmosphere and only about a third of the surface gravity of Earth making it

    接下來我們應該思考我們戴森雲的設計 簡單就是美

  • comparatively easy to launch material into space

    傳統的太陽能板太複雜而且壽命短, 我們的衛星必須耐用且不需人為干涉

  • Next we should consider the design of our swarm simpler is better

    即可運行很長一段時間 而且這些衛星必須很廉價

  • Conventional solar panels are far too intricate and short lives our satellites need to operate without repairs or intervention for


  • astronomically long times and they need to be cheap to produce

    將太陽光重新聚焦到中央採集站, 就像地球上的聚光太陽能一樣

  • But they're most likely going to be enormous mirrors

    為了有效地製造和發射它們,它們必須非常輕巧, 每個衛星就只是拋光金屬板和固定用的一些支撐物

  • which refocus sunlight to central collecting stations like in concentrated solar power on earth


  • to build and launch them efficiently they must be incredibly light made of little more than polished metal full bound to some supports and

    拆解行星並把東西發射到太空需要 大量的能源,例如,如果我們

  • Last we need the energy to build and launch the swarm itself taking a part of planets and launching things into space


  • requires an enormous amount of energy for example if we used all the fossil fuels and


  • Uranium on earth and we?


  • Were perfectly efficient we could only launch as much

    建構戴森球所需的能源, 幾乎就跟戴森球產出的能源差不多

  • Mass as Mount Everest into space a rather meager accomplishment compared to planetary disassembly

    但那沒什麼,水星上有充足的陽光, 讓我們開始工作吧

  • To get the energy needed to build a Dyson Sphere it's almost as if you're going to need the power output of a dyson sphere


  • But that's. Ok there's plenty of sunlight to be had on Mercury so let's get to work


  • Humans are expensive to keep alive and are very sensitive to the environment

    理想情況下,我們會有一小部分控制人員 負責監督一系列自動機器工作

  • So, we'd want to automate as much as possible

    我們需要四大技術: 太陽能收集器、礦工、精煉廠和發射設備

  • Ideally we'd have a small crew of controllers who oversee an army of autonomous machines doing the actual work


  • There are four major pieces of technology required solar collectors miners refiners and launch equipment

    首先,我們可能會建造一平方公里的收集器 當作鏡子或傳統太陽能板進行部署

  • the solar collectors are going to give us the energy we need to disassemble the planet

    他們將提供礦工機器人運作需要的能源,礦工挖開整個 行星表面,我們的精煉廠提取有價值的元素

  • To start maybe we deploy something like one square kilometer of them either as mirrors or as traditional solar panels


  • they'll provide the energy to run our miners which strip-mine the surface of the planet and our refiners which extract valuable elements and


  • fabricate them into our swarm satellites


  • to get them into space we need a creative and efficient solution


  • Rockets aren't too expensive and difficult to deorbit and reuse


  • Instead, we'll want to use a sort of railgun a longer

    我們的衛星將被包好包滿發射出去, 然後在軌道上的像是巨大摺紙一樣展開

  • Electromagnetic track which launches our satellites at high speeds


  • Our swarm satellites will be packed tight for launch unfurling like an enormous origami once in orbit

    在水星上構建更多基礎設施,並更快 更快地發射新太陽能板,達到指數性成長

  • from this point we can take advantage of

    每個太陽能板都替下一個太陽能板供電 這兩個板再一起建造下兩個

  • exponential growth using the energy of the existing parts of the swarm to build more infrastructure on Mercury and launch new panels faster and faster


  • each panel provides the energy to build another those to work together to build the next to


  • Four become eight eight become 16 and so on

    如果一平方公里的太陽能收集器需要一個月 的時間來建造,那我們可以在十年內完成,不算太久

  • within just about 60 doubling times the Sun would be completely surrounded by solar panels and

    前題是我們在行星表面的基礎設施 能夠跟上快速增長的能源供應

  • This can happen quickly if a square kilometer of solar collectors takes a month to build we could be done in a decade

    即使只是太陽能源的一小步 也是我們人類收集能源的一大步

  • if only our infrastructure on the planet's surface can keep up with the quickly growing budget of energy

    我們可以把基本上無限的太陽能 發射到太陽系各地,用在各種計劃上

  • Even collecting 1% of the sun's energy is an unbelievable change in our species energy budget


  • We could create the infrastructure to being basically unlimited amounts of energy around the solar system for all sorts of projects


  • colonies on other worlds terraforming planets

    建造更多的巨型建築,甚至到其他星系 旅行,這可能是一個星際文明的開端

  • constructing more mega structures or even traveling to other stars it could be the start of an interstellar

    根據我們對物理學的理解, 這不僅有可能,而且不難

  • Civilization based on physics alone this is not just possible but easy

    這步驟如此簡單,而且對於任何物種 而言,這是他們要擴張到其他星球必要的一步

  • It's such a simple process and such a necessary step for any species to expand beyond their home planet that many astronomers


  • Think there are probably Dyson spheres already out there in the Milky Way we haven't spotted any yet but they could be there


  • it's far from certain that humanity will ever get to this point our attention is too often focused on short-term political gains and

    我們還不知道人類會不會走到這一步。 我們往往專注在長期而言無關緊要的

  • Conflicts that will not matter in the long run but if we survive the challenges we've set ourselves

    政治利益和衝突。但如果我們撐過 我們加在自己身上的挑戰

  • we could potentially become the first species in the universe to create a structure with the scope of a star if

    那我們有可能成為宇宙中 第一個創造出恆星級結構體的物種

  • We? Do it the only limitation left will be our own


  • imagination


  • We've just hit you with a lot of pretty wild claims and crazy concepts if

    如果你就像我們一樣,喜歡用科學的力量 來找出摧毀萬物的荒謬方法

  • You're like us and enjoy using the power of science to determine absurd ways to destroy stuff


  • you might want to hear how you can come up with something like that yourself


  • Brilliant is a problem-solving website that helps you learn stuff through fun puzzles that split up a complex problem into bite-sized chunks and


  • build up to an interesting conclusion

    它可以幫助您通過實作來理解 科學的原理,而不僅僅是填鴨一堆知識

  • It helps you understand how science works by actually using it instead of just memorizing a bunch of stuff

    Brilliance 有很多有趣的課程和難題, 如量子計算機學、天文學和邏輯,甚至是戴森球

  • brilliance has tons of interesting courses and puzzles on things like quantum computing astronomy and logic and even dyson sphere's if


  • you visit brilliant org slash nutshell

    或者點擊描述中的連結, 您可以免費註冊並學習各種各樣的東西

  • Or click the link in the description you can sign up for free and learn all kinds of things as


  • A bonus for cooks without viewers the first 688 people will, also get 20% off their annual membership

    在 Brilliance 上,你可以慢慢變得更聰明

  • with brilliance you can finish each stay a little bit smarter and


  • Just maybe you can help to expand the human species into the universe one day

    我們非常喜歡戴森球,所以我們 也製作了一張關於它們的海報

  • We love dyson sphere's so much that we've also made a poster about them


  • it will look pretty on your wall but

    而且還有一些關於戴森球概念的資訊。 很適合當成聊天的話題

  • Also has some information about the concept of a Dyson Sphere a great way to start a conversation


  • Or you can just stare at it and dream about the future


  • go get it here

Human history is told by the energy we use. At first we had to use our muscles, then we learned to control fire.

人類的歷史和能源的運用息息相關 我們最初是靠自己的肌肉,然後學會了怎麼使用火


影片操作 你可以在這邊進行「影片」的調整,以及「字幕」的顯示

B1 中級 中文 能源 太陽 衛星 行星 建造 太陽能板

如何打造一個戴森球體--終極大基建。 (How to Build a Dyson Sphere - The Ultimate Megastructure)

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