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  • CARL AZUZ: Wrapping up the week for "CNN 10," I'm Carl Azuz.

  • We're starting today's show in the South American nation

  • of Brazil, which is trying to come to grips with the worst

  • mining disaster in its history.

  • We told you on January 28 how the collapse

  • of a dam at an iron mine sent a flood of mining debris and mud

  • into the city of Brumadinho.

  • The number of people who died from the incident

  • has risen to 150.

  • And Brazil's government says at least

  • 182 others are still missing.

  • Rescue officials do not think they're

  • going to find any more survivors,

  • according to the British Broadcasting Corporation.

  • It also reports that Vale, the company that owns the mine

  • says it followed recommended safety procedures.

  • But this is the second mine owned by Vale

  • where a dam has collapsed.

  • The other incident happened in the same region

  • in 2015, killing 19 people and polluting the environment.

  • And as the Reuters news organization reports,

  • a Brazilian state official recently

  • blamed the same problem for both disasters.

  • Parts of the dam, which was made of dried mud and sand,

  • turned into liquid, causing the structure to fail.

  • In addition to the lives lost, the collapse

  • contaminated a river downstream with mining

  • debris, waste, and toxins.

  • And observers say the resulting pollution from that could

  • indirectly impact millions.

  • There's a growing challenge facing China, specifically

  • the future of its economy.

  • And it's a consequence of the Communist government's

  • controversial one-child policy.

  • In the late 1970s, the world's most populated country

  • wanted to slow down the growth of that population.

  • So it instituted a policy in 1980 that

  • limited families to one child.

  • In some cases, it forced couples to stop having children.

  • The program ended in 2016.

  • Chinese families are now allowed to have two children.

  • But the results of the limit mean

  • fewer children are alive to support

  • the country's aging population.

  • MATT RIVERS: This is a brutal trudge for a healthy person.

  • But for 68-year-old Qin Taixiao, stricken with emphysema

  • and cancer, it's near torture.

  • He keeps warm by burning firewood.

  • It's cheaper than coal.

  • QIN TAIXIAO: [SPEAKING CHINESE]

  • MATT RIVERS: What can I say, he says.

  • Life's all right.

  • There's no other way.

  • That steely stoicism is common in China's

  • rural villages, where life has only gotten tougher.

  • Young people have been largely swept

  • away by the relentless current of China's urban migration.

  • Qin's children left for work years ago.

  • He and his wife, Sun Sherong, carry on alone.

  • FAN MENG: [SPEAKING CHINESE]

  • MATT RIVERS: It's difficult for our children to care for us,

  • she says.

  • We don't want to become a burden.

  • 150 miles away in Beijing, it a burden that 32-year-old

  • Fan Meng knows well.

  • She and her husband financially support both their parents,

  • the four grandparents of their five-year-old daughter,

  • Qi Shuanrun.

  • She likes to ski and she enjoys diving, Fan says.

  • If those are her interests, we have to support her.

  • And that all costs money.

  • The village couple and their city counterpart

  • are a microcosm of China's aging problem.

  • Simply put, there are a lot more older people

  • in China than younger ones.

  • And an aging population, along with greater life expectancy,

  • can have drastic consequences.

  • Less working age people might limit the government's

  • ability to pay for the benefits needed by its aging population.

  • National economic priorities will shift more towards health

  • care and pension obligations.

  • And it might also hurt consumer spending,

  • with the combined effect of slowing China's economic growth

  • potential way down.

  • The obvious solution here is to have more babies.

  • But that's not happening.

  • There were 2 million fewer births in 2018.

  • And most studies agree that China's population

  • will soon begin to shrink.

  • The government knows this, and in 2016, changed

  • the notorious one-child policy.

  • Couples are now allowed to have two babies per family.

  • And there's speculation the Communist

  • Party could erase any restrictions

  • as soon as this year.

  • But for families like Fan Meng's, that doesn't matter.

  • FAN MENG: [SPEAKING CHINESE]

  • MATT RIVERS: For me, she says, one baby is enough.

  • One baby is what I can afford in terms of both energy and money.

  • Not wanting more kids is a nationwide trend

  • that's unlikely to change, with higher

  • costs and more opportunities for women as two reasons why.

  • Back in the village, Qin Taixiao and his wife

  • survive on about $1,500 per year selling corn.

  • At some point, though, hauling 50 kilos of wood twice a day

  • will be too much and his meager income not enough.

  • They'll need help, just like all of China's older citizens.

  • Whether there will be enough young people to support

  • them is one of Chinese society's great questions.

  • Matt Rivers, CNN, Beijing.

  • CARL AZUZ: "10-Second Trivia."

  • Nicolo Amati, like Antonio Stradivari,

  • became famous for his work with what?

  • Paintings, fountains, instruments, or bridges.

  • Some of the greatest violins ever made

  • are associated with the Amati and Stradivari families.

  • Some of their violins are said to be acoustically perfect.

  • But it's not known what makes them that way.

  • Encyclopedia Britannica says some

  • believe it's in the instruments' mysterious varnish.

  • Others say it's a combination of that,

  • plus the thickness and condition of the wood.

  • There's a project going on that uses

  • modern technology to carefully document their historic tones.

  • [PLAYING BACH CELLO SUITE #2 ON VIOLA]

  • BARBIE LATZA NADEAU: Few things compare to the sound

  • of a virtuoso playing.

  • But this is no ordinary instrument.

  • It's an Amati viola from the 17th century.

  • And it's being played here in Cremona, where

  • music-making is an art form.

  • [MULTIPLE RECORDINGS PLAYING]

  • These instruments are displayed in the town's renowned violin

  • museum, Renaissance and Baroque masterpieces

  • made by legendary artisans like Stradivari and Amati,

  • who created many of the first violins, violas, and cellos

  • as we know them today.

  • No one makes string instruments like this anymore,

  • which were created to delight the royal courts of Europe.

  • And the unique sound they create can't be replicated either.

  • Maestro Fausto Cacciatori is in charge

  • of taking these precious instruments out of their museum

  • cases and down to the auditorium, where

  • their sound can be recorded.

  • FAUSTO CACCIATORI: [SPEAKING ITALIAN]

  • BARBIE LATZA NADEAU: My dream is that these instruments that we

  • are conserving will be played in 200 or 300 years time

  • and that the sound is just like we hear today, he says.

  • [PLAYING VIVALDI "FOUR SEASONS" ON VIOLIN]

  • Two tech companies have teamed up

  • to immortalize the notes of these centuries-old instruments

  • into a sound bank to do just that.

  • THOMAS KORITKE: We record everything

  • you can perform on the violin, but not

  • as part of a musical performance,

  • but basically bit by bit, one by one.

  • So we are recording long notes, short notes,

  • just broken down into very tiny pieces and elements

  • of the performance.

  • BARBIE LATZA NADEAU: Once the recordings are finished,

  • software developers will be able to use the notes and tones

  • for their own compositions.

  • But it takes complete silence in order

  • to carry out these recordings the tower had to cooperate.

  • They've closed the street with cobblestones

  • to traffic in order to try to limit

  • the vibrations and reverberations

  • inside the recording studio.

  • The project creators believe the sacrifices will pay off.

  • LEONARDO TEDESCHI: It will be something

  • that will allow the digital composer to make music.

  • And it will be a very practical tool.

  • But it will never be like having a live musician.

  • BARBIE LATZA NADEAU: Barbie Latza Nadeau for CNN, Cremona.

  • [PLAYING VIOLIN]

  • [ROCK MUSIC PLAYING]

  • CARL AZUZ: A family reunion gets a 10 out of 10 today.

  • But it's a family that's a little odder

  • than you're used to.

  • Literally, a little otter.

  • It was found earlier this week by a commercial fisherman

  • after the pup became separated from its mother.

  • Officials recorded the pup's cries

  • and then played them over a speaker

  • so the mother could hear.

  • After they located her, they tossed the pup in.

  • And after a few moments, she pops up to get her baby.

  • Her baby's light in the water, so you can't say she

  • forgot her.

  • Though a fisherman had caught her, Momma Otter had begot her.

  • And it's clear that she had sought her,

  • so that when the man had brought her,

  • it turned any otter day to a special motter's day.

  • So if you catch one, don't play possum.

  • Find the mom and then just toss him.

  • It's a sample an example of how Fridays are awesome.

  • I'm Carl Azuz.

  • And that's "CNN 10."

  • [MUSIC PLAYING]

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中新網10日電】2019年2月8日。 ([CNN 10] February 8, 2019)

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