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  • [MUSIC PLAYING]

  • CARL AZUZ: Welcome to CNN 10.

  • I'm Carl Azuz.

  • It's great to see you this Thursday.

  • International relations are the key factor

  • in today's first story.

  • It concerns the civil war in Yemen

  • that ramped up four years ago.

  • It's torn apart the Middle Eastern country.

  • This isn't a simple battle between Yemeni

  • government forces and a rebel group

  • that wants a new government.

  • That might have been how it started,

  • but terrorist groups, like ISIS and al-Qaeda,

  • are believed to be operating in Yemen.

  • A famine has struck the country, civilians are starving,

  • and the war has become international.

  • Saudi Arabia is leading a group of nations that are

  • attacking the rebels in Yemen.

  • And Iran is believed to be supporting those rebels.

  • The United States is not directly involved in Yemen,

  • but it has given military support

  • to Saudi Arabia and its allies.

  • A recent CNN investigation accused Saudi Arabia

  • of providing some American weapons and equipment

  • to militias in Yemen.

  • This would break the rules of America's arm sales

  • to Saudi Arabia, according to the US Department of Defense.

  • But the top US commander in the Middle East

  • says it wouldn't be a good idea for America to stop

  • supporting the Saudi-led group.

  • There is a close relationship between the US

  • and Saudi Arabia, and it goes back more than half a century.

  • - The s of Saudi Arabia and the United States

  • are two unexpected allies.

  • One's an autocracy, the other a democracy.

  • There are many differences between the two.

  • But one thing they have in common

  • is that each country has what the other wants.

  • Saudi Arabia has oil, and the United States has arms.

  • To understand how reciprocal the relationship is,

  • we need to go back to how it started.

  • Saudi Arabia, as we know it, was founded

  • in 1932 by King Abdul Aziz.

  • A few years later, oil was struck,

  • and American companies, sensing an opportunity, moved in.

  • ANDREAS KRIEG: It was a relationship, which

  • was based on the company--

  • Standard Oil-- in the name of the US government

  • trying to look for access to oil resources.

  • - This picture shows where the relationship crystallized.

  • This was Saudi Arabia's founder King Abdul Aziz meeting

  • US President Franklin Roosevelt on the USS Quincy

  • on the Suez Canal in 1945.

  • ANDREAS KRIEG: The United States wanted to have a secure access

  • to the oil resources.

  • And at the same time, they would provide

  • the Saudi kingdom with access to arms

  • and obviously provide protection.

  • - As the years past, the relationship strengthened.

  • Standard Oil founded Aramco, the Arabian American oil

  • company, which controlled every oil well

  • and barrel in the country.

  • And as the oil flowed into the US,

  • American made arms flowed into the kingdom.

  • Between 1950 and 2017, Saudi Arabia

  • bought more than $100 billion worth of arms from the US,

  • making the kingdom the country's biggest customer.

  • It's a relationship so strong that even when

  • Saudi Arabia and the US are on opposite sides of an issue,

  • arms continue to flow.

  • For example, in 1973 and the start of the Yom Kippur War,

  • Egypt and Syria launched a surprise

  • offensive against Israel.

  • The US responded supporting Israel, which Saudi opposed.

  • The kingdom and its OPEC allies responded

  • by setting an oil embargo, reducing

  • production, and significantly impacting the US economy.

  • But there was no slowdown in arms sales.

  • PIETER WEZEMAN: If we look at the actual figures of arms

  • supplies to Saudi Arabia from the US,

  • we do see that that was around the time

  • that you really see a very significant increase

  • in those arms supplies, which then

  • continued over the decades.

  • And partly this may also be related to the fact

  • that that really was the moment that oil prices

  • really increased very rapidly.

  • - Even 9/11-- where 15 out of the 19 attackers were Saudi--

  • did little to rattle the arms relationship

  • with the kingdom, which has denied

  • any involvement in the attacks.

  • PIETER WEZEMAN: Around 2005, there

  • was a dip of volume of deliveries of weapons

  • from the US to Saudi Arabia.

  • But I think that didn't necessarily

  • have to do with 9/11.

  • I think it had more to do with the fact

  • that Saudi Arabia didn't have the best financial conditions

  • at that time and that it had already

  • stocked up on a very large quantity of advanced arms.

  • [NON-ENGLISH CHANTING]

  • - And in 2017, US President Donald Trump's

  • first foreign visit was to Saudi Arabia,

  • where he signed an arms deal said to be worth $110 billion.

  • PIETER WEZEMAN: For a long time, Saudi Arabia hasn't really

  • used its equipment very much.

  • But that then started to change in 2015.

  • We see the, let's say, the full scale military intervention

  • by Saudi Arabia in Yemen.

  • [NON-ENGLISH SPEECH]

  • - The Yemen conflict has become the world's

  • worst humanitarian crisis, with tens of thousands killed.

  • It's also widely seen as a proxy war between Iran and Saudi

  • Arabia, with Houthi rebels supported

  • by Iran and pro-government forces supported

  • by the Saudi-led coalition.

  • The world has changed a lot since the relationship between

  • Saudi Arabia and the USA began.

  • Imports of oil from the kingdom to the US

  • have dropped by 47% since a high in 1991.

  • Since that first accord in 1932, Saudi Arabia

  • has had seven kings.

  • The US has had 14 presidents.

  • But through it all, the bond between these two nations

  • has remained unbreakable.

  • CARL AZUZ: 10 second trivia--

  • which of these places is located the farthest north?

  • Anchorage, Alaska, USA, St. Petersburg, Russia, Reykjavik,

  • Iceland, or Oslo, Norway?

  • [TICKING]

  • The northernmost city on this list,

  • at 64 degrees north latitude, is the capital of Iceland.

  • But they're all latitudes north of 55 degrees, which

  • means their smartphone maps could be affected by a shift

  • in the Magnetic North Pole.

  • There's the True North Pole and the Magnetic North.

  • The True North pole is geographic.

  • It's the northernmost point on the planet.

  • The Magnetic North Pole is where compass needles point.

  • Historically, it's been located in the Canadian arctic,

  • several hundred miles away from the True North.

  • And it's moving.

  • Scientists say it's always done that slowly.

  • But in recent years, the Magnetic North Pole

  • has been speeding up, traveling about 34 miles per year

  • in the direction of Russia.

  • Why is this happening?

  • No one knows for sure.

  • Many scientists think it's because the Earth's

  • magnetic field is tied to a liquid outer core

  • deep inside the planet.

  • When the liquid flows, it could pull

  • the Magnetic North with it?

  • Will compasses still point north?

  • For the most part, they will.

  • But this could cause some navigational trouble

  • above 55 degrees north latitude, so

  • for people who live in the cities mentioned

  • in the 10 second trivia.

  • What can be done about it?

  • Well, there's something called the World Magnetic Model.

  • It keeps track of the Earth's magnetic poles,

  • and it's used by militaries, North

  • American and European countries, and civilian navigation

  • systems.

  • Officials usually updated every five years,

  • so it can stay accurate.

  • But they just took steps to update it sooner than that,

  • so it can keep up with the faster moving Magnetic North.

  • [MUSIC PLAYING]

  • Superhero crime fighters have always had a way

  • to shoot a rope or a web around people

  • who are trying to get away.

  • Now that kind of technology is becoming available

  • to real-life crime fighters.

  • This thing is called the BolaWrap.

  • It's not considered a deadly weapon.

  • But it uses a blank charge to fire an 8-foot rope

  • toward a suspect.

  • And its makers say it's effective as long

  • as that suspect is between 10 and 25

  • feet away from the officer.

  • Suspects would then get tied up, roped in, wrapped up, tethered

  • tight, fastened down, knotted up, cinched in, bound together,

  • hamstrung, or leashed up.

  • They probably wouldn't get away.

  • I'm Carl Azuz, totally tongue-tied for CNN.

  • [MUSIC PLAYING]

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中新網10日電】2019年2月7日。 ([CNN 10] February 7, 2019)

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