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  • From hostile deserts, to lonely islands and the highest mountains,

    從艱險的沙漠到孤島峻嶺

  • wherever there is space to expand into humans do so.

    只要有空間,人們就會去拓展。

  • So, it's hardly surprising that we're already making preparations

    所以我們已經制定登上火星的計畫

  • to set foot on Mars,

    不足為奇

  • and to create the first permanent colony outside of Earth --

    並創造地球外的第一個永久殖民地 --

  • maybe even terraform another planet and turn it into a second blue home.

    甚至可能將另外一個行星地球化成第二個家。

  • But wait,

    但等等

  • before we can get to the nice future stuff,

    在美好未來之前

  • we first have to complete the second phase of colonization;

    首先我們需要完成第二階段的殖民

  • creating a semi-permanent outpost

    創造一個半永久性的前哨部隊

  • to prepare the ground for a larger human presence.

    去準備土地給更多人存在。

  • But doing so will be gruesome.

    但這麼做會是可怕的。

  • Even for an expansionist species like us, Mars is extreme.

    即使是像我們這樣的領土擴張論者,火星是極端的。

  • At first glance, Mars seems familiar --

    第一眼,火星似曾相識 --

  • polar ice caps, large valleys,

    極地的冰帽、寬大的峽谷

  • liquid water under its surface,

    液態水埋藏地表之下

  • and a day barely longer than Earth's.

    在火星一天只比地球長沒多少

  • The ideal place for us to go.

    它是我們理想的去處。

  • Unfortunately, Mars is actually a cold, radioactive desert

    不幸的,火星實際上是一個寒冷、具有放射性的沙漠

  • where the ground is poisonous and breathing is impossible.

    在那裏的地上有毒,也不可能去呼吸。

  • Mars is awful.

    火星糟透了。

  • You almost certainly don't want to go there.

    你一定不想去。

  • The pioneers doing the hard work on Mars will have an intensely stressful life,

    在火星做苦工的先鋒將會有壓力很大的生活

  • filled with incredibly challenging problems

    充滿不可思議的挑戰

  • never encountered before.

    前所未見。

  • But there are plenty of people willing to do that work

    但有很多人將樂於做這份工作

  • and we have the technology to enable them to do it.

    我們也有科技使他們可以勝任。

  • For this video, we will assume there have been prior missions to Mars

    在影片中我們將假設之前已有去火星的任務

  • to scout out a good place for an outpost,

    去找到好的前哨地點

  • store resources and equipment,

    儲存資源和裝備

  • and that there's already a moon base

    而且已有月球殖民

  • that serves as a hub for Mars missions.

    做為火星任務的中繼站。

  • The first major challenge for our outpost,

    我們前哨的第一個主要挑戰

  • is the fact that Mars is very energy poor.

    火星的能源非常稀缺。

  • Because of its distance from the Sun,

    因為與太陽的距離

  • solar power is only 40% as effective as on Earth.

    太陽能有效率只有地球的四成。

  • But even this weakened sunlight is often obscured for days

    但白天裡被削弱的陽光常常被龐大的沙塵暴遮蔽。

  • by enormous dust storms.

  • Solar power alone will probably not be enough.

    單單只有太陽能是不夠的。

  • Alternatives, such as wind power, and geothermal energy are also unfeasible

    替代者如風力、地熱也行不通

  • as there's hardly any atmosphere and Mars' interior is much too cold.

    因為沒有足夠的大氣壓力,而且火星內部冷多了。

  • Initially, nuclear technology might be the only option.

    一開始,核能可能是唯一選項。

  • Since Mars doesn't have easily accessible radioactive elements,

    因為火星無易取得的放射元素

  • the nuclear fuel needs to come from Earth along with the reactor.

    核能燃料以及核子反應爐需要從地球來。

  • If we do set it up, it could power our small outpost for the first few years.

    若我們建立了,可能可以提供前哨前幾年的能源。

  • Unfortunately, all that energy won't be very useful if we can't breathe.

    不幸的,若我們無法呼吸,所有能源都毫無用處。

  • Mars' atmosphere is only 1% as dense as Earth's,

    火星的大氣層密度只有地球的 1%

  • and mostly made up of CO2.

    多由二氧化碳組成。

  • So, now habitats need to be pressurized and filled with an artificial atmosphere

    所以現在的居留地需要被加壓,並填充氮、氧組成的人造大氣

  • made of nitrogen and oxygen --

  • Which comes with more problems.

    問題來了。

  • Corners and flat walls are weak points

    角落和平坦的牆是弱點

  • so the habitats will have rounded and smooth shapes

    所以居留地將會是平滑的圓形

  • to handle the stress of great pressure differences between the interior and exterior.

    好去處理內外強大的氣壓差。

  • The airlocks need to be very airtight and work perfectly every time.

    氣閘必須是密閉的,每次都要完美運作。

  • Without an extensive magnetosphere, or a dense atmosphere,

    完全排除分毫磁氣圈和大氣圈

  • half of all radiation coming from space reaches the ground.

    半數來自宇宙的射線到達地表。

  • A person on the surface would be subjected to 50 times the radiation that they would be on Earth.

    在火星地上的人會遭受多於地表 50 倍的輻射。

  • Three years on the surface of Mars exceeds the radiation dose limits

    在火星表面 3 年超過輻射劑量限制

  • imposed on NASA astronauts for their entire career.

    在國際航空和太空總署的太空人得整個生涯強制實施。

  • This increases cancer risks significantly.

    它嚴重的增加罹癌風險。

  • To prevent that, we could shield our habitats with a thick layer of frozen CO2,

    我們可以用一層厚厚的固態二氧化碳來保護我們的居留地

  • that can be harvested directly from the atmosphere.

    它可以直接從大氣層取得。

  • Covering the dry ice with a meter of dirt, would further increase the level of protection.

    固態二氧化碳外再包一公尺的泥會大大增進保護力。

  • Sadly, this means almost no windows.

    悲哀的是它密不透風。

  • From the inside, most living spaces will be windowless tunnels.

    內部多數的生活空間是沒有窗戶的地下道。

  • From the outside, they'll look like burial mounds.

    從外面看來他們像是墳塚。

  • All of this would still not hold back all the radiation,

    這些所有仍無法抑制全部的輻射

  • but reduce it just enough to be survivable for long periods of time.

    但減少到恰好足夠去長時間生存。

  • It won't, however, protect anyone who ventures outside.

    然而無法保護在外冒險的人。

  • So, remote-controlled robots will be used for routine work on the surface,

    所以遙控機器人將被用在表面的日常工作

  • while our crew stays inside.

    而我們工作人員待在裡面。

  • Staying inside is a good idea for another reason:

    待在裡面是個好主意,另有原由:

  • Mars dust.

    火星沙塵。

  • It's much finer than dust on Earth,

    它比地球上的沙塵細小多了

  • so it could find its way into the gears or electronics of our machines.

    所以能進入設備和電子機器。

  • Because it's also very dry, it's electro-statically charged;

    因為它非常乾燥,容易產生靜電;

  • sticking to everything, like spacesuits.

    容易黏住所有事物,像是太空服。

  • It will be impossible to avoid carrying lots of Mars dust into our habitat,

    不帶任何火星沙塵到居留地是不可能的

  • and into the lungs of our crew.

    它會進入工作人員的肺。

  • To make this even worse, Mars' soil is filled with very toxic perchlorate salts.

    更糟的是,火星的土充滿毒性非常的高氯酸鹽。

  • Constant exposure could be deadly.

    常時暴露可能致命。

  • This problem can still be overcome though.

    但是問題仍可克服。

  • Space suits, for example, could be made in a way that they never truly enter the base,

    例如太空服可以某種方式不進入基地

  • but stay attached to the outside of the habitats.

    但依附於居留地外部。

  • Okay, great.

    很好。

  • Now we've safely isolated humans in terms of energy and air,

    現在我們已經從能量和空氣的角度隔離人類、免於罹癌

  • and protected them from cancer, we just need to feed them.

    我們只需餵養他們。

  • Water is easy to come by if a settlement is positioned near the Martian poles

    若殖民地安置在火星的極點,因為厚冰層水的取得相對容易。

  • with their thick layers of ice.

  • Growing food is a different kind of challenge though.

    但是生產食物是另一挑戰。

  • Mars' soils are alkaline

    火星土地是鹼性的

  • and lack the vital nitrogen compounds that plants need to grow.

    且缺少植物成長必須的氮合成物。

  • Before we can grow anything, we will have to decontaminate the soil

    種植之前,我們需要淨化土壤

  • which is difficult and expensive.

    這是艱困且昂貴的。

  • Then, the soil can be fertilized using recycled biological waste.

    接著土壤可以用回收的生物廢料施肥。

  • All of this will take a lot of time, and is very energy-intensive.

    這花很多時間和能量。

  • So, we might use aquaponics to raise fish and plants together --

    所以我們可能用魚菜共生來養魚種菜 --

  • Making the astronauts' diets more varied and tasty at the same time.

    同時使太空人的餐點更美味多樣。

  • This will be an important psychological boost for our overworked crew.

    這對工作過度的員工會是心理學上重大進步。

  • All of these things don't solve one fundamental problem though:

    但這全都無法解決最基本的問題:

  • Mars has only 38 percent of Earth's surface gravity,

    火星的重力只有地球的 38%

  • which could cause muscle-wasting, bone loss, and cardiovascular problems.

    可能造成肌肉萎縮、骨質疏鬆、心血管疾病。

  • While this might be solved in the future by setting up rotating living spaces,

    雖然未來可能得以滾筒式的生活空間來解決

  • for now, our crew has to live with low gravity

    而現在我們的人員需要活在低重力

  • and exercise a lot to slow the degradation down.

    並大量運動去減緩退化。

  • The crews will probably have to rotate every few years,

    人員將需要每幾年輪替

  • after being stuck indoors in tight spaces without windows.

    被困於無窗戶的狹小空間內之後。

  • With the same people, performing the same routines day-in day-out

    與一樣的人,日復一日執行相同的日常事務

  • with little contact from the outside world,

    與外界毫無聯繫

  • and a lot to worry about.

    有許多苦惱。

  • Like Antarctic scientists or submarine staff,

    像是南極科學家或潛水艇人員

  • they will undergo intense psychological screening

    他們將經歷高度心理篩選

  • to make sure they're mentally resilient enough to handle this lifestyle for several years.

    去確定他們心理上足夠堅韌去處理他們多年的生活型態。

  • Establishing the first real infrastructure on Mars will be extremely taxing work

    建立第一個火星上真正的基礎設施將會是極費勁的

  • that only a group of very determined, and competent, people can do.

    只有一群堅定的、勝任的人才可以完成。

  • Luckily, we have enough of these on Earth.

    幸運地,這些我們地球有很多。

  • And there you have it!

    而且你也是!

  • A small Mars base that will survive for at least a few decades --

    一個小型火星基地至少可以存在數十年 --

  • as long as it's getting a constant supply of resources,

    只要可以立即取得地球所供資源、零件、核能燃料、工作人員。

  • parts, nuclear fuel, and crews from Earth.

  • Unfortunately, Mars and Earth are separated by millions of kilometers

    不幸的是,地球與火星相距數億公里

  • and orbital periods that leave only a narrow travel window every two years.

    地球和火星的軌道每隔二年才出現發送窗口。

  • If there's an emergency in the colony,

    若殖民地事出緊急

  • Earth wouldn't be able to help until the next travel window opens.

    在新的發送窗口開啟前,地球無法提供支援。

  • Helpers may arrive on a planet filled with corpses.

    救援者可能到達屍身遍佈的行星。

  • Settling Mars will be the toughest challenge we have ever faced.

    安置於火星將會是我們目前面對最艱困的挑戰。

  • It will be gruesome work to establish the infrastructure we need.

    興建我們所需的基本設施將會是非常可怕的工作。

  • But we're stubborn, and we like extreme challenges.

    但我們固執,且熱愛極端挑戰。

  • If we push through Phase Two of colonization, anything is possible.

    若我們通過第二階段的殖民地化,沒什麼不可能。

  • Cities illuminating the dark Martian night,

    城市的光照亮火星黑夜

  • a hub for travel between the planets,

    行星之間有旅行中繼站

  • industries setting foot in orbit

    產業駐足軌道之間

  • terraforming a true multi-planetary future.

    真正的地球化出多行星的未來。

  • Going to Mars is hard but worth it.

    去火星很難但值得。

  • And if we're lucky, we might be around long enough to see it happening

    若夠幸運,我們可能活得夠久看著它實現

  • and cheer on the people who take on these challenges

    為承擔這些挑戰的人們歡呼

  • for the benefit of us all.

    為了我們的共同利益。

  • Figuring out complex stuff is one of the best feelings ever.

    搞清楚複雜的事物是最棒的感覺之一。

  • Especially if you don't have to do it all by yourself.

    特別是若你不需要孤軍奮戰。

  • Our friends from Brilliant can help you out with that part!

    我們的朋友 Brilliant 會提出部分的協助!

  • Brilliant is a problem-solving website with a hands-on approach.

    Brilliant 是個用實務方法的解題網站。

  • Instead of just dropping tricky concepts in front of you,

    不是只丟下棘手的概念在眼前

  • they help you unravel them bit-by-bit and build up to an interesting conclusion.

    他們幫你一步步闡明並導出有趣的結論。

  • This way, science becomes something you actually do actively, and not only hear about.

    如此一來,科學不止是聽說,而可以真的實際作為。

  • With Brilliant, you can bear down

    用 Brilliant 你可以靠近

  • on dozens of interesting courses and puzzles about topics,

    許多有趣的課程、謎題、主題

  • like solar energy, gravity, and astronomy.

    像是太陽能、重力和天文學。

  • If you visit brilliant.org/nutshell, or click the link in the description,

    若造訪 brilliant.org/nutshell 或點擊敘述中的連結

  • you can sign up for free and learn all kinds of things.

    你可以免費註冊並學習任何事情。

  • And, as a bonus for Kurzgesagt viewers,

    並且作為 Kurzgesagt 的閱覽者的紅利

  • the first 688 people will also get 20% off their annual membership!

    前 688 人每年會員資格將有 20% 的折扣!

  • With Brilliant, you finish your day a little bit smarter.

    用 Brilliant 你每天聰明一點。

  • And, no Mars dust to deal with.

    而且不用處理火星灰塵。

  • We promise!

    我們發誓!

  • Can't get enough of Mars?

    對火星資訊不足嗎?

  • We've also made a poster about it.

    我們也有海報解說。

  • You can learn some more about the hardships of Mars colonization,

    你可以了解到一些火星殖民的困難

  • or just look at the pretty colors.

    或只看看那美麗色彩。

  • Go get it here!

    從這裡開始吧!

From hostile deserts, to lonely islands and the highest mountains,

從艱險的沙漠到孤島峻嶺

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B1 中級 中文 英國腔 火星 地球 核能 挑戰 殖民地 地表

建立火星基地是一個可怕的想法。 (Building a Marsbase is a Horrible Idea)

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    sinbadreset 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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