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  • Let's play a game.

    譯者: Lilian Chiu 審譯者: Wilde Luo

  • Imagine that you are in Las Vegas,

    咱們來玩個遊戲。

  • in a casino,

    想像你在拉斯維加斯,

  • and you decide to play a game on one of the casino's computers,

    在一間賭場裡,

  • just like you might play solitaire or chess.

    你決定在其中一台電腦上玩遊戲,

  • The computer can make moves in the game, just like a human player.

    就像是玩紙牌或是下棋。

  • This is a coin game.

    電腦也能移動遊戲中的棋子, 和人類玩家一樣。

  • It starts with a coin showing heads,

    這是一個硬幣遊戲。

  • and the computer will play first.

    一開始,有一枚正面朝上的硬幣,

  • It can choose to flip the coin or not,

    開局後,電腦先玩。

  • but you don't get to see the outcome.

    它可以選擇是否拋擲這枚硬幣,

  • Next, it's your turn.

    但你不會知道結果如何。

  • You can also choose to flip the coin or not,

    接著就輪到你。

  • and your move will not be revealed to your opponent, the computer.

    你也可以選擇是否拋擲這枚硬幣,

  • Finally, the computer plays again, and can flip the coin or not,

    你的對手,也就是電腦, 同樣不會知道這一輪的結果。

  • and after these three rounds,

    最後,又輪到電腦 選擇是否拋擲硬幣,

  • the coin is revealed,

    經過三輪遊戲之後,

  • and if it is heads, the computer wins,

    硬幣的狀態被揭示出來,

  • if it's tails, you win.

    如果是正面朝上,就是電腦贏,

  • So it's a pretty simple game,

    如果是反面朝上,就是你贏。

  • and if everybody plays honestly, and the coin is fair,

    這是個很簡單的遊戲,

  • then you have a 50 percent chance of winning this game.

    如果大家都不作弊, 且硬幣也是均勻的,

  • And to confirm that,

    那麽你就有 50% 的機會獲勝。

  • I asked my students to play this game on our computers,

    為了確認這一點,

  • and after many, many tries,

    我讓我的學生用我們的 電腦來玩這個遊戲,

  • their winning rate ended up being 50 percent, or close to 50 percent,

    在嘗試非常非常多次之後,

  • as expected.

    他們的勝率最後是 50% 或接近 50%,

  • Sounds like a boring game, right?

    和預期的一樣。

  • But what if you could play this game on a quantum computer?

    聽起來很無聊,對吧?

  • Now, Las Vegas casinos do not have quantum computers,

    但如果你能用量子電腦 來玩這個遊戲,會怎樣?

  • as far as I know,

    拉斯維加斯的賭場可沒有量子電腦,

  • but IBM has built a working quantum computer.

    據我所知是這樣,

  • Here it is.

    但 IBM 已經打造出了一台 能夠正常運轉的量子電腦。

  • But what is a quantum computer?

    就是它。

  • Well, quantum physics describes

    但是,量子電腦是什麼?

  • the behavior of atoms and fundamental particles,

    嗯,量子物理是在描述

  • like electrons and photons.

    原子和基本粒子的行為,

  • So a quantum computer operates

    比如電子和光子。

  • by controlling the behavior of these particles,

    所以,量子電腦的運作方式 在於控制這些粒子的行為,

  • but in a way that is completely different from our regular computers.

    但其做法和普通的電腦完全不同。

  • So a quantum computer is not just a more powerful version

    量子電腦並不只是

  • of our current computers,

    我們目前電腦的加強版,

  • just like a light bulb is not a more powerful candle.

    就好像電燈泡並不是加強版的蠟燭。

  • You cannot build a light bulb by building better and better candles.

    無論如何,蠟燭也不可能變成電燈泡。

  • A light bulb is a different technology,

    電燈泡使用了一種不同的技術,

  • based on deeper scientific understanding.

    它的基礎是更深入的科學理解。

  • Similarly, a quantum computer is a new kind of device,

    同樣地,量子電腦也是一種新裝置,

  • based on the science of quantum physics,

    以量子物理為根據,

  • and just like a light bulb transformed society,

    就如同電燈泡改變了人類社會,

  • quantum computers have the potential to impact

    量子電腦也有潛力影響 我們生活的方方面面,

  • so many aspects of our lives,

    包括我們的安全需求、 我們的醫療保健,甚至網際網路。

  • including our security needs, our health care and even the internet.

    全世界的公司都在打造這類裝置。

  • So companies all around the world are working to build these devices,

    要想看看它有多讓人興奮,

  • and to see what the excitement is all about,

    咱們來用量子電腦玩這個遊戲。

  • let's play our game on a quantum computer.

    我可以從這裡登入到 IBM 的量子電腦,

  • So I can log into IBM's quantum computer from right here,

    也就表示我可以從遠端玩這個遊戲,

  • which means I can play the game remotely,

    你也可以做到。

  • and so can you.

    為了讓你們參與進來,你們可能記得,

  • To make this happen, you may remember getting an email ahead of time, from TED,

    先前有收到 TED 寄的電子郵件,

  • asking you whether you would choose to flip the coin or not,

    信上請你選擇, 如果你在玩這個遊戲,

  • if you played the game.

    是否會選擇拋擲硬幣。

  • Well, actually, we asked you to choose between a circle or a square.

    事實上,我們在信上 是請你選擇圓形或方形。

  • You didn't know it, but your choice of circle meant "flip the coin,"

    你當時並不知道,選擇圓形 就表示「擲硬幣」,

  • and your choice of square was "don't flip."

    選擇方形就表示「不要擲」。

  • We received 372 responses.

    我們收到了 372 個人的回覆。

  • Thank you.

    謝謝你們。

  • That means we can play 372 games against the quantum computer

    那就表示,我們可以用你們的選擇,

  • using your choices.

    跟量子電腦玩 372 場遊戲。

  • And it's a pretty fast game to play,

    這個遊戲一下就結束了,

  • so I can show you the results right here.

    所以我可以把結果呈現在這裡。

  • Unfortunately, you didn't do very well.

    不幸的是,你們的戰績不太好。

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • The quantum computer won almost every game.

    量子電腦幾乎全勝。

  • It lost a few only because of operational errors in the computer.

    它輸了幾場,只是因為 電腦中的運算錯誤。

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • So how did it achieve this amazing winning streak?

    所以,它是如何取得 這驚人的一連串勝利的?

  • It seems like magic or cheating,

    它就像魔術或作弊一樣,

  • but actually, it's just quantum physics in action.

    但事實上,它只是量子物理的運作。

  • Here's how it works.

    它的運作方式如下。

  • A regular computer simulates heads or tails of a coin as a bit,

    普通電腦用一個位元來 模擬硬幣的正反面,

  • a zero or a one,

    即 0 或是 1,

  • or a current flipping on and off inside your computer chip.

    或記錄當前是否選擇拋擲硬幣, 儲存在你的電腦晶片中。

  • A quantum computer is completely different.

    量子電腦則完全不同。

  • A quantum bit has a more fluid, nonbinary identity.

    一個量子位元更具有 不固定性、非二進制的特質。

  • It can exist in a superposition, or a combination of zero and one,

    它能存在於量子疊加態當中, 即 0 和 1 的組合當中,

  • with some probability of being zero and some probability of being one.

    既有可能是 0,也有可能是 1。

  • In other words, its identity is on a spectrum.

    換言之,它的真面目其實是一個範圍。

  • For example, it could have a 70 percent chance of being zero

    比如,它可能有 70% 的概率是 0,

  • and a 30 percent chance of being one

    30% 的概率是 1,

  • or 80-20 or 60-40.

    或 80% 與 20%, 60% 與 40%等。

  • The possibilities are endless.

    存在無限的可能性。

  • The key idea here

    這裡的關鍵在於,

  • is that we have to give up on precise values of zero and one

    我們得要捨棄「只存在固定的 0 和 1」 的思考方式,

  • and allow for some uncertainty.

    允許不確定性存在。

  • So during the game,

    在遊戲期間,

  • the quantum computer creates this fluid combination of heads and tails,

    量子電腦會創造出正反兩面 (0 和 1)的不固定性組合,

  • zero and one,

    所以,不論玩家選擇什麼,

  • so that no matter what the player does,

    不論擲或不擲硬幣,這種 量子疊加態並不會改變。

  • flip or no flip,

    這有點像是在攪拌兩種液體。

  • the superposition remains intact.

    不論你攪或不攪, 兩種液體都混合在一起。

  • It's kind of like stirring a mixture of two fluids.

    但在它的最後一輪遊戲中,

  • Whether or not you stir, the fluids remain in a mixture,

    量子電腦能分離出 0 和 1,

  • but in its final move,

    將硬幣完美地恢復成正面朝上, 所以你每次都會輸。

  • the quantum computer can unmix the zero and one,

    (笑聲)

  • perfectly recovering heads so that you lose every time.

    如果你覺得這一切十分怪異, 那你一點兒也沒錯。

  • (Laughter)

    普通硬幣並不會以正面 和反面的組合形式存在。

  • If you think this is all a bit weird, you are absolutely right.

    我們在日常生活中並不會經歷

  • Regular coins do not exist in combinations of heads and tails.

    這種不固定的、量子化的現實。

  • We do not experience this fluid quantum reality

    所以,如果量子讓你困惑不解,

  • in our everyday lives.

    別擔心,你其實正在明白它。

  • So if you are confused by quantum,

    (笑聲)

  • don't worry, you're getting it.

    但是,雖然我們沒有 切身體驗量子的不可思議,

  • (Laughter)

    我們可以看到它產生了 非常真實的影響。

  • But even though we don't experience quantum strangeness,

    你們已經親眼看到資料了。

  • we can see its very real effects in action.

    量子電腦會贏,

  • You've seen the data for yourself.

    是因為它利用量子疊加態和不確定性,

  • The quantum computer won

    這些量子特性非常強大,

  • because it harnessed superposition and uncertainty,

    不僅能幫你贏得硬幣遊戲,

  • and these quantum properties are powerful,

    也能用來建造未來的量子科技。

  • not just to win coin games,

    讓我舉三個例子, 說明那些有潛力的科技應用,

  • but also to build future quantum technologies.

    它們有可能改變我們的生活。

  • So let me give you three examples of potential applications

    首先,量子不確定性 可用于私鑰加密,

  • that could change our lives.

    將兩地之間傳輸的訊息進行加密,

  • First of all, quantum uncertainty could be used to create private keys

    因為量子不確定性,

  • for encrypting messages sent from one location to another

    駭客就無法偷偷地複製完整密鑰。

  • so that hackers could not secretly copy the key perfectly,

    他們若想盜用密鑰,

  • because of quantum uncertainty.

    就得打破量子物理的法則。

  • They would have to break the laws of quantum physics

    全世界的銀行和其他機構已經在測試

  • to hack the key.

    這種牢不可破的加密。

  • So this kind of unbreakable encryption is already being tested by banks

    現今,全球使用了超過 170 億個接入網路的裝置。

  • and other institutions worldwide.

    想像一下,量子加密 在未來會有怎樣的影響。

  • Today, we use more than 17 billion connected devices globally.

    第二,量子科技也能轉變 醫療保健和醫學。

  • Just imagine the impact quantum encryption could have in the future.

    比如,在藥物開發中, 設計和分析各種分子

  • Secondly, quantum technologies could also transform health care and medicine.

    是現今很具挑戰性的問題,

  • For example, the design and analysis of molecules for drug development

    這是因為,要精確地描述和計算

  • is a challenging problem today,

    分子中所有原子的全部量子特性,

  • and that's because exactly describing and calculating

    是非常難以計算的, 即使對於超級電腦也同樣。

  • all of the quantum properties of all the atoms in the molecule

    但量子電腦能做得更好,

  • is a computationally difficult task, even for our supercomputers.

    因為它與它試圖模擬的分子一樣,

  • But a quantum computer could do better,

    使用了相同的量子特性來進行計算,

  • because it operates using the same quantum properties

    因此,對於藥物開發, 未來的大規模量子模擬

  • as the molecule it's trying to simulate.

    也許可以為阿茲海默症 之類的疾病找到治療方式,

  • So future large-scale quantum simulations for drug development

    影響成千上萬的人。

  • could perhaps lead to treatments for diseases like Alzheimer's,

    第三,是我最喜愛的量子應用,

  • which affects thousands of lives.

    是將資訊從一個地點 即時傳遞到另一個地點,

  • And thirdly, my favorite quantum application

    但不需要實際傳遞。

  • is teleportation of information from one location to another

    聽起來很科幻,但這是有可能的,

  • without physically transmitting the information.

    因為量子粒子的這些不固定特質

  • Sounds like sci-fi, but it is possible,

    在時間和空間中 可能會糾纏在一起,

  • because these fluid identities of the quantum particles

    以至於當你改變了 其中的某一個粒子,

  • can get entangled across space and time

    就會同時影響到其他粒子的狀態, 這就成了量子通信的「通道」。

  • in such a way that when you change something about one particle,

    在研究實驗室裡已經展示它可行,

  • it can impact the other,

    可能會成為未來量子 網際網路的一部分。

  • and that creates a channel for teleportation.

    我們目前尚無這樣的網路,

  • It's already been demonstrated in research labs

    但我的團隊正在努力實現它,

  • and could be part of a future quantum internet.

    我們會在一台量子電腦上 模擬一個量子網路。

  • We don't have such a network as yet,

    我們已經設計並實現了 一些有趣的、新的通訊協議,

  • but my team is working on these possibilities,

    比如在網路上不同 用戶之間傳輸訊息,

  • by simulating a quantum network on a quantum computer.

    以及高效的文件傳輸,

  • So we have designed and implemented some interesting new protocols

    甚至還有安全的選舉投票。

  • such as teleportation among different users in the network

    因此,我身為量子物理學家, 覺得這非常有意思。

  • and efficient data transmission

    我極力推薦它。

  • and even secure voting.

    (笑聲)

  • So it's a lot of fun for me, being a quantum physicist.

    我們有機會在量子仙境中當探險家。

  • I highly recommend it.

    誰知道接下來我們 會發現什麼新應用。

  • (Laughter)

    當我們打造量子未來時,

  • We get to be explorers in a quantum wonderland.

    我們必須要謹慎且可靠地向前邁進。

  • Who knows what applications we will discover next.

    對我個人來說,

  • We must tread carefully and responsibly

    我認為量子物理並不只是 用來打造量子電腦的工具。

  • as we build our quantum future.

    我認為量子電腦能協助我們 探索大自然的謎題,

  • And for me, personally,

    並更深入地揭示出我們 無法體驗的隱秘世界。

  • I don't see quantum physics as a tool just to build quantum computers.

    這是多麼不可思議,我們人類

  • I see quantum computers as a way for us to probe the mysteries of nature

    對於宇宙的認識 和接觸是相對受限的,

  • and reveal more about this hidden world outside of our experiences.

    我們卻單單靠著想像力和獨創性,

  • How amazing that we humans,

    仍然能觀察到遠遠 高於我們眼界的地方。

  • with our relatively limited access to the universe,

    而宇宙給我們的獎賞

  • can still see far beyond our horizons

    就是讓我們看到它是 多麼有趣、讓人驚奇。

  • just using our imagination and our ingenuity.

    未來,本來就是不確定的,

  • And the universe rewards us

    但對我來說,我很確定, 它是讓人興奮的。

  • by showing us how incredibly interesting and surprising it is.

    謝謝。

  • The future is fundamentally uncertain,

    (掌聲)

  • and to me, that is certainly exciting.

  • Thank you.

  • (Applause)

Let's play a game.

譯者: Lilian Chiu 審譯者: Wilde Luo

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B2 中高級 中文 美國腔 TED 量子 電腦 硬幣 遊戲 選擇

TED】Shohini Ghose:量子計算初學者指南(量子計算初學者指南|Shohini Ghose) (【TED】Shohini Ghose: A beginner's guide to quantum computing (A beginner's guide to quantum computing | Shohini Ghose))

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    林宜悉 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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