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  • 譯者: Lilian Chiu 審譯者: Helen Chang

  • A male firefly glows above a field on a summer's night, emitting a series of enticing flashes.

    雄性螢火蟲於夏夜裡在原野上發光,發出一連串迷人的閃光

  • He hopes a nearby female will respond with her own lightshow and mate with him.

    牠希望附近的雌性螢火蟲會用自己的發光秀來回應並和牠交配

  • Sadly for this male, it won't turn out quite the way he plans.

    這隻雄蟲沒那麼好運,發展並不如牠所計畫的那樣

  • A female from a different species mimics his pulsing patterns: by tricking the male with her promise of partnership.

    一隻其他物種的雌蟲模仿了牠的發光節奏模式:用交配的承諾欺騙了這隻雄蟲

  • She lures him inand turns him into an easy meal.

    誘惑牠接近,然後輕易地把牠當食物吃了

  • He's been deceived.

    這隻雄蟲被騙了

  • Behavioral biologists have identified three defining hallmarks of deception by non-human animals:

    行為生物學家發現非人動物的欺騙行為會有三項關鍵特色:

  • it must mislead the receiver, the deceiver must benefit, and it can't simply be an accident.

    牠必須要誤導被騙者、行騙者必須要受益、且此行為不會只是個意外

  • In this case we know that the predatory firefly's signal isn't an accident because she flexibly adjusts her flash pattern to match males of different species.

    在這個案例中,我們知道捕食者模仿螢火蟲信號並不是意外,因為牠能很有彈性地調整牠的閃爍模式以配合不同物種的雄性

  • Based on this definition, where is animal deception seen in nature?

    根據這個定義,大自然中何處可見動物的欺騙行為呢?

  • Camouflage is a good starting pointand one of the most familiar examples of animal trickery.

    偽裝是個很好的起始點——也是動物的騙術中 最為人所知的例子之一

  • The leaf-tailed gecko and the octopus fool viewers by blending into the surfaces on which they rest.

    葉尾壁虎和章魚都能融合到牠們所在處的表面,來欺騙觀者

  • Other animals use mimicry to protect themselves.

    其他動物用擬態的方式來保護牠們自己

  • Harmless scarlet kingsnakes have evolved red, yellow, and black patterns resembling those of the venomous eastern coral snake to benefit from the protective warnings these markings convey.

    無害的猩紅王蛇演化出有紅、黃、黑的圖案,看起來就像有毒的金黃珊瑚蛇,借用這種圖案來傳達出警告訊息以保護自己

  • Even some plants use mimicry:

    甚至有些植物也會用到擬態:

  • there are orchids that look and smell like female wasps to attract hapless males, who end up pollinating the plant.

    有些蘭花看起來、 聞起來會像雌性黃蜂,以吸引運氣不好的雄蜂,讓雄蜂來為它們授粉

  • Some of these animals benefit by having fixed characteristics that are evolutionary suited to their environments.

    有些動物的優勢則是演化出適合牠們環境的特徵

  • But in other cases, the deceiver seems to anticipate the reactions of other animals and to adjust its behavior accordingly.

    但在其他情況中,行騙者似乎能預測其他動物的反應,並依這些反應來調整牠自己的行為

  • Sensing a threat, the octopus will rapidly change its colors to match its surroundings.

    感受到威脅時, 章魚會快速改變牠的顏色來配合牠所處的環境

  • Dwarf chameleons color-match their environments more closely when they see a bird predator rather than a snakebirds, after all, have better color vision.

    侏儒變色龍在看到捕食牠們的鳥類時,會變色以符合牠們的環境, 看到蛇時反而不會——畢竟,鳥類的視覺對顏色比較敏銳

  • One of the more fascinating examples of animal deception comes from the fork-tailed drongo.

    動物的騙術中,最炫的例子之一就是叉尾卷尾鳥

  • This bird sits atop tall trees in the Kalahari Desert, surveying the landscape for predators and calling when it senses a threat.

    在喀拉哈里沙漠,這種鳥會棲息在很高的樹頂上,察看整個視野中有沒有捕食者, 若感到威脅就會發出叫聲

  • That sends meerkats, pied babblers, and others dashing for cover.

    牠的警告聲會讓貓鼬、斑鶇鶥, 和其他動物立刻去找掩蔽

  • But the drongo will also sound a false alarm when those other species have captured prey.

    但在其他物種捕捉到獵物時,叉尾卷尾鳥也會發出假警報

  • As the meerkats and babblers flee, the drongo swoops down to steal their catches.

    當貓鼬和斑鶇鶥逃走時,叉尾卷尾鳥就會俯衝下去, 偷走牠們捕捉到的獵物

  • This tactic works about half the timeand it provides drongos with much of their food.

    這種戰略成功的機會大約是一半——叉尾卷尾鳥大部分的食物都是這麼來的

  • There are fewer solid cases of animals using signals to trick members of their own species, but that happens too.

    比較少有動物用信號來欺騙同類的確切例子,但也的確會發生

  • Consider the mantis shrimp.

    蝦蛄就是一例

  • Like other crustaceans, it molts as it grows, which leaves its soft body vulnerable to attack.

    如同其他甲殼綱動物, 蝦蛄在成長過成會脫殼,此時它柔軟的身體 就無法抵禦攻擊

  • But it's still driven to protect its home against rivals.

    但牠仍然會需要對抗敵人來保護牠的家

  • So it has become a masterful bluffer.

    所以牠就變成了虛張聲勢大師

  • Despite being fragile, a newly molted shrimp is actually more likely to threaten intruders, spreading the large limbs it usually uses to strike or stab its opponents.

    雖然剛脫殼的蝦蛄很脆弱,但牠其實更有可能去威脅入侵者,把牠通常用來打擊或刺擊對手的大型肢體伸展開來

  • And that works!

    而且這招行得通!

  • Bluffers are more likely to keep their homes than non-bluffers.

    會虛張聲勢的動物比那些不會的更有機會保住家園

  • In its softened condition, a mantis shrimp couldn't withstand a fightwhich is why we can be confident that its behavior is a bluff.

    在變軟弱的情況下, 蝦蛄無法承受打鬥——這就是為什麼我們很確信牠的行為只是虛張聲勢

  • Biologists have even noticed that its bluffs are tactical:

    生物學家甚至發現牠虛張聲勢的是有策略的:

  • newly molted mantis shrimp are more likely to bluff against smaller rivals, who are especially likely to be driven away.

    剛脫殼的蝦蛄比較有可能對較小的對手虛張聲勢,這類對手比較有可能會被嚇走

  • It would seem that instead of just threatening reflexively, the mantis shrimp is swiftly gauging the situation and predicting others' behavior, to get the best result.

    看起來,蝦蛄並不是本能地在做威脅,牠其實會快速評估情況並預測對方的行為,以得到最好的結果

  • So we know that animals can deceive, but do they do so with intent?

    所以,我們知道動物懂得欺騙,但牠們是刻意這麼做的嗎?

  • That's a difficult question, and many scientists think we'll never be able to answer it.

    那是個很難的問題,許多科學家認為 我們永遠不會有答案

  • We can't observe animals' internal thoughts.

    我們無法觀察動物的內在想法

  • But we don't need to know what an animal is thinking in order to detect deception.

    但我們不用知道動物在想什麼,也可以識破牠們的欺騙行為

  • By watching behavior and its outcomes, we learn that animals manipulate predators, prey, and rivals.

    透過觀察動物的行為和行為的結果,我們就能發現動物會操弄 捕食者、獵物和對手

  • And that their capacity for deception can be surprisingly complex.

    且牠們的欺騙能力可以遠比我們想的複雜

譯者: Lilian Chiu 審譯者: Helen Chang

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B2 中高級 中文 美國腔 TED-Ed 動物 欺騙 行為 捕食 對手

【動物】動物也懂得欺騙嗎? (Can animals be deceptive? - Eldridge Adams)

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    王健安 發佈於 2019 年 01 月 10 日
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