Placeholder Image

字幕列表 影片播放

  • The universe began its cosmic life in a big bang

    譯者: Lilian Chiu 審譯者: Helen Chang

  • nearly fourteen billion years ago,

    宇宙的生命,開始於大爆炸,

  • and has been expanding ever since.

    大約發生在 140 億年前,

  • But what is it expanding into?

    且從此之後就不斷擴張。

  • That's a complicated question.

    但,它會擴張到哪裡去?

  • Here's why:

    那是個複雜的問題。

  • Einstein's equations of general relativity

    原因如下:

  • describe space and time as a kind of inter-connected

    愛因斯坦的廣義相對論方程式

  • fabric for the universe.

    把空間和時間描述成

  • This means that what we know of as space and time

    一種相互連結的宇宙構造。

  • exist only as part of the universe and not beyond it.

    意思就是說,我們對於 空間和時間所知的一切,

  • Now, when everyday objects expand, they move out

    都只是宇宙的一部分, 存在於宇宙中,不是宇宙外。

  • into more space.

    當日常的物品擴張的時候,

  • But if there is no such thing as space to expand into,

    它們會向外移動到更多的空間中。

  • what does expanding even mean?

    但如果沒有更多的空間 可以擴張下去,

  • In 1929 Edwin Hubble's astronomy observations

    那擴張又是什麼意思呢?

  • gave us a definitive answer.

    1929 年,愛德溫哈伯的天文觀察

  • His survey of the night sky found all faraway galaxies

    給了我們決定性的答案。

  • recede, or move away, from the Earth.

    他對於夜空的調查發現 所有的遙遠銀河

  • Moreover, the further the galaxy, the faster it recedes.

    都會後退,或是說遠離地球。

  • How can we interpret this?

    此外,越遠的銀河, 後退的速度越快。

  • Consider a loaf of raisin bread rising in the oven.

    我們要如何詮釋這項觀察?

  • The batter rises by the same amount in between each

    想想看,有一條葡萄乾 麵包在爐中發酵。

  • and every raisin.

    麵糊的發酵依據的就是

  • If we think of raisins as a stand-in for galaxies,

    每兩個葡萄乾之間的量。

  • and batter as the space between them,

    如果我們把葡萄乾比喻成銀河,

  • we can imagine that the stretching or expansion

    麵糊是銀河之間的空間,

  • of intergalactic space will make the galaxies recede from each other,

    我們就可以想像, 兩個銀河之間的空間

  • and for any galaxy, its faraway neighbors will recede a larger

    若延伸或擴張,就會讓 這兩個銀河退開遠離彼此,

  • distance than the nearby ones

    對任何銀河而言,在同樣的 時間內,比起相近的鄰居,

  • in the same amount of time.

    遙遠的鄰居會退開的 距離就比較大。

  • Sure enough, the equations of general relativity predict a cosmic

    當然,廣義相對論的方程式預測

  • tug-of-war between gravity and expansion.

    在引力和擴張之間 會發生宇宙拔河。

  • It's only in the dark void between galaxies where expansion wins out,

    只有在銀河之間的黑暗空間內,

  • and space stretches.

    擴張才會勝出,空間才會延伸。

  • So there's our answer.

    所以,我們的答案是:

  • The universe is expanding unto itself.

    宇宙會擴張到它自己裡面。

  • That said, cosmologists are pushing the limits of mathematical models

    然而,宇宙學家還在 將數學模型的極限向外推,

  • to speculate on what, if anything, exists beyond our spacetime.

    來推斷在我們的空間時間之外 有什麼存在(如果有的話)。

  • These aren't wild guesses, but hypotheses that tackle

    這些不是瞎猜, 而是假設,為了處理

  • kinks in the scientific theory of the Big Bang.

    大爆炸科學理論中的 扭曲而做的假設。

  • The Big Bang predicts matter to be distributed evenly across the universe,

    大爆炸預測物質會平均地 分佈到整個宇宙,

  • as a sparse gas --but then, how did galaxies and stars come to be?

    以稀疏氣體的形式散播,

  • The inflationary model describes a brief era

    但,這樣的話,銀河 和星星又是怎麼生成的?

  • of incredibly rapid expansion

    膨脹模型就描述了

  • that relates quantum fluctuations in the energy of the early universe,

    一個非常快速擴張的簡短時代,

  • to the formation of clumps of gas that eventually led to galaxies.

    讓早期宇宙能量中的 量子擾動與氣體塊的形成

  • If we accept this paradigm, it may also imply our universe represents

    拉上關係,最終, 這些氣體塊造成了銀河。

  • one region in a greater cosmic reality that undergoes endless, eternal inflation.

    如果我們接受這個範式, 那可能也意味著我們的宇宙代表

  • We know nothing of this speculative inflating reality,

    一個更大的宇宙現實 當中的一個區域,

  • save for the mathematical prediction that its endless expansion

    而這個更大的宇宙正在 經歷無盡、永恆的膨脹。

  • may be driven by an unstable quantum energy state.

    我們完全不了解這個 推測出來的膨脹現實,

  • In many local regions, however, the energy may settle by random

    我們只有數學預測, 預測這無止境的擴張

  • chance into a stable state, stopping inflation and forming bubble universes.

    可能是由一個不穩定的 量子能量狀態所驅動的。

  • Each bubble universeours being one of them

    然而,在許多當地的區域, 能量可能會隨機地安頓下來,

  • would be described by its own Big Bang and laws of physics.

    進入穩定的狀態,不再膨脹, 也不再形成泡泡宇宙。

  • Our universe would be part of a greater multiverse,

    每一個泡泡宇宙—— 我們的宇宙是其中之一——

  • in which the fantastic rate of eternal inflation makes it impossible

    可以用它自己的大爆炸 和物理法則來描述。

  • for us to encounter a neighbor universe.

    我們的宇宙只是更大的 多重宇宙的一部分,

  • The Big Bang also predicts that in the early, hot universe, our fundamental forces

    在多重宇宙中, 永恆膨脹的驚人速度

  • may unify into one super-force.

    讓我們沒機會遇到 任何一個鄰接的宇宙。

  • Mathematical string theories suggest descriptions of this unification,

    大爆炸也預測,在早期高溫的 宇宙中,我們的基本「力」

  • in addition to a fundamental structure for sub-atomic quarks and electrons.

    可能會統一成一股超級力。

  • In these proposed models, vibrating strings are the building blocks of the universe.

    數學弦理論中,除了亞原子夸克

  • Competing models for strings have now been consolidated into a unified description,

    和電子的基礎結構之外, 也描述了這種統一。

  • and suggest these structures may interact with massive, higher dimensional surfaces called branes.

    在這些被提出的模型中, 震動的弦是建造宇宙的積木。

  • Our universe may be contained within one such brane,

    其他競爭的弦模型現在已經 被整合成了統一的描述,

  • floating in an unknown higher dimensional place, playfully namedthe bulk,” or hyperspace.

    指出這些結構 可能會和「膜」互相影響,

  • Other branescontaining other types of universesmay co-exist in hyperspace,

    膜就是更高質量高維度的表面。

  • and neighboring branes may even share certain fundamental forces like gravity.

    我們的宇宙可能就是 在一個這樣的膜當中,

  • Both eternal inflation and branes describe a multiverse,

    漂浮在一個更高維度的未知之地,

  • but while universes in eternal inflation are isolated, brane universes could bump into each other.

    它有個有趣的名字 叫「體」,或超空間。

  • An echo of such a collision may appear in the cosmic microwave background

    其他的膜—— 內含其他類型的宇宙——

  • —a soup of radiation throughout our universe, that's a relic from an early Big Bang era.

    可能也共同存在於超空間中,

  • So far, though, we've found no such cosmic echo.

    而相鄰的膜可能還會共享 某些基礎的力,比如引力。

  • Some suspect these differing multiverse hypotheses may eventually coalesce into a common description,

    永恆的膨脹以及膜, 都是在描述一個多種宇宙,

  • or be replaced by something else.

    但,雖然永恆膨脹的 宇宙是孤立的,

  • As it stands now, they're speculative explorations of mathematical models.

    膜宇宙則有可能會相撞。

  • While these models are inspired and guided by many scientific experiments,

    每一次這類的碰撞的回響都可能會 出現在宇宙微波背景中——

  • there are very few objective experiments to directly test them, yet.

    也就是從早期大爆炸時殘留下來, 遍及我們的整個宇宙中的輻射。

  • Until the next Edwin Hubble comes along,

    不過,目前我們還沒有 找到這種宇宙回響。

  • scientists will likely be left to argue about the elegance of their competing models

    有些人懷疑 這些不同的多種宇宙假設

  • and continue to dream about what, if anything, lies beyond our universe.

    最終可能會結合成一個共同假設,

The universe began its cosmic life in a big bang

譯者: Lilian Chiu 審譯者: Helen Chang

字幕與單字

B2 中高級 中文 英國腔 宇宙 銀河 膨脹 擴張 模型 空間

宇宙持續膨脹,最後會變得怎樣? (What is the universe expanding into? - Sajan Saini)

  • 1396 123
    David Chan   發佈於 2018 年 11 月 27 日
影片單字

返回舊版