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  • If you were to take any everyday object, say a coffee cup, and break it in half,

    如果你拿起任何日常生活的物品,比如說一個咖啡杯,把它分成兩半

  • then in half again, and keep carrying on, where would you end up?

    然後再分成兩半,一直進行下去,最後會變成甚麼樣呢?

  • Could you keep on going forever?

    你可以一直分割下去嗎?

  • Or would you find a set of indivisible building blocks out of which everything is made?

    或是你會發現一組構成所有物品的不可分割的建構塊呢?

  • Physicists have found the latter- that matter is made of fundamental particles, the smallest things in the universe.

    物理學者發現了後者 — 也就是物質是由基本粒子組成,粒子是宇宙中最小的東西。

  • Particles interact with each other according to a theory called theStandard Model”.

    根據「基本模型」理論,粒子之間互相影響。

  • The Standard Model is a remarkably elegant encapsulation

    標準模型非常優雅的概括了

  • of the strange quantum world of indivisible, infinitely small particles.

    不可分割的無限微小粒子的神奇量子世界。

  • It also covers the forces that govern how particles move,

    它也涵蓋了控制粒子移動

  • interact, and bind together to give shape to the world around us.

    互相影響與鍵結在一起給予我們周遭世界外形的作用力。

  • So how does it work?

    所以它是怎麼運作的?

  • Zooming in on the fragments of the cup,

    我們放大來看這個杯子的碎片

  • we see molecules, made of atoms bound up together.

    我們看到由原子鍵結在一起的分子

  • A molecule is the smallest unit of any chemical compound.

    分子是任何化合物的最小單位。

  • An atom is the smallest unit of any element in the periodic table.

    一個原子是元素週期表上任何元素的最小單位。

  • But the atom is not the smallest unit of matter.

    但原子不是物質的最小單位。

  • Experiments found that each atom has a tiny, dense nucleus,

    實驗發現,每一個原子都有微小、緊密的原子核

  • surrounded by a cloud of even tinier electrons.

    周圍圍繞著一團更小的電子。

  • The electron is, as far as we know,

    電子,據我們所知

  • one of the fundamental, indivisible building blocks of the universe.

    是宇宙中不可分割的基本建構塊之一。

  • It was the first Standard Model particle ever discovered.

    它是第一個標準模型中被發現的粒子。

  • Electrons are bound to an atom's nucleus by electromagnetism.

    電子透過電磁作用與原子核鍵結。

  • They attract each other by exchanging particles called photons,

    它們透過交換「光子」這個粒子來相互吸引

  • which are quanta of light that carry the electromagnetic force,

    「光子」是攜帶電磁力的光的量子

  • one of the fundamental forces of the Standard Model.

    是標準模型的基本作用力之一。

  • The nucleus has more secrets to reveal, as it contains protons and neutrons.

    原子核中還有更多秘密,因為它含有質子跟中子

  • Though once thought to be fundamental particles on their own, in 1968

    儘管曾經被認為兩者都是基本粒子,西元 1968 年

  • physicists found that protons and neutrons are actually made of quarks,

    物理學家發現質子跟中子其實是由夸克組成

  • which are indivisible.

    夸克才是不可分割的。

  • A proton contains twoupquarks and onedownquark.

    一個質子包含兩個「上夸克」跟一個「下夸克」。

  • A neutron contains two down quarks and one up.

    一個中子包含兩個「下夸克」跟一個「上夸克」。

  • The nucleus is held together by the strong force,

    原子核是透過強大的作用力結合在一起

  • another fundamental force of the Standard Model.

    是標準模型中的另一個基本作用力。

  • Just as photons carry the electromagnetic force,

    就像光子帶有電磁力

  • particles called gluons carry the strong force.

    一個稱為「膠子」的粒子帶有強力。

  • Electrons, together with up and down quarks,

    電子連同上下夸克

  • seem to be all we need to build atoms and therefore describe normal matter.

    似乎是我們建構原子所需的一切,並形塑了一般的物質。

  • However, high energy experiments reveal that there are actually six quarks

    然而,高能量實驗顯示,其實有六種夸克

  • down & up, strange & charm, and bottom & top

    上夸克與下夸克、奇異夸克與魅夸克、底夸克與頂夸克

  • - and they come in a wide range of masses.

    而且它們質量相差甚大。

  • The same was found for electrons,

    在電子也有相同的發現

  • which have heavier siblings called the muon and the tau.

    電子也有質量較重的兄弟,稱為「渺子」跟「濤子」。

  • Why are there three (and only three) different versions of each of these particles?

    這些粒子為什麼個別會有三種(也只有三種)不同版本?

  • This remains a mystery.

    這還是個謎。

  • These heavy particles are only produced, for very brief moments, in high energy collisions, and are not seen in everyday life.

    這些重粒子只有在瞬間高能量碰撞中才會產生,而且日常生活中看不到。

  • This is because they decay very quickly into the lighter particles.

    這是因為它們很快就會衰變為較輕的粒子。

  • Such decays involve the exchange of force-carrying particles,

    這種衰變包括帶作用力力子的交換

  • called the W and Z, whichunlike the photonhave mass.

    稱為「W 玻色子」與「Z 玻色子」 — 與光子不同 — 具有質量。

  • They carry the weak force, the final force of the Standard Model.

    它們帶有弱力,標準模型的最後一個作用力。

  • This same force allows protons and neutrons to transform into each other,

    相同的力量使質子與中子互相轉換

  • a vital part of the fusion interactions that drive the Sun.

    這是驅動太陽最重要的融合交互作用。

  • To observe the W and Z directly,

    為了直接觀察 W 玻色子與 Z 玻色子

  • we needed the high energy collisions provided by particle accelerators.

    我們需要透過粒子加速器提供高能量的碰撞。

  • There's another kind of Standard Model particle, called neutrinos.

    標準模型粒子中還有另一種粒子,「微中子」

  • These only interact with other particles through the weak force.

    這些只透過弱力來與其他力子交互作用。

  • Trillions of neutrinos, many generated by the sun, fly through us every second.

    每秒都有數以億萬計的微中子從我們身邊飛過,許多都是由太陽生成的。

  • Measurements of weak interactions found that there are different kinds of neutrinos

    弱交互作用的測量結果發現,微中子也存在

  • associated with the electron, muon, and tau.

    與電子、渺子、濤子相關的不同微中子。

  • All these particles also have antimatter versions,

    這些粒子也都有反物質版本

  • which have the opposite charge but are otherwise identical.

    它們有相反的電荷,但其他地方是相同的。

  • Matter and antimatter particles are produced in pairs in high-energy collisions,

    物質與反物質粒子在高能量碰撞中成對產生

  • and they annihilate each other when they meet.

    而當他們相遇時互相抵銷。

  • The final particle of the Standard Model is the Higgs boson

    標準模型中最後的粒子是「希格斯粒子」

  • – a quantum ripple in the background energy field of the universe.

    一種宇宙的背景能量場中的量子漣漪。

  • Interacting with this field is how all the fundamental matter particles acquire mass, according to the Standard Model.

    根據標準模型,所有的基本物質粒子透過與這個能量場的交互作用獲得質量。

  • The ATLAS Experiment on the Large Hadron Collider is studying the Standard Model in-depth.

    大型強子對撞機的超環面儀器實驗 (A Toroidal LHC ApparatuS, ATLAS) 深入研究標準模型。

  • By taking precise measurements of the particles and forces that make up the universe,

    透過對組成宇宙的粒子與作用力進行精準測量

  • ATLAS physicists can look for answers to mysteries not explained by the Standard Model.

    超環面儀器物理學家可以找到標準模型無法解釋的神秘問題的答案。

  • For example, how does gravity fit in?

    例如,怎麼加入重力的概念?

  • What is the real relationship between force carriers and matter particles?

    帶作用力粒子和物質粒子間真正的關係是甚麼?

  • How can we describeDark Matter”,

    我們要怎麼描述「暗物質」

  • which makes up most of the mass in the universe but remains unaccounted for?

    許多宇宙中的質量都是由暗物質組成但還無法解釋?

  • While the Standard Model provides a beautiful explanation for the world around us,

    雖然標準模型提供了一個很好的方法來解釋我們周遭的世界

  • there is still a universe's worth of mysteries left to explore.

    宇宙中還是有多如牛毛的奧秘等著探索。

If you were to take any everyday object, say a coffee cup, and break it in half,

如果你拿起任何日常生活的物品,比如說一個咖啡杯,把它分成兩半

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影片操作 你可以在這邊進行「影片」的調整,以及「字幕」的顯示

B2 中高級 中文 美國腔 TED-Ed 粒子 標準 物質 夸克 原子核

宇宙中最小的東西是什麼?- Jonathan Butterworth (What's the smallest thing in the universe? - Jonathan Butterworth)

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    April Lu 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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