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  • Tak!

    謝謝!(丹麥語)

  • Across Scandinavia, the average price of everything from a knitted roll neck to pastries from the local bakery are some of the highest in the world.

    整個斯堪地那維亞地區,從高圓翻領針織衣到當地麵包店的糕點,每樣東西的物價,都是全世界前幾高的。

  • Scandinavia is a region in northern Europe that was historically made up of three kingdoms.

    斯堪地那維亞是位於北歐的一個半島,歷史上是由三個國家組成。

  • Norway, Sweden, and Denmark.

    挪威、瑞典,與丹麥。

  • They're united by their Viking heritage but also their shared reputation as one of the most expensive regions to live and visit.

    此三個國家不僅皆為維京人所統合,它們還享有共同的名譽:即世界上物價最高的地區。

  • Whether it's buying a car or a TV, consumers in Scandinavia pay some of the highest prices in the world.

    不論是買車子或電視,斯堪地那維亞消費者的花費是全世界前幾高的。

  • Even buying groceries is costly with all three countries' food and drink prices above the European average.

    甚至雜貨類也是,這三國的飲食物價高於歐洲平均。

  • All three countries also have a standard VAT rate of 25%.

    但它們皆有百分之二十五的標準增值稅率。

  • Amongst all the European nations, only Hungary has a higher rate.

    放眼所有歐洲國家,只有匈牙利的增值稅高於北歐三國。

  • Heading to the bar is also pretty pricey.

    酒吧的消費金額也頗為驚人。

  • In Norway, having a beer or glass of wine will cost 2.5 times the EU average.

    在挪威,一杯啤酒或葡萄酒的價格,平均是歐盟國家的 2.5 倍。

  • Both Norway and Sweden have state-run monopolies on alcohol which helps keep the prices up.

    挪威和瑞典都實施酒精國家專賣,以至於價格居高不下。

  • This social market model, rather than a liberal market model like in the U.S., is common across Scandinavia and helps explain why the cost of living is so high.

    這種和美國自由市場不同的社會市場模式,在斯堪地那維亞地區相當常見,也解釋了為何生活費用如此高。

  • Scandinavian countries have large welfare states with their social expenditures.

    斯堪地那維亞國家擁有大規模的福利制度與社會支出。

  • As a percentage of GDP, among the highest in the world and this requires high levels of taxation.

    其國內生產毛額之百分比,位居世界前幾名,此需要大筆的課稅才得以達成。

  • Sweden has a top rate of personal income tax of over 60%.

    瑞典擁有高達 60% 的個人所得稅,為世界之冠。

  • While Denmark's is more than 55%, both of which are well above the OECD average.

    丹麥則超過 55%,兩者皆遠超於經合組織的平均。

  • In Denmark, if you want to buy a car.

    在丹麥,若要購車。

  • You have to pay anywhere between 85% and 150% tax on top of the cost of the vehicle.

    除了汽車本身的價格外,還另加 85% 到 150% 的稅。

  • And the taxes don't stop there.

    然而,這還不是全部的稅收。

  • Let's say I want to buy a sweater in Denmark.

    如果我要在丹麥買一件毛衣。

  • I pay 300 kronor for it, but how much of that money actually goes to the vendor?

    我付了 300 克郎,但賣家實際獲利多少?

  • Well, first there's the 25% VAT - leaving the seller with 240 kronor.

    首先,扣掉 25% 的增值稅,所以剩下 240 克郎。

  • The clothes shop also has to pay a minimum 22% of corporate income tax.

    接著店家須付最少 22% 的公司所得稅。

  • That means that a big portion of the money I paid for my sweater goes to the Danish government.

    意味著購買毛衣的錢,有一大部分需上繳丹麥政府。

  • Not to mention there's a hefty payroll tax on employees' wages.

    更別提苛刻的員工薪資稅。

  • And the store still has to pay for rent, electricity, and cleaning - all of which are taxed, too.

    店家還須負擔房租、電費、清潔費 -- 這些也都要課稅!

  • These taxes mean that for Scandinavian businesses to make a profit, they need to charge their consumers high prices.

    在被徵收這些稅的情況下,為了獲利,斯堪地那維亞的店家必須提高售價。

  • For some companies, this has proved too much of a burden for their business model.

    這對某些公司的經營模式造成很大的負擔。

  • The world's biggest furniture company IKEA was founded in Sweden but has moved its headquarters to the Netherlands.

    全球最大、發源於瑞典的家具公司 IKEA 已將總部遷移至荷蘭。

  • Through corporate restructuring, the business is now owned by a non-profit Dutch parent company.

    歷經重整後,目前公司由一家非營利的荷蘭母公司接管。

  • In part due to the high taxes in Sweden.

    某種程度上是因為瑞典高稅收的緣故。

  • But according to some experts, Scandinavia's social democrat tendencies have led to a strong social cohesion and has helped provide political stability.

    然而,某些專家指出,斯堪地那維亞的社會民主主義團體帶起了強力的社會凝聚力風向,並協助維持政治的穩定度。

  • This, in turn, has made their economies safe havens for outside investors.

    此現象為外來的投者者提供經濟上的避風港。

  • Which is one reason why the Danish, Swedish and Norwegian currencies called krona are so strong.

    這是克郎 (即丹麥、瑞典,與挪威幣) 之所以如此強盛的原因之一。

  • This can be tough on tourists with the exchange rate doing them no favors.

    對觀光客來說,外幣匯率實在一點都不友善。

  • If the cost of living in Scandinavia is so expensive.

    既然斯堪地那維亞的生活費用如此之高。

  • Why then are its citizens some of the happiest in the world?

    為何其國民的快樂指數為全世界數一數二高?

  • In the past five years, Scandinavian countries have regularly topped the World Happiness Report.

    在過去五年,斯堪地那維亞的國家常常位居全球幸福報告名單的前幾名。

  • That's an index that measures overall life satisfaction based on different contributing factors.

    此報告指數是根據整體生活的滿意度,以及其他因素而來。

  • Some experts attribute these high satisfaction levels with Scandinavia's large welfare state which they say ensures financial security, job security, and economic distribution.

    某些專家將高滿意度歸因於國家大規模的福利制度,其確保了經濟安全、工作安全,與經濟分配。

  • In return for high taxes, citizens get free state education, very cheap child care, a functioning public transport and a free health service.

    高稅賦的回報是,國民得以受免費的國家教育、享受低廉的幼兒看護費、大眾交通運輸費,以及免費的醫療服務。

  • But a large and expensive social welfare state doesn't necessarily mean the best.

    可是,大規模且昂貴的福利制度不一定是最好的。

  • For example, Norway is the only Scandinavian country that ranks in the top 10 for adult education levels, amongst OECD countries.

    舉例來說,挪威是斯堪地那維亞國家中,在成人教育程度排名中唯一列入前十名的,其他都是經合組織的成員國。

  • And yet Scandinavians remain happy with the status quo.

    即便如此,斯堪地那維亞人民仍對現狀感到滿意。

  • Living within a social corporatist economy that provides reliable economic welfare.

    即身處社會社團主義經濟提供的可靠經濟福利制度。

  • Having a beer at the end of the day does cost a small fortune, but for people living and working in Scandinavia, high prices provide a quality of life that's worth paying for.

    忙碌一整天後,享受一杯啤酒或許需要花一小筆錢,但對於居住,及工作在斯堪地那維亞地區的人民來說,高物價提供的是相對應的生活品質。

  • Hi guys, thanks very much for watching.

    嗨大家!非常感謝你們的收看。

  • If you'd like to see any more of our Explainers, then check out these.

    想看更多 Explainers 系列,看看這些影片吧!

  • Otherwise, feel free to comment below the video for any future videos you'd like us to make.

    也可以在影片下留言你想要我們做的主題。

  • And don't forget to like and subscribe.

    另外,別忘了按讚加訂閱!

  • Tak for watching!

    謝謝收看!

Tak!

謝謝!(丹麥語)

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【多元文化】物價超高!揭開斯堪地那維亞國家的面紗 (Why Is Scandinavia So Expensive? | CNBC Explains)

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    Liang Chen 發佈於 2019 年 02 月 11 日
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