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  • I have to admit that when it comes to food, I'm a total sucker.

    我必須承認,當講到食物時,我完全沒有抵抗力。

  • Whether it's sugar or grease or carbs, pretty much bring it on!

    不論是糖分、油脂或碳水化合物,我都沒在怕的!

  • And I spend a lot of time in Montana, so for me, that medium-rare, grass-fed ribeye steak?

    我在蒙大拿待了很長一段時間,所以對我來說那塊 3 分熟的草飼肋眼牛排是?

  • Pretty much as good as it gets.

    基本上你找不到更好的了。

  • I know.

    我知道。

  • I don't do it often and when I do, I gotta admit I feel a little conflicted.

    我不常吃,但當我吃的時候,我必須承認我會覺得有點矛盾。

  • And that's for a lot of reasons, including the planet.

    而原因有很多,包括了這顆星球。

  • But how big of a problem is what I eat?

    但是我吃什麼東西會是個多大的問題?

  • I mean, does it really make much of a dent in something as huge as global warming?

    我是說,難道它真的能對像全球暖化那麼廣的問題造成多大的影響嗎?

  • It turns out, what we put on our plates matters a lot.

    事實上,我們放在餐盤上的東西至關重要。

  • About 25 percent of all the global climate change problems we're seeing can be attributed back to the food and the choices that we're actually making about what we eat on a daily basis.

    目前我們所知道大約百分之 25 的全球氣候變遷問題都可以追溯至食物,以及我們每一天實際上在吃什麼的問題上所做的選擇。

  • This is greater than all of the cars on the planet.

    這個量比地球上的所有車子還要多。

  • In fact, it's about twice as much global warming pollution as the cars.

    事實上,這大約是汽車所產生的全球暖化污染的兩倍。

  • Ben Houlton and Maya Almaraz study the connection between climate and diet at the University of California, Davis.

    Ben Houlton 和 Maya Almaraz 在加州大學戴維斯分校研究氣候和飲食之間的關聯。

  • They track how the way we produce food creates greenhouse gases that contribute to global warming.

    他們在追蹤我們生產食物的方式如何產生導致全球暖化的溫室氣體。

  • With their data, the team has crunched the numbers to figure out how much carbon pollution is produced by different foods and different diets.

    有了他們的數據,研究團隊算出了不同食物和不同飲食會產生出多少碳污染。

  • A lot of people feel really helpless when it comes to climate change, like they can't make a difference.

    當談到氣候變遷時許多人感到很無助,因為他們沒有辦法帶來改變。

  • And what our research is showing is that your personal decisions really can have a big impact.

    而我們的研究顯示出,你的個人選擇真的可以有很大的影響。

  • So, take that grass fed ribeye steak I love.

    拿我最愛的草飼肋眼牛排為例。

  • If you really look at everything that went into making a single serving of beef, you end up emitting about 330 grams of carbon.

    如果你仔細地研究製作一份牛排的所有原料,你會發現它總共排放了 330 克的碳。

  • That's like driving a car three miles.

    這等於是開車三英里 (約 4.8 公里)。

  • Now, if I choose to have chicken instead, there's more than a five-fold drop in emissions.

    現在,如果我選擇了雞肉,排放量就減少了 5 倍以上。

  • Switch to fish and you see the number go down even more.

    換成魚肉,你就會看到數字降得更低。

  • Now, look at veggies.

    現在,看看蔬菜。

  • If I swapped beef out entirely for lentils, well, I'm down to practically nothing!

    如果我把牛排整個換成扁豆,看,我幾乎降到零排放!

  • So, why does beef and lamb, too, for that matter, pack such a powerful punch to the planet?

    所以為什麼牛肉,在這件事上還有羊肉,對地球有如此巨大的影響?

  • Livestock accounts for a little over 14 percent of global greenhouse gas emissions.

    牲畜佔全球溫室氣體排放量的百分之 14 以上。

  • If that sort of seems low to you, consider it's about equal to transportation.

    如果你覺得這數字看起來很低,想想看,它幾乎跟交通運輸的量一樣。

  • We're talking all the cars, trucks, planes, trains and ships on the planet combined!

    我們說的是所有地球上汽車、卡車、飛機、火車和船隻的加總!

  • This is partly because ruminant animals like cows and sheep, they're just gassy!

    部分原因是像牛和羊這些反芻類動物 - 他們真的很會排氣!

  • And the methane they produce is at least 25 times more potent than carbon dioxide.

    而他們所產生的甲烷影響力至少是二氧化碳的 25 倍。

  • Plus it takes a lot of land, fertilizer and about a billion tons of grain to feed all that livestock.

    再加上需要許多土地、肥料以及大約 10 億噸的穀物來餵養這些牲畜。

  • And you could feed 3.5 billion people with that grain.

    而那些穀物可以餵飽 35 億人口。

  • If we were just directly eating these grains ourselves, it would eliminate a lot of the CO2 that is emitted from cattle production.

    如果我們直接食用這些穀物,就能夠消除牛隻生產所排放的許多二氧化碳。

  • So it's clear that meat has pretty big carbon load, but it's also worth remembering that not all livestock is raised equally.

    所以很明顯地,肉會帶來相當大的碳排放量,但我們也要記得,並不是所有牲畜的飼養方式都是相同的。

  • In parts of the American West, for instance, ranchers are working to raise livestock in ways that actually help restore the land.

    例如在美國西部的某些地區,牧場主人們正在以一個能夠幫助復原土地的方式來飼養牲畜。

  • And they're experimenting with ways that soil and grasslands can be used to keep carbon pollution out of the air.

    他們試驗不同方法,利用土壤和草地使碳污染不要進入到空氣中。

  • But even these sustainable ranchers will really tell you, we're probably eating too much meat.

    不過即使是這些嘗試環境永續的牧場主人也會告訴你,我們現在食用的肉可能真的太多了。

  • I know a lot of people who if you don't serve them meat for lunch or dinner, they're kind of like "well, when is the meat coming out?"

    我知道很多人是你如果在午餐或晚餐不端肉給他們,他們就會說「什麼時候才要上肉?」

  • It's to the point now where the U.S. actually has one of the highest meat footprints per capita.

    目前美國實際上是人均肉足跡最高的國家之一。

  • So, what about not eating meat at all?

    那如果完全不吃肉呢?

  • Vegan is the way to go for the least impact on the planet, but it's not that much different, in terms of emissions, than say, a vegetarian diet.

    全素是對地球影響最小的方式,不過在排放量上來說它其實跟,比方說素食飲食,沒有太大的差別。

  • And the team found that the environmental impact of the Mediterranean diet is pretty similar to vegan and vegetarian diets.

    而研究團隊發現地中海飲食對環境的影響跟全素和素食飲食非常接近。

  • It's a lot less meat-heavy than what Americans are used to.

    這比美國人習慣的多肉飲食少了許多。

  • So, fish and poultry a few times a week, beef maybe once a month, plenty of plant-based foods, and of course, loads of olive oil.

    所以,一週幾次魚肉和家禽類,牛肉約莫每月一次,大量以植物為主的食物,以及當然,很多的橄欖油。

  • Eliminating like 90 percent of your meat intake is more important than eliminating all of your meat.

    減少百分之 90 的肉類攝取比完全消除所有肉類還重要。

  • We don't all have to be vegan.

    我們不需要全都是全素主義者。

  • We don't all even have to be vegetarian.

    我們甚至不用全都是素食者。

  • If we can just reduce our meat intake, every little bit helps.

    只要我們可以減少肉類的攝取,任何一點點都有幫助。

  • And if you can bring it down a lot, you can help the climate a lot.

    如果你可以減少很多,你就能夠大大地幫助改善氣候變遷。

  • If we all just switched to a Mediterranean diet, it could actually solve 15 percent of global warming pollution by 2050.

    如果我們全都改成地中海飲食,就能夠在 2050 之前消除掉百分之 15 的暖化污染。

  • If everyone were to move toward it, that is equivalent to taking somewhere around a billion cars off of the streets, in terms of vehicle emissions each year.

    如果所有人都朝這個方向改變,以交通工具每年的排放量來講的話,等於是從馬路上移走了大約 10 億輛車。

  • So, that kind of a footprint is big-time.

    這樣的足跡會是很大的成功。

  • But say you still want more meat than the Mediterranean diet recommends?

    但假如你還是想吃比地中海飲食所建議更多的肉該怎麼辦?

  • Just cutting down your portion size to the doctor-recommended 4 ounces can reduce your emissions by half.

    只要把你的份量降低到醫生建議的 4 盎司,就能夠減少一半的排放量。

  • That's huge!

    很多吧!

  • In fact, the doctors are telling us we're eating about twice as much meat as we really need for a healthy diet.

    事實上,醫生告訴我們,我們正在食用的肉是健康飲食實際所需的兩倍。

  • The good news is, we are listening to our doctors.

    好消息是,我們有在聽醫生的話。

  • In the last decade, there's been a 19 percent drop in the amount of beef we eat.

    在過去十年,我們吃進去的牛肉量下降了百分之 19。

  • All these things that you're already being told are good for you also happen to be good for the planet.

    所有你已經聽過關於有益於你自己的事情,也剛好對地球有益。

  • So what we eat really is a big part of the climate puzzle.

    所以我們吃什麼確實是氣候難題中一個很重要的部分。

  • I mean, we may not all be able to afford an electric car or putting solar panels on our house, but we all have to eat every day.

    我是指,我們或許沒有辦法所有人都買一台電動車或在自己家樓上放太陽能板,但是我們每一天都需要吃東西。

  • And these choices we make can add up to really big numbers.

    而我們所做的這些選擇,可以加總成非常大的數字。

  • And since meat has a pretty big carbon load, we need to be thoughtful about how much we eat.

    由於肉類含有相當大量地碳,我們必須仔細思考吃入的多寡。

  • As for that ribeye steak that I really love, I am honestly trying to cut back!

    至於我很愛的肋眼牛排,我真的在努力減少吃它!

  • Maybe just a smaller piece of steak or simply swapping out a meat dish for a veggie burger.

    或許改成小塊一點的牛排或是乾脆將一盤肉換成一個素食漢堡。

  • It may seem like a small thing, but it really does add up to big impacts.

    這看起來或許只是很小的事,但它真的能夠累積成很大的影響。

  • Hey, so what did you have for dinner last night?

    嘿,你昨天晚餐吃了什麼呢?

  • Find out how your choices are affecting global warming by taking a quiz at climate.universityofcalifornia.edu.

    到 climate.universityofcalifornia.edu 做個測驗,看看你的選擇會如何影響全球暖化。

  • Or watch one of our other episodes to discover what happened when I brought a box of donuts to MIT.

    或者收看我們的另一支影片,看看我帶著一盒甜甜圈到麻省理工學院時發生了什麼事。

I have to admit that when it comes to food, I'm a total sucker.

我必須承認,當講到食物時,我完全沒有抵抗力。

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B1 中級 中文 Vox 飲食 排放量 牛排 暖化 牲畜

飲食習慣上的小小改變,就可以為地球帶來大大的影響!(The diet that helps fight climate change)

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    Samuel 發佈於 2020 年 03 月 03 日
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