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  • A confession:

    我要懺悔:

  • I am an archaeologist and a museum curator,

    我既是一名考古學家,又是博物館策展人,

  • but a paradoxical one.

    但是是很矛盾的那種。

  • For my museum, I collect things,

    因為我在為我的博物館收藏東西同時,

  • but I also return things back to where they came from.

    我也會把東西歸還到它們的所屬之地。

  • I love museums because they're social and educational,

    我熱愛博物館,因為它們 具有社會意義和教育意義,

  • but I'm most drawn to them because of the magic of objects:

    但最吸引我的,是藏品本身的魔力:

  • a one-million-year-old hand axe,

    一百萬年歷史的手持式斧頭,

  • a totem pole, an impressionist painting

    圖騰柱、印象派畫作,

  • all take us beyond our own imaginations.

    這些都能帶我們到我們想像之外的地方。

  • In museums, we pause to muse, to gaze upon our human empire of things

    在博物館,我們會停下來沉思,凝視著這些代表著人類帝國的物品,

  • in meditation and wonder.

    一邊冥想,一邊感到驚奇。

  • I understand why US museums alone

    我能理解為什麼光是美國的博物館

  • host more than 850 million visits each year.

    每年就能有八億五千萬參訪人次。

  • Yet, in recent years, museums have become a battleground.

    但,近年來,博物館 卻已經變成了戰場。

  • Communities around the world don't want to see their culture

    世界各地的社區 都不想看到他們的文化

  • in distant institutions which they have no control over.

    落入一些遙遠的機構手中, 而他們無法對其進行掌控。

  • They want to see their cultural treasures

    它們希望能看到它們的文化寶藏

  • repatriated, returned to their places of origin.

    能夠送返回國,物歸原主。

  • Greece seeks the return of the Parthenon Marbles,

    希臘希望大英博物館能夠將額爾金大理石雕塑,

  • a collection of classical sculptures held by the British Museum.

    這一系列的經典雕塑如數歸還。

  • Egypt demands antiquities from Germany.

    埃及要求德國歸還它們的古董文物。

  • New Zealand's Maori want to see returned

    紐西蘭的毛利人希望各地的博物館

  • ancestral tattooed heads from museums everywhere.

    能歸還祖傳的文物:刺有花紋的人頭。

  • Yet these claims pale in comparison to those made by Native Americans.

    然而,與美國原住民的要求比起來,這些要求顯得微不足道。

  • Already, US museums have returned more than one million artifacts

    美國博物館已經歸還了超過一百萬件手工藝品

  • and 50,000 sets of Native American skeletons.

    以及五萬組美國原住民骸骨。

  • To illustrate what's at stake, let's start with the War Gods.

    若要說明到底是什麼如此重要,咱們先從戰神開始。

  • This is a wood carving

    這是一個木雕,

  • made by members of the Zuni tribe in New Mexico.

    由新墨西哥祖尼部落的成員雕刻而成。

  • In the 1880s, anthropologists began to collect them

    在 1880 年,人類學家開始收集這些木雕,

  • as evidence of American Indian religion.

    作為美國印第安宗教存在的證據。

  • They came to be seen as beautiful,

    大眾也漸漸認可了 這些木雕的美麗之處,

  • the precursor to the stark sculptures of Picasso and Paul Klee,

    將它們視為畢卡索和保羅克利雕塑的前身,

  • helping to usher in the modern art movement.

    協助引領現代藝術運動。

  • From one viewpoint, the museum did exactly as it's supposed to

    從一個觀點來看,對於戰神,

  • with the War God.

    博物館盡到了它的本分,

  • It helped introduce a little-known art form

    那就是將這些鮮為人知的藝術形式

  • for the world to appreciate.

    介紹給全世界欣賞。

  • But from another point of view,

    但從另一個觀點來看,

  • the museum had committed a terrible crime of cultural violence.

    博物館犯下了可怕的罪行:文化暴力。

  • For Zunis, the War God is not a piece of art,

    對祖尼人來說, 戰神並不是一件藝術品,

  • it is not even a thing.

    它甚至不是一件物品。

  • It is a being.

    它是一種生命的存在。

  • For Zunis, every year,

    對祖尼人來說,每年,

  • priests ritually carve new War Gods,

    牧師們會根據儀式雕刻新的戰神,

  • the Ahayu:da,

    Ahayu:da,

  • breathing life into them in a long ceremony.

    在漫長的儀式中,賦予它們生命。

  • They are placed on sacred shrines

    它們被供奉在神聖的神壇上,

  • where they live to protect the Zuni people

    就在那兒,守護祖尼人,

  • and keep the universe in balance.

    維持宇宙的平衡。

  • No one can own or sell a War God.

    沒有人能夠擁有或販售戰神。

  • They belong only to the earth.

    它們只屬於地球。

  • And so Zunis want them back from museums

    所以,祖尼人希望博物館能夠將它們歸還,

  • so they can go to their shrine homes

    這樣它們才能回到它們的家:神壇,

  • to fulfill their spiritual purpose.

    履行它們的神聖使命。

  • What is a curator to do?

    策展人要做什麼?

  • I believe that the War Gods should be returned.

    我相信,戰神應該被歸還。

  • This might be a startling answer.

    這可能是個很驚人的答案。

  • After all, my conclusion contradicts the refrain

    畢竟,我的結論和世界上最著名的

  • of the world's most famous archaeologist:

    考古學家的名言抵觸:

  • "That belongs in a museum!"

    「那是屬於博物館的。」

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • is what Indiana Jones said, not just to drive movie plots,

    印第安納瓊斯說的話, 並不只是為了電影情節發展,

  • but to drive home the unquestionable good of museums for society.

    也是明確說明了對於社會, 博物館有著無庸置疑的美善,

  • I did not come to my view easily.

    這種觀點不是輕易就形成的。

  • I grew up in Tucson, Arizona,

    我在亞歷桑納州的土桑市長大,

  • and fell in love with the Sonoran Desert's past.

    並愛上了索諾拉沙漠的過去。

  • I was amazed that beneath the city's bland strip malls

    讓我感到很讚嘆的,是在該城市中 整排枯燥乏味的商店底下,

  • was 12,000 years of history just waiting to be discovered.

    有一萬兩千年的歷史, 等待著被發掘。

  • When I was 16 years old, I started taking archaeology classes

    當我十六歲時, 我開始修考古學的課,

  • and going out on digs.

    到外面去挖掘。

  • A high school teacher of mine even helped me set up my own laboratory

    我的一位高中老師甚至協助我建立我自己的實驗室,

  • to study animal bones.

    來研究動物骨頭。

  • But in college,

    但在大學,

  • I came to learn that my future career had a dark history.

    我漸漸發現,我的未來職業有著很黑暗的歷史。

  • Starting in the 1860s,

    從 1860 年開始,

  • Native American skeletons became a tool for science,

    美國原住民骸骨就變成了科學的工具,

  • collected in the thousands

    數千具骸骨被收集起來,

  • to prove new theories of social and racial hierarchies.

    去證明社會和種族階層的新理論。

  • Native American human remains were plundered from graves,

    美國原住民墳墓中的人類遺骨被偷取,

  • even taken fresh from battlefields.

    甚至連戰場上的新鮮屍體都被帶走。

  • When archaeologists came across white graves,

    當考古學家不小心發現白人的墳墓時,

  • the skeleton was often quickly reburied,

    通常會很快重新埋葬骸骨,

  • while Native bones were deposited as specimens on museum shelves.

    而原住民的骨頭卻會被存起來,當作博物館架上的樣本。

  • In the wake of war, stolen land, boarding schools,

    在經歷了戰爭、竊取土地、寄宿學校、

  • laws banning religion,

    法律禁止宗教之後,

  • anthropologists collected sacred objects

    人類學家開始收集聖物,

  • in the belief that Native peoples were on the cusp of extinction.

    因為他們相信原住民在要絕種的關口上。

  • You can call it racism or colonialism, but the labels don't matter

    你們可以稱之為種族主義或殖民主義,但這些標籤並不重要,

  • as much as the fact that over the last century,

    重要的是,在過去一個世紀,

  • Native American rights and culture were taken from them.

    美國原住民的權利和文化都被奪去了。

  • In 1990, after years of Native protests,

    1990 年,在原住民抗議數年後,

  • the US government, through the US Congress,

    美國政府透過美國國會,

  • finally passed a law that allowed Native Americans to reclaim

    終於通過了法律,允許美國原住民

  • cultural items, sacred objects and human remains from museums.

    向博物館取回文物、聖物, 以及人類遺骨。

  • Many archaeologists were panicked.

    許多考古學家驚慌失措。

  • For scientists,

    對科學家來說,很難完全了解,

  • it can be hard to fully grasp how a piece of wood can be a living god

    一塊木頭怎麼可能會是活生生的神?

  • or how spirits surround bones.

    或者,神靈怎麼可能會圍繞在骨頭周圍?

  • And they knew that modern science, especially with DNA,

    他們知道現代科學,特別是 DNA 相關的科學,

  • can provide luminous insights into the past.

    能夠帶來對過去既清楚又深刻的了解。

  • As the anthropologist Frank Norwick declared,

    如同人類學家法蘭克諾維克所聲稱的:

  • "We are doing important work that benefits all of mankind.

    「我們在做的是重要的工作,能讓全人類受惠。

  • We are not returning anything to anyone."

    我們不會把任何東西歸還給任何人。」

  • As a college student, all of this was an enigma

    身為大學生,這一切都是個謎,

  • that was hard to decipher.

    很難解的謎。

  • Why did Native Americans want their heritage back

    為什麼美國原住民會想要把他們遺產

  • from the very places preserving it?

    從保存的地方拿回去?

  • And how could scientists spend their entire lives

    科學家又怎麼能夠花上一生的時間

  • studying dead Indians

    來研究死去的印第安人,

  • but seem to care so little about living ones?

    卻似乎對活著的印第安人漠不關心呢?

  • I graduated but wasn't sure what to do next,

    我畢業了,但不太確定接下來要做什麼,

  • so I traveled.

    所以我去旅行。

  • One day, in South Africa,

    有一天,在南非,

  • I visited Nelson Mandela's former prison cell on Robben Island.

    我造訪了位於羅本島上,曼德拉曾住過的牢房,

  • I had an epiphany.

    我頓悟了。

  • Here was a man who helped a country bridge vast divides

    這裡曾經有個人,協助一個國家縮小了巨大的鴻溝,

  • to seek, however imperfectly, reconciliation.

    以尋求和解,不論多麼不完美。

  • I'm no Mandela, but I ask myself:

    我不是曼德拉,但我問我自己:

  • Could I, too, plant seeds of hope in the ruins of the past?

    我是否也能在過去的斷垣殘壁中種下希望的種子?

  • In 2007, I was hired as a curator

    2007 年,我被丹佛自然科學博物館僱用,

  • at the Denver Museum of Nature and Science.

    擔任策展人。

  • Our team agreed that unlike many other institutions,

    我們的團隊同意,我們要和其他許多其他機構不一樣,

  • we needed to proactively confront the legacy of museum collecting.

    我們得要主動對抗博物館收藏遺產的問題。

  • We started with the skeletons in our closet,

    我們先從我們櫥中的骸骨開始,

  • 100 of them.

    共有一百具。

  • After months and then years, we met with dozens of tribes

    數個月後,接著數年後,我們會見了數十個部落,

  • to figure out how to get these remains home.

    想辦法要把這些遺骨送回家。

  • And this is hard work.

    這工作很困難。

  • It involves negotiating who will receive the remains,

    它涉及到要去協商由誰來接收遺骨、

  • how to respectfully transfer them,

    如何用不失敬的方式來運送它們,

  • where will they go.

    以及要把它們送去哪裡。

  • Native American leaders become undertakers,

    美國原住民領導人成了殯儀業者,

  • planning funerals for dead relatives they had never wanted unearthed.

    為了那些他們從來就不想挖掘出來的已故親戚策劃葬禮。

  • A decade later, the Denver Museum and our Native partners

    十年後,丹佛博物館和我們的原住民夥伴

  • have reburied nearly all of the human remains in the collection.

    把博物館收藏的幾乎所有人類遺骨都重新埋葬了。

  • We have returned hundreds of sacred objects.

    我們歸還了數百件聖物。

  • But I've come to see that these battles are endless.

    但我漸漸了解到,這些戰爭是無休止的。

  • Repatriation is now a permanent feature of the museum world.

    「物歸原主」現在已經是博物館世界的不變特性了。

  • Hundreds of tribes are waiting their turn.

    數百個部落都在等著輪到它們。

  • There are always more museums with more stuff.

    永遠都會有更多的博物館,裡面有更多的東西。

  • Every catalogued War God in an American public museum

    美國公立博物館中所有被編入目錄中的戰神

  • has now been returned – 106, so far

    現在都已經被歸還—目前有 106 個

  • but there are more beyond the reach of US law,

    但還有更多是美國法律無法控管到的,

  • in private collections and outside our borders.

    在私人收藏中,以及在美國國界之外。

  • In 2014, I had the chance to travel with a respected religious leader

    2014 年,我有機會和一位很受敬重的宗教領袖同行,

  • from the Zuni tribe named Octavius Seowtewa

    他來自祖尼部落,名叫奧塔維斯西歐特瓦,

  • to visit five museums in Europe with War Gods.

    我們造訪了歐洲五間有戰神的博物館。

  • At the Ethnological Museum of Berlin,

    在柏林民族學博物館,

  • we saw a War God with a history of dubious care.

    我們看到了一個戰神,它過去受到的看護備受質疑。

  • An overly enthusiastic curator had added chicken feathers to it.

    一位過度熱心的策展人在它上面加上了雞毛。

  • Its necklace had once been stolen.

    它的項鍊曾經被偷走。

  • At the Musée du quai Branly in Paris,

    在巴黎的布朗利河岸博物館,

  • an official told us that the War God there is now state property

    一位官員告訴我們,戰神現在是國有財產,

  • with no provisions for repatriation.

    所以他們無法將其物歸原主。

  • He insisted that the War God no longer served Zunis

    他堅稱戰神的服務對象已經不再是祖尼人,

  • but museum visitors.

    而是博物館訪客。

  • He said, "We give all of the objects to the world."

    他說:「我們把所有這些物品給予全世界。」

  • At the British Museum,

    在大英博物館,

  • we were warned that the Zuni case would establish a dangerous precedent

    我們被警告,祖尼一案可能會開創一個危險的先例,

  • for bigger disputes,

    引起更大的爭端,

  • such as the Parthenon Marbles, claimed by Greece.

    比如希臘索求額爾金大理石雕塑。

  • After visiting the five museums,

    在造訪了五間博物館之後,

  • Octavius returned home to his people empty-handed.

    奧塔維斯空手返回家鄉見他的族人。

  • He later told me,

    他後來告訴我:

  • "It hurts my heart to see the Ahayu:da so far away.

    「我的心很痛,因為看見戰神在那麼遠的地方。

  • They all belong together.

    它們應該要在一起的。

  • It's like a family member that's missing from a family dinner.

    就像是缺席了家庭晚餐聚會的家人一樣。

  • When one is gone, their strength is broken."

    只要有一個失散了,它們的力量就會被破壞了。」

  • I wish that my colleagues in Europe and beyond

    我希望我在歐洲及其他地方的同業們

  • could see that the War Gods do not represent the end of museums

    能夠明白戰神並不代表博物館的末日到來,

  • but the chance for a new beginning.

    而是一個重新開始的機會。

  • When you walk the halls of a museum,

    當各位逛博物館的展廳時,

  • you're likely just seeing about one percent

    大家很可能只看到

  • of the total collections.

    全部館藏的百分之一。

  • The rest is in storage.

    餘下的都在貯藏庫。

  • Even after returning 500 cultural items and skeletons,

    即使是在歸還了五百件文化藏品和骸骨之後,

  • my museum still retains 99.999 percent of its total collections.

    我的博物館仍然保有其總館藏的 99.999%。

  • Though we no longer have War Gods,

    雖然我們不再擁有戰神了,

  • we have Zuni traditional pottery,

    但是我們還有祖尼傳統的陶器、

  • jewelry, tools, clothing and arts.

    珠寶、工具、服飾,和藝術品。

  • And even more precious than these objects

    還有比這些物品更珍貴的,

  • are the relationships that we formed with Native Americans

    就是我們透過將物品物歸原主的過程,

  • through the process of repatriation.

    和美國原住民所建立的關係。

  • Now, we can ask Zunis to share their culture with us.

    現在,我們可以請祖尼人與我們分享他們的文化。

  • Not long ago, I had the chance to visit the returned War Gods.

    不久前,我有機會去參觀了已歸還的戰神。

  • A shrine sits up high atop a mesa overlooking beautiful Zuni homeland.

    神壇位於高聳的平頂山上,俯瞰美麗的祖尼家園。

  • The shrine is enclosed by a roofless stone building

    神壇被露天的石頭建築所包圍,

  • threaded at the top with barbed wire

    露天的部分設置了帶刺的鐵絲網,

  • to ensure that they're not stolen again.

    以確保戰神不會再次被偷竊。

  • And there they are, inside,

    它們就在那兒,在裡面,

  • the Ahayu:da,

    戰神,

  • 106 War Gods amid offerings of turquoise, cornmeal, shell,

    106 個戰神,包圍在祭品中:綠松石、玉米粉、貝殼,

  • even T-shirts ...

    甚至還有 T 恤……

  • a modern gift to ancient beings.

    給予古老生命存在的現代禮物。

  • And standing there,

    站在那裡,

  • I got a glimpse at the War Gods' true purpose in the world.

    我得以瞥見戰神在這個世界上真正存在的目的。

  • And it occurred to me then

    接著,我想到,

  • that we do not get to choose the histories that we inherit.

    我們無法選擇我們繼承的歷史。

  • Museum curators today did not pillage ancient graves

    現今的博物館策展人並沒有去掠奪古墓

  • or steal spiritual objects,

    或是偷竊聖物,

  • but we can accept responsibility for correcting past mistakes.

    但我們可以承擔起修正過去錯誤的責任。

  • We can help restore dignity,

    我們能夠協助恢復美國原住民的尊嚴、

  • hope and humanity to Native Americans,

    希望,和人道,

  • the very people who were once the voiceless objects of our curiosity.

    在過去,在我們的好奇心之下,它們只是無法發聲的物品。

  • And this doesn't even require us to fully understand others' beliefs,

    我們甚至不需要完全了解他人的信仰,

  • only that we respect them.

    我們只要尊重他們的信仰即可。

  • Museums are temples to things past.

    博物館存放歷史文物的神殿。

  • Now they must also become places for living cultures.

    現在,它們也必須要變成現存文化之地。

  • As I turned to walk away from the shrine,

    當我轉身,走離神壇時,

  • I drank in the warm summer air,

    我陶醉在温暖夏日的氣氛中,

  • and I watched an eagle turn lazy circles high above.

    看著高空中一隻老鷹 懶洋洋地盤旋。

  • I thought of the Zunis,

    我想起祖尼人,

  • whose offerings ensure that their culture is not dead and gone

    他們對戰神的供奉確保了他們的文化不會消亡,

  • but alive and well,

    而會燃起新生且被好好保存,

  • and I could think of no better place for the War Gods to be.

    對戰神來說, 還有什麼地方比那兒更好呢?

  • Thank you.

    謝謝你們。

  • (Applause)

    (掌聲)

A confession:

我要懺悔:

字幕與單字

影片操作 你可以在這邊進行「影片」的調整,以及「字幕」的顯示

B1 中級 中文 美國腔 TED 博物館 戰神 原住民 美國 雕塑

【TED】奇普柯威爾: 為什麼博物館要把文化寶藏歸還? (Why museums are returning cultural treasures | Chip Colwell)

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    林宜悉 發佈於 2018 年 10 月 11 日
影片單字