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  • Translator: Paola Benedetti Reviewer: Denise RQ

    翻譯者:Paola Benedetti 審核人:Denise RQ

  • How does your brain fall in love?

    當你墜入愛河時,你的大腦發生什麼事?

  • Is it something magical that happens to your brain,

    是有神奇的魔法發生在你的大腦裡嗎?

  • or is there something biological that happens to your brain

    還是生物學上的反應

  • that causes us to fall in love?

    導致我們墜入愛河?

  • That was my question.

    這是我的疑問

  • This is what we know about love:

    這個圖是我們所知的愛

  • we know some neurotransmitters increase and some drop.

    我們知道有些神經遞質會增加和減少

  • Your cortisol level, the stress hormone, increases causing you to feel nervous,

    你的皮質醇,也就是壓力賀爾蒙增加時,會導致你感到緊張

  • while your oxytocin level increases causing you to feel amorous.

    當你的催產素增加時,會讓你有戀愛的感覺

  • A woman's testosterone goes up causing her to be more aggressive,

    女人的睪酮增加時,會使她較有衝勁、好鬥的

  • while a man's drops causing him to be more passive.

    但男生的減少時,會使他變得較消極

  • And in both, their serotonin level drops causing them to be a little more obsessed.

    而且不論男女,當他們的血清素下降時,他們會比較心神不寧

  • And, although we know what happens, we don't know how you get there.

    雖然我們知道發生了什麼事,但我們不知道如何發生的

  • There are certain chemical processes happen,

    這其中有化學反應的過程發生

  • including the tipping point, where you have an increase;

    包括臨界點,就是使你的激素開始上升的地方

  • and also an enzymatic reaction, where you have a subsequent decrease.

    還有酶促反應,就是你隨後下降的地方

  • Either of these would fit nicely into that missing section.

    任何一個都可以將缺少的部分搭配得很好

  • So I was pondering this, and I just happened to be on vacation.

    所以我深思這個變化,然後有一次我去度假

  • I was visiting my family,

    拜訪我的親戚

  • and I have a cousin who is a PhD in biochemistry,

    我有一個表哥,他是生物化學的博士

  • so I decided to use the opportunity to pick his brain.

    所以我覺得藉由這個機會去請教他

  • I told him what I knew about love.

    我告訴他據我所知的愛

  • I said, "Certain neurotransmitters go up, certain ones go down.

    我說:「某些神經遞質上升,而某些神經遞質會下降

  • I think it may be biochemical."

    我想這可能是生化反應。」

  • I looked at him, and he gave this expression of, "Plausible."

    我看著他,然後他給我的回應是「似乎滿有道理的。」

  • I said, "Some may have a tipping point reaction."

    我說:「有些人可能會有臨界點反應。」

  • He said, "Plausible," or looked plausible.

    他說:「滿有道理的。」或是聽起來似乎有理

  • And then, I said, "Others may be enzymatic with a subsequent decrease."

    然後我說:「其他有可能會有酶促反應隨後下降。」

  • Again, he gave me the facial expression of plausible.

    他再次給我認同的表情

  • He's not a big talker, so I thought this was going really well.

    他不是吹牛大王,所以我覺得事情進展得很順利

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • But before I could formulate my next question,

    但在我說出下個問題前

  • my then 95-year-old grandmother spoke up, and she said,

    我 95 歲的外婆說話了,她說:

  • "You, youngsters, don't know anything about love."

    你們這些年輕人根本不懂什麼是愛

  • I was shocked, and I said, "Yeah, I know. That's why we're talking about this."

    我很震驚,然後我說:「沒錯!這就是為什麼我們在討論這個問題。」

  • She said, "Your problem is you, young girls, jump into bed too quick.

    她說:「問題在於你們這些小女孩,太快就發生性行為了。」

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • You fall in love, but a boy doesn't fall in love that way."

    你戀愛了,但男生卻不會因此而墜入愛河

  • And I kind of looked at her, and I said,

    我看著她,然後我說

  • "OK, let's talk a little bit more. How does a boy fall in love?"

    「好,那我們再多說一點,要怎樣才能讓男生墜入愛河呢?」

  • And she said, "Back in my day, a girl knew

    然後她說:「在我那個年代

  • if she wanted a boy to fall in love with her,

    如果女生想要讓男生與她戀愛

  • she couldn't sleep with him right away."

    她絕對不可以很快地和他發生性行為

  • Now, I had heard that stuff before: there was things like the three-date rule,

    我曾聽過有個「三次約會的規定」

  • there's the 90-day rule from Steve Harvey's book,

    還有「九十天的規定」,這些規定來自 Steve Harvey 的書

  • "Act like a lady, think like a man,"

    「行為要像個女人,思想要像個男人。」

  • but I always thought those were anecdotal.

    但我總是覺得那些都是傳聞

  • I didn't think there was any science behind it,

    我不認為有任何科學根據

  • so I looked over at my cousin.

    所以我看向我的表哥

  • His face no longer said plausible.

    他的臉不再表示認同了

  • I decided to continue with my grandmother

    我決定繼續跟我的外婆討論

  • because of the date; the question was the date.

    因為約會,問題是約會

  • I said, "How long do you need to wait before you have sex?"

    我說:「那要等多久才可以發生性行為?」

  • She says, "Ah, you wait to have sex until he falls in love."

    她說:「啊!你必須等他有墜入愛河時才可以。」

  • "OK. Well, Granny, how do I know when he falls in love?"

    「嗯…外婆,那我要怎麼知道他墜入愛河了呢?」

  • She says, "Oh, that's easy, you know he's in love when he commits."

    她說:「那很簡單,當他給予承諾時就是戀愛了。」

  • I looked over at my cousin, and I was like, "What do you think?"

    我看向我的表哥,暗示著:「你覺得呢?」

  • and he hung his head, and he just shook it.

    他低頭了,然後只搖搖頭

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • He said, "OK, Granny, it's time to go home."

    他說:「外婆,該回家了。」

  • I realized he was not buying any of this,

    我明白他不認同外婆說的話

  • and my research had to continue on another day.

    然後我的研究持續進行

  • I returned home, and I hit the research library.

    我回到家,去研究圖書館查資料

  • The problem

    問題是

  • is there's not a lot of research out on how humans fall in love,

    沒有很多有關人類如何戀愛的研究

  • primarily, because of the way we do research.

    主要是因為我們研究的方式

  • Imagine a guy saying, "Oh, I love you."

    想像一個男人說:「喔!我愛你。」

  • He falls in love, and a researcher walks up saying,

    他戀愛了,然後一個研究者向前說:

  • "Congratulations! Can I inject this into your brain to see if it has an effect?"

    「恭喜你!可以讓我解析你的腦袋,看是否有任何影響嗎?」

  • You're not going to get many volunteers.

    你不會找到很多自願的實驗者

  • So we had to rely on the next best thing: animal studies.

    所以我們必須依賴其他方式:動物實驗

  • But what animals fall in love?

    但是什麼動物會戀愛?

  • Well, we know when humans fall in love, they show exclusiveness to one person,

    嗯 ... 我們知道人類會戀愛,他們會表現出對一個人的專情

  • so they started looking at other creatures that mated exclusively.

    所以他們開始找其他是會完全交配的動物

  • And they ended up settling on these guys: the monogamous prairie vole.

    最後他們設定實驗對象:一夫一妻的橙腹田鼠

  • When a prairie vole finds a mate that they're interested in,

    當橙腹田鼠找到牠有興趣的伴侶時

  • they will, basically, mate for life.

    基本上他們會終身相伴

  • So they started looking at the neurotransmitters

    所以他們開始研究牠們的神經遞質

  • to see what was going on,

    看看會發生什麼事

  • and what they discovered

    然後他們發現

  • was one of the first things that increases is dopamine.

    其中第一件事就是多巴胺會增加

  • And if they block the dopamine, they would lose the loving feeling.

    如果他們阻斷多巴胺,牠們就會失去愛的感覺

  • So they thought, "Oh, dopamine," but they knew there was a problem.

    所以他們認為「原來是多巴胺!」,但是他們發現有一個問題

  • Dopamine couldn't be it with human romantic love

    多巴胺不能成為人類戀愛的原因

  • because dopamine goes up with a lot of things.

    因為許多事情都會造成多巴胺增加

  • It goes up with gambling, chocolate, playing Candy Crush

    像是賭博、巧克力或是玩《糖果傳奇》(線上遊戲)

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • so it couldn't possibly be dopamine.

    所以不可能是多巴胺

  • So they said, "Well, we know there's another one

    他們說:「我們知道有另一個

  • that's involved in bonding; it's called oxytocin."

    也有相關,叫做催產素

  • And oxytocin goes up with mothers and children, that causes them to bond.

    當媽媽和小孩之間的催產素增加,會讓他們連結在一起

  • So they said, "Let's take a look at that," so they looked at that.

    所以他們說:「我們來研究這個看看。」,於是就開始觀察

  • They found that when a female finds a man she's interested in,

    他們發現當女人對某個男人感到興趣時

  • her oxytocin goes up by 51%,

    她的催產素高達 51%

  • and then if they block it, she loses that loving feeling.

    然後如果他們阻斷催產素,她會失去愛的感覺

  • So they said, "Ah, it must be dopamine and oxytocin,"

    所以他們說:「啊!一定是多巴胺和催產素造成的。」

  • but there was a problem.

    但還是有個問題

  • It can't be oxytocin for a man, because of testosterone.

    由於男人含有睪酮,催產素對男人不會造成影響

  • Testosterone blocks the effects of oxytocin.

    睪酮會阻擋催產素的影響

  • So they said, "It's got to be something different."

    所以他們說:「男女應該有些不同。」

  • They looked at another one that had a similar formula to oxytocin,

    他們研究其他類似催產素配方的東西

  • and that is vasopressin.

    那就是抗利尿激素

  • So they did the study again.

    因此他們再次研究

  • The voles would meet. They'd have the vasopressin.

    他們用田鼠實驗,牠們都有抗利尿激素

  • They'd inject an antagonist, a chemical block to the vasopressin;

    他們注射了一種拮抗劑,那是一種化學成分阻止抗利尿激素增加

  • he would lose that loving feeling.

    然後他失去愛的感覺

  • So they said, "Oh, then it's got to be dopamine and vasopressin for males,

    他們認為:「多巴胺和抗利尿激素是影響男性戀愛的因素

  • and possibly some testosterone because we know that it goes up."

    睪酮也可能有所影響,因為它也增加了。」

  • So they said, "Ah, perfect."

    他們說:「沒錯,完美的解釋。」

  • What does that mean for us? Is this applicable?

    這對我們來說意味著什麼?這是適用的嗎?

  • To find that out,

    為了找出答案

  • I wrote to one of the Head of Studies at Florida State University, and I asked,

    我寫了一封信詢問在佛羅里達州立大學的研究主任,我問他

  • "Is the vole study applicable to humans?"

    「田鼠研究是否適用於人類呢?」

  • His response is a little embarrassing; he wrote back, "Of course, Dawn!"

    他的回答有些尷尬,他回信:「當然可以!」

  • The exclamation point is his.

    他堅決認為是可以的

  • I didn't want to write back for further clarification.

    我不想再回信詢求更多的澄清

  • That was a little embarrassing, so I didn't have to.

    這有點尷尬,所以我不需要這麼做

  • Fortunately for me, Tiffany Love, from the the University of Michigan,

    幸運地,來自密歇根大學 Tiffany Love

  • came out publicly, and she said that she believed

    公開說到她相信

  • that the vole studies and human romantic love were similar.

    田鼠的戀愛研究和人類的戀愛是很相似的

  • So, great. Now what does that mean?

    太棒了,這是什麼意思呢?

  • Well, if we look back at the mechanism, we can see that for females

    如果我們回頭再看這個機制,我們可以看到女人戀愛時

  • that would mean dopamine increases and oxytocin increases.

    多巴胺和催產素會增加

  • Dopamine increases when we're dating, when we're going to win;

    當我們約會時、要贏的時候

  • we are excited: we're going to win the grand prize of love.

    我們會很興奮:我們會贏得愛的大獎

  • As long as you're dating and you're happy, your dopamine is going up.

    一旦你在約會和開心時,你的多巴胺就會增加

  • Oxytocin goes up; it's called the cuddle hormone, or the trust hormone,

    催產素增加,被稱為擁抱賀爾蒙或信任賀爾蒙

  • so when you're kissing, cuddling, having a good time, oxytocin increases.

    所以當你在親吻、擁抱或享受美好時光時,催產素會增加

  • And as you're dating a man and you're learning to trust him,

    當你與一個男人約會,然後學著相信他時

  • your oxytocin increases.

    你的催產素會增加

  • But there's a catch.

    但有一個問題

  • Oxytocin slowly builds up that way, but it skyrockets at orgasm.

    利用那種方式,催產素會增加得很慢,但它在高潮時會飆升

  • In other words, my grandmother might have been on to something.

    換句話說,我的外婆可能已經知道了些什麼

  • Remember what she said?

    還記得她說的嗎?

  • "You girls, jump into bed too quick; you fall in love."

    「你們這些女孩太快發生性行為,就會墜入愛河。」

  • It was starting to look like

    現在看來

  • the science was panning out from what my grandmother said.

    科學研究的結果驗證了我外婆說的話

  • So I looked at the other part: how does a man fall in love?

    所以我研究另一個部分:男人是怎麼戀愛的?

  • If we look at it, dopamine...

    如果我們研究多巴胺 ...

  • If he is having a good time, his dopamine is going up,

    如果他享受美好的時光,他的多巴胺會增加

  • but how does his vasopressin go up?

    但他的睪酮是如何增加的呢?

  • Vasopressin goes up when a man is sexually stimulated.

    當男人受到性刺激時,睪酮會增加

  • So if he's dating a woman he's sexually interested in,

    所以如果他與他想發生性行為的女人約會時

  • the vasopressin increases.

    睪酮會增加

  • But here's the catch:

    但有一個問題

  • unlike oxytocin, vasopressin drops when he has sex.

    當他發生性行為時,不像催產素,睪酮會開始下降

  • So how important is that?

    所以這有多重要?

  • Well, I looked into it further; Florida State University ran a study,

    我更進一步去研究,佛羅里達州立大學執行一項研究

  • and they said it's not just the neurotransmitters that are important.

    他們認為不只是遞質神經很重要

  • You have to have the receptors. And how do you get the receptors?

    你必須有受體,然後你如何有受體?

  • You get the receptors with the presence of the neurotransmitters.

    你得到神經遞質存在的受體

  • Neurotransmitters tell your body to build the receptors,

    神經遞質傳達訊息使你的身體建立受體

  • so you have to have the neurotransmitters high enough

    所以你必須要有足夠的神經遞質

  • to build the receptors to, then, get them filled.

    建立受體,然後讓它們充滿

  • So that means it takes some time.

    也就是說這需要花一點時間

  • But there was one other thing my grandmother said, you remember?

    但是有另一件事是我外婆說過的,你還記得嗎?

  • "You know a man's in love with you when he commits."

    「當男人給予承諾時代表他深深愛上你了。」

  • Could commitment have anything to do with this?

    承諾對我們有任何影響嗎?

  • To find that out, I found a study from the United States Air Force.

    為了找出答案,我找到來自美國空軍的一個研究

  • The Air Force followed over 2,000 servicemen for more than a decade

    十多年來,空軍追蹤了 2000 多名軍人

  • taking various tests.

    給予他們多種測試

  • One of test that they took was for testosterone.

    其中一個測試是關於睪酮

  • What they found is, when a guy comes in, and he is single,

    他們發現當一個男人是單身時

  • his testosterone is relatively high, but as soon as he gets married, it drops.

    他的睪酮相對高,但一旦他結婚了,它就會下降

  • Remember what I told you about testosterone?

    還記得我說過關於睪酮的影響嗎?

  • It blocks the effects of oxytocin.

    它會阻擋催產素的影響

  • Oxytocin is a bonding hormone,

    催產素是一種結合賀爾蒙

  • so it was kind of looking like it could have something to do with it,

    所以看起來它們都有相關

  • but it needed further clarification.

    但還需要更多證明

  • Was it marriage? Was it actually commitment?

    是婚姻造成的?還是承諾呢?

  • They did a study at Harvard University.

    他們在哈佛大學做了個研究

  • They took married men, single men, and men in committed relationships.

    他們找了已婚男人、單身男人和承諾關係的男人

  • They tested their testosterone.

    他們測試他們的睪酮

  • This is what they discovered:

    他們發現

  • like the Air Force study,

    就像空軍研究

  • the single men had high testosterone,

    單身男人有較高的睪酮

  • where the men that were married had lower testosterone.

    而已婚男人則較低

  • And here's the catch: in the men that were married,

    但這有個問題:已婚男人

  • and in the men that were in committed relationships,

    和承諾關係的男人

  • the testosterone level did not differ.

    睪酮含量並沒有不同

  • That means that the testosterone didn't drop when he got married,

    也就是說當他結婚時,睪酮並沒有下降

  • it dropped prior, when he committed.

    在他承諾時就已經下降了

  • So that means my grandmother looks like she was right.

    所以也就證明我外婆說的似乎是正確的

  • Women take a bigger risk and tend to fall in love when she has sex,

    女人在發生性行為時會冒更大的風險,往往會墜入愛河

  • and men tend to fall in love when he has commitment.

    男人則是在承諾時才會墜入愛河

  • So that confirmed something for me that I'd always suspected,

    所以這證實了一件我總是抱有懷疑的事情

  • not just that women tend to fall in love with sex

    不只是女人性行為時墜入愛河

  • and men with commitment,

    和男人承諾時墜入愛河

  • something even more important,

    有件事比這些更重要

  • and that is: my grandmother is brilliant.

    那就是:我的外婆太聰明了

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • (Applause)

    (掌聲)

Translator: Paola Benedetti Reviewer: Denise RQ

翻譯者:Paola Benedetti 審核人:Denise RQ

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B1 中級 中文 美國腔 愛河 墜入 戀愛 男人 多巴胺 外婆

【TEDx】科學分析法!當你墜入愛河時,你的大腦發生了什麼驚人的改變? (How Your Brain Falls In Love | Dawn Maslar | TEDxBocaRaton)

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    Vvn Chen 發佈於 2018 年 10 月 25 日
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