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  • Out here in California's serene central valley, there's a game underway.

    在加州寧靜的中央山谷中,一場比賽正悄然進行中。

  • One animal is locked in a perpetual, unwinnable cycle of rock paper scissors.

    一隻動物被困在永恆且無法得勝的猜拳循環中。

  • A three-way competition that's been raging for millennia.

    這是一場激烈進行了上千年的三方競賽。

  • Meet the side-blotched lizard, named for that patch of dark color on its side.

    隆重介紹側斑蜥蜴,牠因其側身那片深色斑點而得名。

  • These lizards are all one species, but they have three different colors.

    這些蜥蜴都屬於同一品種,但擁有三種不同顏色。

  • You see it on their throats.

    你可以在牠們喉部看到。

  • Some are more orange.

    有些比較橘。

  • Others more blue, or yellow.

    其他則偏藍或黃。

  • Each male lizard has a different trick for getting a mate that corresponds to their color.

    每隻雄蜥蜴都擁有不同技巧,得以找到與其顏色相對應的伴侶。

  • OrangeThese guys are the brutes, the meatheads.

    橘蜥蜴是野獸、是笨蛋。

  • Bigger, stronger.

    體型較大且較強壯。

  • They set up territories with lots of females and defend them aggressively.

    牠們會建立擁有許多雌蜥蜴的領地,並以帶攻擊性的方式保衛牠們。

  • YellowThese guys are sneaky.

    黃蜥蜴很狡猾。

  • They don't try to hold territories.

    牠們不會嘗試佔領地盤。

  • Instead, they hide and then dart in, as often as they can, for a chance to mate with an unguarded female.

    牠們反而會躲起來然後盡量頻繁地突然進攻,以便有機會與未被保護的雌蜥蜴交配。

  • Blues have a whole other strategy.

    藍蜥蜴有全然不同的策略。

  • They're monogamous.

    牠們是一夫一妻制。

  • They put all their focus on just one female.

    牠們將所有精力都集中在一隻雌蜥蜴身上。

  • Researchers at UC Santa Cruz figured out the game.

    加州大學聖克魯斯分校的研究人員弄清楚了這場比賽規則。

  • So here's how it plays out, the rock paper scissors part:

    所以比賽猜拳的部分的遊戲規則是這樣的:

  • Orange beats blue.

    橘蜥蜴贏過藍蜥蜴。

  • They're bigger and more aggressive.

    橘蜥蜴體型較大且較具侵略性。

  • Yellow beats orange, because oranges can't keep track of all those females.

    黃蜥蜴贏過橘蜥蜴,因為橘蜥蜴無法隨時掌握所有雌蜥蜴的蹤跡。

  • It's easy for yellows to sneak by them.

    黃蜥蜴很容易就能偷溜進去。

  • Blue beats yellows, because blues are vigilant; yellows can't fool them.

    藍蜥蜴贏過黃蜥蜴,因為藍蜥蜴有警覺性,黃蜥蜴騙不過牠們。

  • And while we're on these Blues...

    而我們既然談到了藍蜥蜴...

  • Because they're monogamous, they aren't competitive with other blues.

    因為牠們是一夫一妻制,所以不會與其他藍蜥蜴競爭。

  • They cooperate with each other, make friends, even warn their blue neighbors when intruders are nearby.

    牠們會互助合作、當朋友。藍蜥蜴甚至會在入侵者逼近時,警告同伴們。

  • See those little push-ups?

    看到那微弱的伏地挺身了吧?

  • In fact, they've been known to risk their own lives for other blues.

    事實上,眾所周知地,牠們甚至會其他藍蜥蜴冒上生命危險。

  • It's called altruism.

    這稱為利他主義。

  • Even Darwin didn't imagine this could happen.

    連達爾文都沒料想到這件事會發生。

  • Anyway...

    言歸正傳...

  • You might think that over time, one color would prevail.

    你可能會認為,隨著時間流逝,某個顏色會佔上風。

  • Like, those altruistic Blues would win.

    像是說,那些利他的藍蜥蜴會勝出。

  • The whole species would gradually become blue.

    整個物種將逐漸地變成藍色。

  • But with these guys, it doesn't happen.

    但對這種動物來說,這件事是不會發生的。

  • Each color is kept in check by one of the other colors.

    每種顏色都受到另外一種顏色的控制。

  • And if one of the colors starts to fall behind, the females bring it back in line.

    如果其中一種顏色的數量開始減少,雌蜥蜴會把它補齊。

  • Because they tend to prefer whatever color male is most rare that season.

    因為雌蜥蜴傾向會選擇當季最稀有的雄性。

  • So, if blues are getting the upper hand, females go for yellows or oranges.

    因此,如果藍蜥蜴占上方,雌蜥蜴便會選擇黃蜥蜴或橘蜥蜴。

  • If the females were to have a change of heart and stop going for the underdog, well, then, one color might win out, another might disappear entirely.

    如果雌蜥蜴改變心意不再選擇弱者,那麼其中一種顏色就可能勝出,讓另一種顏色完全消失。

  • In other words, the species would evolve, change.

    換言之,這個物種將進化並改變。

  • But for the last 15 million years, that hasn't happened.

    但在過去的 1 千 5 百萬年中,這個情況還沒有發生。

  • It's an ancient game of roshambo, with no end in sight.

    這是場從遠古時代開始、還看不到盡頭的猜拳遊戲。

  • Hey! While you admire this other resident of California's central valley, consider subscribing to Deep Look.

    嘿!在欣賞這隻加州中央山谷的另一個居民時,考慮訂閱《Deep Look》吧。

  • You'll be the first to know when new episodes are up.

    你可以獲得集數更新的一手消息。

  • And if you're feeling altruistic, share your thoughts in the comments section.

    如果你想要嚐嚐無私的滋味,在留言區分享你的想法吧。

  • We read every single one.

    我們每一則都會看。

  • Thanks, and see you next time!

    謝謝,下次見囉!

Out here in California's serene central valley, there's a game underway.

在加州寧靜的中央山谷中,一場比賽正悄然進行中。

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一千五百萬年的剪刀石頭布 (These Lizards Have Been Playing Rock-Paper-Scissors for 15 Million Years | Deep Look)

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    Binyann 發佈於 2020 年 10 月 13 日
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