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  • Translator: Ivana Korom, Reviewer: Joanna Pietrulewicz

    翻譯者:Ivana Korom、審核者:Joanna Pietrulewicz。

  • Who wouldn't love acing a geography exam,

    誰不想在地理考試拿一百分呢?

  • remembering all the locations of the countries on a map

    考試必須要記得地圖上所有的位置,

  • or avoiding embarrassing situations of suddenly forgetting the person's name

    或是避免尷尬的情況發生,

  • standing right in front of you.

    突然忘記正坐在你面前的對方名字。

  • It turns out that memory, like other muscles in the body,

    事實證明,記憶力和身上其他肌肉一樣,

  • can be strengthened and enhanced.

    是可以加強的。

  • But instead of practicing with flash cards,

    或許有一個有趣的方式,

  • there may be an interesting way

    可以替代單字卡練習,

  • that we can hack our memory while we sleep.

    那就是我們可以在熟睡期駭入自己的記憶。

  • (Music)

    (音樂)

  • Why do we sleep?

    為什麼我們要睡覺?

  • This has been a question asked since the early days of civilization.

    自早期文明以來就出現的問題。

  • And while we may not know the exact answer,

    雖然我們沒有正解,

  • there are a number of really good theories about why we need it.

    但有很多很棒的理論可以解釋為什麼我們需要睡覺。

  • Sleep is when the brain transfers short-term memories

    睡覺是頭腦將一整天所經歷過的事情,

  • experienced throughout the day

    從短期記憶轉換到

  • into long-term memories.

    長期記憶的過程。

  • This process is called memory consolidation,

    這個過程成為記憶鞏固,

  • and it's the memory consolidation theory that has scientists wondering

    這個記憶鞏固理論讓科學家們想知道,

  • if we can enhance certain memories over others.

    我們是否可以增強某些記憶。

  • There was a paper recently in the journal "Science"

    有一個近期研究在「科學」期刊中刊登,

  • by Ken Paller and his colleagues at Northwestern

    這研究是由 Ken Paller 和他的同事在西北完成的。

  • that seemed to show that this may be true,

    研究結果顯似這個理論似乎是真的,

  • and that piqued our curiosity.

    也激起了我們的好奇心。

  • Joud has been working on a DIY version of this task

    Joud 一直都在研究此任務的 DIY 版本,

  • to see if we can improve memories through the use of sound in sleep.

    以查看我們是否可以在睡眠中透過聲音改善記憶。

  • So Joud, how do you test if we can improve our memories with sleep?

    Joud,你是怎麼測試我們是否可以在睡眠中改善記憶?

  • We need a human subject.

    我們需要一個參與者。

  • [Step 1: Play a game]

    [第一步:玩遊戲]

  • We have a memory game that we have on an iPad,

    我們在 iPad 上有一個記憶力遊戲,

  • and then we make our subject play this game

    然後我們讓參與者玩這個遊戲,

  • and remember the images and where they appear on the screen.

    他必須記得每個圖案顯示在螢幕上的位置。

  • So this is like a memory game you can play when you're a child.

    所以這個記憶遊戲有點像小時候玩的那種,

  • which picture was where.

    必須記得圖片所在的位置。

  • And we tie each picture with a sound that represents it.

    然後我們將每張圖片和各自所代表的聲音結合。

  • So, if you can see a picture of a car, for example,

    所以舉例來說,如果你看到車子的圖片,

  • and you would hear the car engine.

    你就會聽到車子引擎聲音。

  • (Car engine starting)

    (車子引擎聲出現)

  • Just before you go to sleep we're going to test you.

    在你睡覺之前,我們會測驗你的記憶。

  • We're going to see how well you remember where the pictures are.

    我們會測驗你可以記住多少圖片的位置。

  • Every time you see the picture, you're going to hear the sound.

    每當你看到圖片時,你就會聽到圖片代表的聲音。

  • And now comes the experiment.

    現在就是實驗開始。

  • You're going to go take a nap.

    你會去睡個午覺。

  • [Step 2: Take a nap]

    [第二步:睡午覺]

  • And while you're sleeping, we're going to be recording your EEG.

    當你在睡覺時,我們會記錄你的腦波。

  • And then we wait for them to go into what's called the slow-wave sleep,

    然後我們會等腦波進入慢波睡眠,

  • which is the deepest phase of your sleep where it's really hard for you to wake up.

    也就是較不易醒來,最熟睡的階段。

  • OK, pause.

    好的,暫停。

  • So, here's some information on sleep.

    這裡有一些關於睡眠的知識。

  • There are four stages: we have lighter stages of sleep and REM,

    睡眠分為四個階段:有淺眠和快速動眼期,

  • but what we're interested in is called slow-wave sleep.

    但我們對慢波睡眠 (熟睡期) 較有興趣。

  • And it gets its name from the electrical signals

    它的名字來自於大腦中,

  • called Delta waves that we record from the brain.

    稱為三角波的電子訊號。

  • Now, this is the part of sleep where scientists believe

    科學家認為記憶鞏固,

  • that memory consolidation can happen.

    就是在這個階段產生的。

  • In this deep period of sleep,

    在熟睡期,

  • we're going to do something that you don't know we're going to do.

    我們會做你不知道的事情。

  • Here's where the tricky part comes, and we start playing our cues. (Cricket sound)

    有趣的部分就在這裡,我們開始播放剛剛圖片的聲音。(蟋蟀聲)

  • (Car engine starting)

    (車子引擎聲)

  • Do you play all the cues?

    你有放所有圖片的聲音嗎?

  • No. We only want to play half of them to see if there's a difference.

    沒有,我們只放一半,想藉此觀察結果是否有差異。

  • So your hypothesis is

    所以你的假設是在睡覺期間聽到的聲音,

  • the one that they were listening to while they're sleeping

    會讓參與者表現得更好,

  • they're going to do better at when they wake up.

    記得更多圖片位置。

  • Yes, exactly.

    對,就是這樣。

  • When you wake back up and play the game again,

    當你醒來再玩一次遊戲,

  • do you do better or worse than before a nap?

    你會比睡前表現得更好還是更差?

  • What we found is that if we played you a cue during your sleep,

    我們發現如果我們在你熟睡時放圖片的聲音,

  • for example, a car.

    例如:車子,

  • You would remember the position of that car

    當你醒來再玩的時候,

  • when you woke back up again.

    你會記得車子的位置。

  • But if we didn't play you the cue during the sleep,

    但如果我們沒有在你熟睡時放聲音,

  • for example, a guitar.

    例如:吉他,

  • you'd be less likely to remember that guitar when you woke up.

    當你起床後你會較容易忘記吉他的位置,

  • The memories that were cued they remembered better

    即使他們在睡覺時不記得有聽過這些聲音,

  • than the ones they weren't,

    用聲音提示的記憶比沒用聲音提示的記憶記的更久,

  • even though when they woke up, they don't remember hearing those sounds?

    是這樣嗎?

  • Yes exactly. We ask them.

    是的。

  • We know they're sleeping, they can't hear it, they wake up,

    我們知道他們在睡覺,聽不到聲音,

  • they do better on those than the ones you didn't play.

    但他們醒來,記憶卻表現得比沒聽到聲音來的好。

  • - That's amazing. - It's like magic.

    - 這太神奇了!- 就像魔法一樣。

  • Joud ran this experiment on 12 people and the results were significant.

    Joud 對 12 個人進行這個時間,結果都是顯著差異的。

  • It's not that you remember things better; it's that you forget them less.

    不是說你記得更好,而是忘記得較少。

  • I was a huge skeptic when I first heard that you could do better at a memory test

    當我第一次聽到你可以在睡眠中放音樂,

  • just by playing sounds during sleep.

    來進行記憶測試時,我感到非常懷疑。

  • But we have replicated these experiment for ourselves

    但是我們重複做這些實驗。

  • The facts and memories we collect throughout the day are very fragile,

    我們每天收集的事情和記憶是非常脆弱的,

  • and they are easily lost and forgotten.

    這些記憶很容易丟失或被遺忘,

  • But by reactivating them during sleep, even without us being aware,

    但是在我們沒有意識到的睡眠中激活記憶,

  • it seems like we could make them more stable and less prone to forgetting.

    似乎可以讓我們將事情記得更久,較不易忘記。

  • That's pretty incredible.

    這真是令人難以置信!

  • Our brains are still active even when we're not.

    我們的大腦在我們睡覺時還是很活躍。

  • So if you're like me and a bit forgetful,

    所以如果你和我一樣健忘,

  • perhaps a solution is a pair of headphones and a soft couch.

    你可能可以戴上耳機,躺在柔軟的沙發上。

Translator: Ivana Korom, Reviewer: Joanna Pietrulewicz

翻譯者:Ivana Korom、審核者:Joanna Pietrulewicz。

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影片操作 你可以在這邊進行「影片」的調整,以及「字幕」的顯示

A2 初級 中文 美國腔 TED 記憶 圖片 聲音 睡眠 睡覺

【TED】聲音如何在睡眠時駭進你的記憶 (【TED】How sound can hack your memory while you sleep | DIY Neuroscience, a TED series)

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    林宜悉   發佈於 2018 年 09 月 15 日
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