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  • Are you familiar with the word symbiosis?

    你知道互利共生(symbiosis)這個詞嗎?

  • It's a fancy term for a partnership between two different species,

    意思是兩個物種之間的合作關係

  • such as bees and flowers.

    蜜蜂和花,就是互利共生的例子

  • In a symbiosis, both species depend on each other.

    兩者倚靠著對方生存

  • I want to tell you about a remarkable symbiosis

    我有個很特別的例子想告訴你:

  • between a little bird, the Clark's Nutcracker,

    一隻小鳥──北美星鴉

  • and a big tree, the Whitebark Pine.

    和一棵大樹──白皮松之間的關係

  • Whitebark grow in the mountains of Wyoming, Montana and other western states.

    白皮松生長在懷俄明州、蒙大拿州 等等美西地區

  • They have huge canopies and lots of needles,

    它有巨大的樹冠層和滿布的針葉

  • which provide cover and shelter for other plants and animals,

    能提供遮蔽和掩護給其他動植物

  • and Whitebark feed the forest.

    也能滋養森林

  • Their cones are packed with protein.

    白皮松的松果被蛋白質包覆著

  • Squirrels gnaw the cones from the upper branches

    松鼠啃咬枝幹上層的松果

  • so they fall to the ground,

    當松果落到地面

  • and then race down to bury them in piles, or middens.

    松鼠就會衝下去把它們埋成好幾堆

  • But they don't get to keep all of them;

    但是松鼠無法顧好每一堆松果

  • grizzlies and black bears love finding middens.

    因為灰熊和黑熊會把它們挖出來

  • But there's more to a symbiosis than one species feeding another.

    互利共生可不只是這樣而已

  • In the case of the Clark's Nutcracker, this bird gives back.

    就北美星鴉來說,牠還會回饋

  • While gathering its seeds, it also replants the trees.

    牠收集糧食之餘,還會替樹繁衍後代

  • Here's how it works: using her powerful beak,

    牠怎麼做呢? 就靠牠強壯的鳥喙

  • the Nutcracker picks apart a cone in a treetop,

    北美星鴉會從樹梢叼走一顆松果

  • pulling out the seeds. She can store up to 80 of them in a pouch in her throat.

    把種子從松果上啄下來,牠的頰囊最多能儲存80顆種子

  • Then she flies through the forest, looking for a place to cache the seeds

    然後在森林中尋找適合的地方儲放種子

  • an inch under the soil in piles of up to eight seeds.

    把每八顆種子種在一吋深的土壤裡埋成一堆

  • Nutcrackers can gather up to 90,000 seeds in the autumn,

    北美星鴉能在一個秋天蒐集九萬顆種子

  • which they return for in the winter and spring.

    牠們會在冬天和春天回去找種子

  • And these birds are smart. They remember where all those seeds are.

    聰明如你,他們絕不會忘記種子被埋在哪裡

  • They even use landmarks on the landscape --

    他們甚至能運用種子堆附近的地標

  • trees, stumps, rocks --

    大樹、殘幹、岩石

  • to triangulate to caches buried deep under the snow.

    連成一個三角形標記被深埋在雪中的種子

  • What they don't go back and get, those seeds become Whitebark.

    會有幾堆種子沒被挖出來,那些種子就會長成白皮松

  • This symbiosis is so important to both species

    這樣的互利共生對兩個物種是非常重要的

  • that they've changed, or evolved, to suit each other.

    它們藉由改變、演化來滿足彼此

  • Nutcrackers have developed long, tough beaks

    北美星鴉演化出又長又堅硬的喙

  • for extracting seeds from cones,

    就為了要從松果上啄取種子

  • and Whitebarks' branches all sweep upwards

    白皮松的枝幹往上延展

  • with the cones at the very ends, so they can offer them to the Nutcrackers as they fly by.

    松果結在枝幹末端,就為了要讓北美星鴉飛來覓食

  • Now, that's a symbiosis:

    這就是互利共生:

  • Two species cooperating to help each other for the benefit of all.

    兩個物種間的相互合作且各取所需。 ─Translated by Jesse Chen 陳鉦翰

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B2 中高級 中文 TED-Ed 種子 北美 松鼠 物種 合作

【TED-Ed】互利共生 - 不同物種間的驚奇合作! Symbiosis: A surprising tale of species cooperation - David Gonzales

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